The Lok Sabha is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers; the house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi. The maximum strength of the House allotted by the Constitution of India is 552; the house has 545 seats, made up by the election of up to 543 elected members and at a maximum, 2 nominated members of the Anglo-Indian Community by the President of India. A total of 131 seats are reserved for representatives of Scheduled Tribes; the quorum for the House is 10% of the total membership. The Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law.
An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries is carried out by the Boundary Delimitation Commission of India every decade based on the Indian census, last of, conducted in 2011. This exercise earlier included redistribution of seats among states based on demographic changes but that provision of the mandate of the commission was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional amendment to incentivise the family planning programme, being implemented; the 16th Lok Sabha is the latest to date. The schedule for the 2019 Lok Sabha Election has been announced by the Election Commission of India. Broken into seven phases the General Elections will be held from 11th April 2019 till 19th May 2019; the Lok Sabha has its own television channel, Lok Sabha TV, headquartered within the premises of Parliament. A major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1858 to 1947. During this period, the office of the Secretary of State for India was the authority through whom British Parliament exercised its rule in the Indian sub-continent, the office of Viceroy of India was created, along with an Executive Council in India, consisting of high officials of the British government.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 provided for a Legislative Council consisting of the members of the Executive Council and non-official members. The Indian Councils Act 1892 established legislatures in each of the provinces of British India and increased the powers of the Legislative Council. Although these Acts increased the representation of Indians in the government, their power still remained limited, the electorate small; the Indian Councils Act 1909 and the Government of India Act 1919 further expanded the participation of Indians in the administration. The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy and proposed a federal structure in India; the Indian Independence Act 1947, passed by the British parliament on 18 July 1947, divided British India into two new independent countries and Pakistan, which were to be dominions under the Crown until they had each enacted a new constitution. The Constituent Assembly was divided into two for the separate nations, with each new Assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it for the respective dominion.
The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950, proclaiming India to be a sovereign, democratic republic. This contained the founding principles of the law of the land which would govern India in its new form, which now included all the princely states which had not acceded to Pakistan. According to Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the Parliament of India consists of the President of India and the two Houses of Parliament known as the Council of States and the House of the People; the Lok Sabha was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952. Article 84 of Indian Constitution sets qualifications for being a member of Lok Sabha, which are as follows: He / She should be a citizen of India, must subscribe before the Election Commission of India an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule of Indian Constitution.
He / She should not be less than 25 years of age. He / She possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament, he / She should not be proclaimed criminal i.e. they should not be a convict, a confirmed debtor or otherwise disqualified by law. However, a member can be disqualified of being a member of Parliament: If he / she holds office of profit. A seat in the Lok Sabha will become vacant in the following circumstances: When the holder of the seat, by writing to the speaker, resigns; when the holder of the seat is absent from 60 consecutive days of proceedings of the House, without prior permission of the Speaker. When the holder of the seat is subject to any dis
National Democratic Alliance (India)
The National Democratic Alliance is a coalition of Progressive centre-right to right-wing political parties in India. At the time of its formation in 1998, it was led by the Bharatiya Janata Party and had 13 constituent parties, its chairman was late Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Representing the alliance are L. K. Advani, former Deputy Prime Minister, the acting chairman of the Alliance, Narendra Modi, current Prime Minister and the Leader of the House in Lok Sabha; the coalition ruled from 1998 to 2004. The alliance returned to power in the 2014 General election with a combined vote share of 38.5%. Its leader, Narendra Modi, was sworn in as Prime Minister of India on 26 May 2014; the National Democratic Alliance was formed in May 1998 as a coalition to contest the general elections. It was led by the Bharatiya Janata Party, included several regional parties, including the Samta Party and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, as well as Shiv Sena, the only member which shared the Hindutva ideology of the BJP.
With outside support provided by the Telugu Desam Party, the NDA was able to muster a slim majority in the elections of 1998, Atal Bihari Vajpayee returned as prime minister. The government collapsed within a year. After the entry of a few more regional parties, the NDA proceeded to win the 1999 elections with a larger majority. Vajpayee became Prime Minister for this time for a full five-year term; the NDA called elections in early 2004, six months ahead of schedule. Its campaign was based around the slogan of "India Shining" which attempted to depict the NDA government as responsible for a rapid economic transformation of the country. However, the NDA suffered a defeat, winning only a 186 seats in the Lok Sabha, compared to the 222 of the United Progressive Alliance led by the Congress, with Manmohan Singh succeeding Vajpayee as prime minister; some commentators have stated that the NDA's failure to reach out to the rural masses was the explanation for its defeat. The National Democratic Alliance does not have a formal governing structure in place, such as an executive board or politburo.
It has been up to the leaders of the individual parties to make decisions on issues such as sharing of seats in elections, allocation of ministries and the issues that are raised in Parliament. Given the varied ideologies among the parties, there have been many cases of disagreement and split voting among the allies. Owing to ill health, George Fernandes, the NDA convener until 2008, was discharged of his responsibility and replaced by Sharad Yadav, the national president of the Janata Dal political party. On 16 June 2013, the JD left the coalition and Sharad Yadav resigned from the role of the NDA convener; the CM of Andhra Pradesh Chandrababu Naidu was made the NDA convener. On 27 July 2017 JD with the help of BJP formed the government in Bihar. On 19 Aug 2017 JD formally joined the NDA after 4 years; the parties in and supporting the NDA are: As of November 2018, the BJP holds a majority of Legislative Assembly in 10 states - Arunachal Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura and Uttar Pradesh.
In 2 states - Goa and Maharashtra BJP shares power as Senior Partner with other political parties of NDA coalition. In 5 other states, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu and Mizoram, it shares power as Junior Partner with other political parties of the NDA coalition; the BJP has been the sole party in power in Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Karnataka. It has ruled Andhra Pradesh and Kashmir, Odisha and Puducherry as part of coalition governments. ^ BJP had fielded 427 candidates on 427 seats out of 543 but nomination of BJP candidate S. Gurumoorthy was rejected from Niligiris for failing to submit mandatory forms during his nomination. NPP, NPF and MNF are contesting in each Seats & Other 8 Members supporting NDA Candidates Parties that joined the NDA coalition were Haryana based Haryana Janhit Congress and Maharashtra based Republican Party of India. Ajit Singh led Rashtriya Lok Dal withdrew from the NDA. NDA nominated P. A. Sangma as its presidential candidate. Vice-Presidential electionJaswant Singh was named as the candidate for the post of Vice-President against UPA's Hamid Ansari.
Ansari won his second term in office. On 16 June 2013, Nitish Kumar led Janta Dal United has withdrawn from NDA. On 13 September 2013, Narendra Modi declared as PM candidate for 2014 Elections. On 11 August 2013, after a discussion with BJP President Rajnath Singh, Janata Party Chairman Dr. Subramanian Swamy joined Bharatiya Janata Party and merged his Janata Party with the Bharatiya Janata Party in presence of BJP president Rajnath Singh; the announcement was made by Mr Swamy and BJP president Rajnath Singh after they met at the latter's residence in Delhi. Former BJP chief Nitin Gadkari and senior party leader Arun Jaitley were present at the meet. On 1 January 2014, Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhhagam leader Vaiko has announced that MDMK formally joined back to NDA. Vaiko announced Modi will be the best candidate for Prime Minister; the two small parties viz Kongunadu Munnetra Kazhagam and Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi have joined NDA Alliance. The BJP would like Two more southern parties such as Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam, Pattali Makkal Katchi to join the alliance.
In Maharashtra, two regional political outfits, Swabhimani Paksha and Rashtriya Samaj Paksha, joined NDA in January. The coalition of Five par
The Bodos are an ethnolinguistic group of northwest Assam in the northeast part of India. Bodos are known as Bodosa and Mech but they call themselves as Bodo now, they are part of the greater Bodo-Kachari ethnolinguistic groups found today in Nepal and clustered more in Assam in India, along the eastern Duars. They speak the Bodo language, recognized as one of twenty-two scheduled languages in the Indian Constitution; this group is politically active and is dominant in the BTAD districts of Assam, a group of autonomous districts under Bodo Territorial Council. Tibeto-Burman languages, to which Bodo belongs, is the linguistic group that thought to entered Assam after the Austroasiatic but Bodos highest frequency of 6.4 Austro-Asiatic DNA in entire world shows complete absorption of them. The Bodo-Kachari people are the first to cultivate rear silkworms in Assam; the word ` Bodo' has been derived from the word ` Bod'. In Kok-Borok language, Boro means Human being. According to Idimbar Deori, Bodo or Boro is originate from Brogok, which means Human.
They are recognized as a plains tribe in the Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. Udalguri, Baksa, Goalpara, Lakhimpur, Kokrajhar of Assam are considered the centre of the Bodo People; the Bodos living in West Bengal, Nepal are called Mech. The Bodos used to be known the term Bodosa in past; the Boro language is one of the languages of the Tibeto-Chinese speech family. It belongs to the Naga group of the Assam-Burmese branch of the Sino Tibetan family. Bodos traditionally practise Bathouism, the worshiping of forefathers, known as Obonglaoree; the shijou plant is worshiped. It is claimed as the supreme god. In Bodo language, Ba means five and thou means deep; as Bodos believe in five mighty elements of God, which are Land, Air and Sky, five has become a significant number in the Bathou religion. The Shijou tree is encircled with eighteen pairs of designed bamboo sticks and five pairs of ring of bamboo. In front of Shijou within encircled bamboo ring there is a'Dove Heart'. According to the concept of Bathouism, before the creation of universe, there was a great void, in which the supreme being'Aham Guru', Anan Binan Gosai or Obonglaoree existed formlessly.
The supreme god Aham guru became tired of living formless existence and desired to live in flesh and blood. He descended on this great void with all human characteristics. Thereafter he created the universe. In addition to Bathouism, Bodo people follow Hinduism Hoom Jaygya. For this worship through fire ceremony, a clean surface near home or courtyard is prepared. Worship offering could include one pair of Betel nut called'goi' and betel leaf called'pathwi/bathwi', rice and sugar. Another important Hindu festival, the Kherai Puja, is the most important festival of the Bodos, when the altar is placed in the rice field; however and dowry practices are not practiced by the majority of Bodo Hindus who follow a set of rules called Brahma Dharma. Bodo-Kachari people Bodo Kirati Bodo Sahitya Sabha Bodo culture Ual
Bodoland Territorial Area Districts, or Bodoland for short, is a set of four districts that form an autonomous administrative unit in the extreme north on the north bank of the Brahmaputra river, within the state of Assam, Northeast India, by the foothills of Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh. The region is predominantly inhabited by the indigenous Bodo people; the official map of Bodoland includes four districts of BTAD recognised by the Government of India. It is administered by the Bodoland Territorial Council, which covers over eight thousand square kilometres; the territory came into existence under the BTC Accord in February 2003. It is said that the original home of Bodos was in the north of China in between the head-waters of the Huang He and the Yangtze rivers from which they moved out and dispersed in different directions. One of the groups settled there for centuries, thus Tibet became their home before coming to India. As is known, the original name of Tibet was Ti-bod, it is conjectured by some of the scholars that the Mongoloids who lived in Ti-bod were identified as bod who changed to Bodo.
Before the impact of Sanskritisation they were known as Kachari by the Hindus, in Assam and as Meches in Bengal. The controversial spelling of the word is ‘Bodo’ where the letter’ is pronounced not as ‘d’ but as hard’ r.’ It was Brian Hodgson who first applied the generic name Bodo to this group of languages but their own name for their race is Boro. This generic name is applied to the tribes and sub-tribes belonging to the Bodo group; the Bodo intellectual leaders of the national convention who took the decision to accept the generic name’ Bodo’ as the racial name were aware of it as it was in use. At present, it is found that the use of the names Boro are going on in parallel; the decision of the 1952 national convention is thus honored. It was inhibited by the Boros or Bodos or the Kacharis before the intrusion of the Aryans; the British gained control of the region through the Treaty of Yandabo upon winning the First Anglo-Burmese War in 1826. The war was for the control of Northeast India between the British and Burmese empires.
It was than known as the Kachari Dwars or Kachari plains or Kachari country by the British during the British Raj. The Bodo people in the Brahmaputra Valley have survived in the midst of Aryan and Shan invaders and settlers, while one of its cousins known as Koch, that ruled various parts of Lower Assam and North Bengal have now become a semi-Hinduised aboriginal caste, due to inter-marriage who now speak Bengali or Assamese. Surviving remnants of the royal family of Koch empire proved aboriginal members of the Koch caste spoke Bodo language. Along with the other parts of Northeast India, regional aspiration in the region reached a turning point in the 1980s; the isolation of the region, its complex social character, its backwardness compared to other parts of the country have all resulted in the complicated set of demands ranging from demand for autonomy and opposition to'outsiders' to movements for secession. The region is the gateway to the North Eastern Region of India, where one of the main students organization, All Bodo Students Union, allied with National Democratic Front of Boroland - Progressive, National Democratic Front of Boroland - D.
R. Nabla faction, People's Joint Action Committee for Boroland Movement, an amalgamation of over three dozen Bodo organisations and its supporters are demanding from the Government of India that a separate state be created comprising the seven districts of Kokrajhar, Baksa, Sonitpur and Dhemaji of Assam which have a significant Bodo population. On the other hand, it is claimed as a sovereign state by the separatist insurgent group NDFB; the Bodoland movement is similar to the story of Mizoram and the Mizo National Front except that the was granted full-fledged statehood with special powers and MNF agreeing to give up secessionist struggle, the former has not yet had such a happy ending and the region continues to be sensitive. It is an autonomous Administrative unit constituted under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India covering an area of 8,795 km2; the administrative unit has been created with a mission to accomplish development in the area of economic, preservation of land right, linguistic aspiration, socio-culture and ethnic identity of Bodos and above all to speed up the infrastructure development of communities in the BTC area.
The actual functioning of the council was started on 7 December 2003 by constituting the 12 members of the Council provisionally. After the Council Election on 13 May 2005 and subsequent bye-election in November 2005, the 40-member Legislative Council has been formed to look after the development works in the Bodoland Territorial Area Districts; the remaining six members are nominated by the Governor of Assam from the unrepresented Communities. Thus there are altogether 46 members of the Council, representing all communities of BTC Area known as Member of Council Legislative Assembly; the Bodoland Territorial Council is a territorial council, established in the Assam state of India according to the Memorandum of Settlement of 10 February 2003. BTC came into existence after the surrender of Bodo Liberation Tigers Force cadres; the BLTF laid down their weapons on 6 December 2003 under the leadership of Hagrama Mohilary and Hagrama was sworn in as the Chief Executive Member on 7 December 2003. The BTC has 46 executive members each looking after a specific area of control.
The area under the BTC jurisdiction is called the Bodoland Territorial Area District. BTC constit
Kokrajhar is a town in Bodoland Territorial Area Districts, Assam, an autonomous territory in one of the North Eastern States of India. Kokrajhar town is located along the banks of Gourang River; the North East Indian Railways divides the city into two divisions and the south Kokrajhar. Kokrajhar town is the headquarters of the Bodoland Territorial Council. Kokrajhar is located at 26.4°N 90.27°E / 26.4. It has an average elevation of 38 metres, it is inhibited by people of different cultures. The main inhabitants are Bodos, Koch Rajbongshi Nepali, Bengalis and Santalis. Bodos and other tribals can be seen in most of the villages while Bengalis, Nepalis and Marwaris are seen as merchants in Market areas; the tea tribes can be seen in the tea gardens. As of 2001 India census, Kokrajhar had a population of 31,152. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Kokrajhar has an average literacy rate of 79%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 84%, female literacy is 74%.
In Kokrajhar, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. The district has 3 sub divisions Kokrajhar and Basugaon. Kokrajhar is served by the Assam State Transport Corporation; the Kokrajhar railway station lies on the New Jalpaiguri–New Bongaigaon section of Barauni–Guwahati line under the Northeast Frontier Railway with services to important cities of the country like Guwahati, New Delhi, Chennai etc. Important trains like Rajdhani Express, Kamrup Express, Brahmaputra Mail, North East Express, Vivek Express, Garib Rath Express etc. have their stoppage at Kokrajhar railway station. Gaurang Park Bodofa Children Park The town has many schools and colleges with English being the sole medium of instruction in higher education. All the colleges under the jurisdiction of Bodoland Territorial Council is affiliated under Bodoland University since 2017. Don Bosco School, Kokrajhar U. N. Academy, Kokrajhar Auxilium English Medium School B. P. C. M. Babyland English Medium High School, Kokrajhar Kokrajhar Government Higher Secondary & Multipurpose School Kokrajhar Girls School Little Flower English Medium High School MCM Woodland School Shangrila School Sister Margaret Nobel School D N Himatsingka High School Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Kokrajhar The Reality Public School, Kokrajhar Kendriya Vidyalaya Kokrajhar Bodoland University, Kokrajhar Kokrajhar Government College Commerce College, Kokrajhar Girls' College, Kokrajhar Science College, Kokrajhar Law college, Kokrajhar St. Ann's College Aronai College RSB College Kokrajhar B.
Ed college Kokrajhar Music and Fine Arts College Bineswar Brahma Engineering College, Kokrajhar Central Institute of Technology, Kokrajhar NIELIT, Kokrajhar DIET, Kokrajhar Kokrajhar consists of three assembly constituencies: Kokrajhar East, Kokrajhar West and Gossaigaon, which are all part of Kokrajhar.wards Football is the most popular sport in the town. The town has many Football clubs of which Baarhoongkha AC is the most known as they participate in the state level Assam State Premier League; the town has produced many national level athletes. Other sports followed in the town are Badminton, Volleyball, Kabaddi, Archery and other indigenous sports. Halicharan Narzary, national footballer Hagrama Mohilary, chief of BTC and chairperson of Bodoland People's Front Durga Boro, footballer Bineshwar Brahma, poet, teacher Kokrajhar
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle