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Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies

The Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies is a special-statute public research university located in Pisa, operating in the field of applied sciences. The rector is Sabina Nuti, who took office on the 7th of May 2019. Before her, the rector of the school was Pierdomenico Perata, elected on 8 May 2013 after the resignation of Maria Chiara Carrozza, due to her election as Member of Parliament and appointment as Minister of Education and Research. Since January 2014, the school has been presided over by Yves Mény, until the School joined the first Federation of Universities in Italy, together with the other two Scuole Superiori Universitarie: Scuola Normale Superiore and Scuola Superiore Studi Pavia IUSS. Before him, the president was Giuliano Amato, a former prime minister of Italy and judge of the Constitutional Court; the Allievi Ordinari of the School are selected through a rigorous public examination with written and oral tests, with about 5% admission rate. They are all awarded a full government-funded scholarship which includes accommodation, canteen and travel grants.

In exchange, they are expected to hold the highest standards in their studies at both the School and at the partner Universities. The present-day Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies is the descendant of several institutions modelled on the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa known in Italian as Scuola Normale, a higher learning institution in Pisa, it was founded by Napoleonic decree, as a branch of the École Normale Supérieure of Paris. The school, whose origins, in the context of the Pisa university reality, are rooted in the Collegio Medico-Giuridico attached to the Scuola Normale Superiore and the Collegio ‘Antonio Pacinotti, was formally established by the Law of 14 February 1987, No. 41, which marked the unification of the Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento Law, No. 117, the Conservatorio di Sant’Anna, the Royal Decree of 13 February 1908 No. LXXVIII. Sant'Anna Church and ConventThe present-day site is acquired from a ancient religious educational establishment; the Sant'Anna Church and Convent was established in 1406, while the church was finished in 1426, by the Order of the Benedictine Nuns.

Conservatorio di Sant'AnnaIn 1785, the Conservatorio di Sant'Anna was initiated by the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor as a consequence of abolition of the religious orders due to Leopold's reforms. Conservatorio di Sant'Anna, an educational institution. "Italian Republic". Sant'Anna replaced Antonio Pacinotti in 1987, when the School gained its current headquarters. In 1987 the Benedictine Nuns dedicated the Sant'Anna Church and Convent to the Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e Perfezionamento, provided the School carried the name of Sant'Anna; the origins of Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies within Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa: the Scuola Normale Superiore was founded in 1810 by Napoleonic decree, as twin institution of the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, itself dating back to the French Revolution jurisdiction. The term “École Normale” was coined by Joseph Lakanal who, in submitting a report to the National Convention of 1794 on behalf of the Committee of Public Instruction, explained it thus: “Normales: du latin norma, règle.

Ces écoles doivent être en effet le type et la règle de toutes les autres.” The Decree of Foundation - Napoleon I rethought the project of an École Normale in 1808, by establishing a Normale Hall of Residence in Paris to house young students and train them in the art of teaching the humanities and sciences. The project was replicated in Tuscany by a decree dated 18 October 1810, with the foundation in Pisa, seat of one of the Imperial University academies, of a branch of the Paris-based École Normale Supérieure, "Scuola Normale Superiore"; the Grand-Duchy Period: 1847-1859 - on 28 November 1846, a grand-ducal motu proprio founded a Tuscan Scuola Normale in Pisa, with both theoretical and practical aims, under the patronage of the Order of Saint Stephen, but depending on the University of Pisa. The Scuola Normale during the Kingdom of Italy: 1859-1862 - on 17 October 1862 the Minister of Education of the Kingdom of Italy Carlo Matteucci implemented new regulations in a decree that transformed the institution to the Normal School of the Kingdom of Italy, to have an organic division between the faculties of Arts and Sciences.

The Scuola Normale under Gentile: 1928-1943 - philosopher Giovanni Gentile, was placed at the head of the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa as commissioner in 1928 and as director in 1932. He reformed the Scuola, gave it formal autonomy and sought an expansion to other disciplines, with the creation of the Collegio Mussolini per le Scienze Corporative, the Collegio Nazionale Medico; the new colleges were merged to form the Collegio Medico-Giuridico, which continued to operate under the jurisdiction of the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. Post-war Period - Scuola Normale Superiore in 1951, established the Antonio Pacinotti boarding school i.e. Collegio ‘Antonio Pacinotti, reserved to students of the faculties of Agriculture and Engineering, with plans to be further opened to other faculties; the origins of present-day structure of Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies: the prese

Riemer Calhoun

Maurice Riemer Calhoun, Sr. known as Riemer Calhoun, was a Democrat from Mansfield, who represented a combined DeSoto and Caddo parish district in the Louisiana State Senate from 1944 to 1952. After he left the Senate, Calhoun in October 1952 managed the DeSoto Parish campaign for Dwight D. Eisenhower, the successful Republican presidential nominee. Eisenhower received 57.8 percent of the vote in DeSoto Parish but lost the electoral vote of Louisiana. Calhoun was the second youngest of five children born to Ruby Calhoun, he was reared in Ward 4 of DeSoto Parish. A farmer and real estate broker, he graduated in 1930 from the Methodist-affiliated Centenary College in Shreveport. Little is known about Calhoun's career. Calhoun's first wife, the former Clista Andrews, a native of Arkansas, was reared in Texarkana, Texas. Clista had been orphaned at the age of ten; the couple had a daughter, Carolyn Huckabay, a real estate broker in Shreveport, married to William Osler "Bill" Huckabay, two sons, both businessmen, Riemer Calhoun, Jr. of Mansfield, Thomas Allen "Tommy" Calhoun of Shreveport.

Calhoun's second wife was the former Evelyn Hope Ryder, a graduate of Southern Baptist-affiliated Louisiana College in her native Pineville who received a Master of Social Work from Tulane University in New Orleans. She worked for the DeSoto Parish Planning Commission and was a Sunday school teacher at the First Baptist Church of Mansfield; when the former Mansfield Female College, constructed during the early 1850s, was offered for sale by the town of Mansfield, the Calhouns purchased the property. They made extensive renovations to the main building, removed the top two floors, converted the structure into their own family home. In 2002, Hope Calhoun and his children from the first marriage donated the building and grounds for use as a state museum. After a $1.2 million reconstruction, the building, known as the Clista A. Calhoun Center, opened in September 2012. A foundation fund is established in Clista's memory. In June 1966, Calhoun became an original stockholder in the firm Modern Electronics, Inc. which manufactured equipment for use in pecan-shelling plants.

In 1971, Tommy Calhoun acquired the shares of the company owned by his father and his sister to obtain majority ownership. The company underwent reorganization after the death of a partner in 1974. In 1990, Carolyn Huckabay married to Douglas Whitehurst and known as Carolyn C. Whitehurst, ran as a Republican candidate for mayor of Shreveport, but she was eliminated with 7.5 percent of the vote in a 12-candidate field by another Republican woman, Hazel Beard, who won the runoff election to become the first woman mayor of Shreveport and the first of only two Republican mayors of the city since Reconstruction. Older son Riemer Calhoun, Jr. developed and managed hundreds of apartment complexes throughout Louisiana and the American South. He was from 1990 to 1992 the president of the Texas Longhorn Breeders Association of America, the first person from Louisiana to head the organization. In his capacity as president, Calhoun established an outreach program to enhance communications, he adopted the motton, "Tell the Longhorn story".

Calhoun, Jr. is married to the former Marcia Copeland, the daughter of Nile Bailey Copeland and Marian Smith Copeland Cooper of Mansfield. In 2003, Calhoun, Jr. pleaded guilty to bilking the U. S. government and various investors out of $2.5 million. He served two five-year prison sentences consecutively; some of Calhoun's investors faced the loss of Internal Revenue Service tax credits received through the illegal business practices. Calhoun was released from the Bureau of Prisons on February 19, 2008; the senior Calhoun died in 1994 at the age of eighty-five. His burial site is unknown, but his second wife is interred at Highland Cemetery in Mansfield

Depeche Mode videography

This is a comprehensive listing of official video releases by Depeche Mode, a British electronic music group. Depeche Mode have released fifty-seven music videos, twelve music VHS/DVDs, six DVD singles on Mute Records, Sire Records and Reprise Records. Most of the group's early music videos were directed by Peter Care. Following the time with Richardson and Care, Depeche Mode developed a working relationship with award-winning director and photographer Anton Corbijn, who has directed the majority of their videos since; the group's concert video Devotional was nominated for "Best Long Form Music Video" at the 37th Grammy Awards in 1995. Depeche Mode discography General Footnotes Official website Depeche Mode discography at Discogs

2016 American Boxing Olympic Qualification Tournament

The 2016 American Boxing Olympic Qualification Tournament for the boxing tournament at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro Brazil was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina from March 11 to March 19, 2016. A total of 241 boxers from 35 countries competed; the two finalists will qualify to the 2016 Summer Olympics. The two finalists will qualify to the 2016 Summer Olympics; the two finalists will qualify to the 2016 Summer Olympics. The top three boxers will qualify to the 2016 Summer Olympics; the two finalists will qualify to the 2016 Summer Olympics. The top three boxers will qualify to the 2016 Summer Olympics; the top three boxers will qualify to the 2016 Summer Olympics. The two finalists will qualify to the 2016 Summer Olympics; the top three boxers will qualify to the 2016 Summer Olympics. The top three boxers will qualify to the 2016 Summer Olympics; the two finalists will qualify to the 2016 Summer Olympics. The winner will qualify to the 2016 Summer Olympics; the two finalists will qualify to the 2016 Summer Olympics

Mauritania–Senegal Border War

The Mauritania–Senegal Border War was a conflict fought between the West African countries of Mauritania and Senegal along their shared border during 1989–1991. The conflict began around disputes over the two countries' River Senegal border and grazing rights, resulted in the rupture of diplomatic relations between the two countries for several years, the creation of thousands of refugees from both sides, as well as having a significant impact on domestic Senegalese politics. Mauritania's south is populated by the Fula/Toucouleur and Soninké. Senegal, meanwhile, is dominated by the Wolof; the Senegal River basin between Mauritania and Senegal has for centuries been inhabited by both black populations, such as the Fula/Toucouleur, Wolof and Soninké, by Arabs and Berber peoples. Periods of drought throughout the 1980s increased tensions over available arable land, with the basin becoming more important because of development of the basin by the Organisation pour la mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal, which constructed dams, such as the one at Djama, that altered the balance between herders and farmers by opening new parts of the valley to irrigation.

Mauritania's attempts at land reform in 1983 strengthened the role of the state while undermining traditional agriculture, making more acute the problem of many farmers on both sides of the border. Both Mauritania and Senegal are former French colonies. Senegal, in comparison, remained attached to the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, resulting in divergent foreign policies in the two countries; these factors led to a deterioration in relations between Mauritania and Senegal, with both countries hardening their stances against each other with each further incident. This created an explosive situation, stirred up by both countries' domestic news media, which focused on the ethnic dimensions to the conflict. On 9 April 1989, Diawara, a town in the Bakel Department of eastern Senegal, was the scene of clashes between Fulani herdsmen and Mauritanian Soninke farmers in Senegal over grazing rights; the Mauritanian army took control of 1000 square km’s of territory of Senegal thus coming into de-facto Mauritanian control much of northern Senegal was seized and under the control of Mauritania after Senegal provoked Mauritania.

Mauritanian border guards intervened, firing at and killing two Senegalese peasants, as well as injuring several more while taking a dozen Senegalese prisoner. As a result, people on the Senegalese southern bank rioted. In Senegal, many shopkeepers were Mauritanian, from 21 to 24 April, the shops of Mauritanian traders in Senegal where looted and burned. In addition, there were reports of professional Mauritanians being burned alive in their furnaces using spits, with others were beheaded; the end of April saw riots in Nouakchott and other Mauritanian cities with hundreds of Senegalese being killed or otherwise injured. Both countries began expelling the nationals of the other on 28 April, resulting in further reprisals in both countries. At this time, the official figure for the number of casualties in the conflict stood at 60. Repatriation was done with the help of French, Algerian and Spanish flights. A state of emergency and curfew were introduced in the Dakar region to prevent further violence.

Senegalese President Abdou Diouf used the Senegalese army to protect the Mauritanian nationals who were being rounded up and expelled. In all 160,000 Mauritanians, the majority of them in Senegal, were repatriated. Lynch mobs and police brutality in Mauritania resulted in the forced exile of about 70,000 southerners to Senegal, despite most of them having no links to the country. About 250,000 people fled their homes as both sides engaged in cross-border raids. Hundreds of people died in both countries; the Senegal-Mauritanian border closed and diplomatic relations between the two countries were broken on 21 August 1989. The Organisation of African Unity tried to negotiate a settlement to reopen the border, but it was an initiative of Senegalese President Abdou Diouf which led to a treaty being signed on July 18, 1991; the treaty helped result in the re-established of relations, which took place in April 1992, the border was reopened on 2 May 1992. Mauritanian refugees trickled back into the country during the following years.

The armed black nationalist Mauritanian movement African Liberation Forces of Mauritania is based in northern Senegal. The departure of massive numbers of people lead to an incredible disruption in the balance of the Senegal river valley, causing a decline in agricultural production and an increase in deforestation. In Mauritania the construction and fishing industries, which were traditionally staffed by the Senegalese suffered from the expulsions; the water and general infrastructure of the Senegalese bank of the river operating at peak capacity, was overwhelmed by the sheer number of refugees. The Senegalese population centers of Podor and Matam saw their populations grow by 13.6% and 12% respectively. The populations of some other villages in Senegal double. In terms of domestic politics in Senegal, the conflict may have contributed to the rise of the PDS and Abdoulaye Wade due to the governments inability to deal with the social crisis caused by the influx of vast numbers of refugees. Senegal was further undermined by its neighbors following the war, with problems over the demarcation of the border with Guinea-Bissau has arisen in the wake of the conflict, difficulties with the Gambia leading to the dissolution of the Senegambia Confederation in 1989.


Women's Development Bank

The Women's Development Bank, was established in Venezuela in 2001 to remedy the political and social disadvantages faced by women. The Bank offers both non-financial services to women; the first President was Nora Castañeda. The bank provides small, low-interest loans, known as micro-credit loans, ranging from 500,000 to 1,000,000 bolívares per woman, for the establishment of business ventures. Loans are not granted to individuals, but rather to groups of five to ten women. In this manner, the bank is ideologically aligned with President Hugo Chávez, by promoting community solidarity over individualism, associated with capitalism; the bank has provided over 40,000 such loans since its establishment. The bank offers financial advice to women, serves as a consultant in the formation and development of business projects; the Women's Development Bank offers a number of non-financial services. The bank provides administrative training for aspiring female entrepreneurs, as well as workshops on personal development, self-esteem, family planning and health.

The workshops encourage dialogue within the community and stimulate a greater involvement of women in politics. The Bank is distinct from other banks. Bank members make house calls; the Bank attempts to promote self-sufficiency, by minimizing the requirements to receive a loans. The bank offers direction to encourage the success of women’s projects, but does not dictate how their businesses should be run; this presents a challenge to many marginalized women. In instances where women are illiterate or otherwise have difficulty in overseeing a business venture, a female family member or friend will oversee the project until the woman becomes literate; the Bank directs women to Mission Robinson, a literacy campaign launched by Chávez's government. Bolivarian Revolution Economic policy of the Hugo Chávez government "Banco de Desarrollo de la Mujer". Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Economía Comunal. N.d. Archived from the original on 30 April 2008. Retrieved June 22, 2016. Sarah Wagner., Women in the Bolivarian Revolution, Part 2: The Bolivarian Response to the Feminization of Poverty in Venezuela.

February 05, 2005. Interview with Nora Castaneda, President of the Women’s Development Bank, In Motion magazine, April 30, 2005 Banmujer: Benefitting Over 300,000 Venezuelan Families Since 2001,, 3 October 2011