Catalonia is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona and Tarragona; the capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia, it is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan and the Aranese dialect of Occitan. In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions; the eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, were called Catalonia.
In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon; the de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese monarchs in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts, constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their realms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was reconquered by the Spanish army.
Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; this led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended. In the 19th century, Catalonia was affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second third of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation; as wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic, the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government.
After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum; the Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others—including then-President of Catalonia, Carles Puigdemont—fled to other European countries.
The name Catalonia—Catalunya in Catalan, spelled Cathalonia, or Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin—began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans in the late 11th century and was used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives. The origin of the name Catalunya is subject to diverse interpretations because of a lack of evidence. One theory suggests that Catalunya derives from the name Gothia Launia, since the origins of the Catalan counts and people were found in the March of Gothia, known as Gothia, whence Gothlan
Beuda is a Spanish municipality located in the comarca of Garrotxa, in the province of Girona, Spain. It is located on the slopes near the Mont massif, to the north of Besalú. Església de Sant Feliu - Romanesque.
Rupit i Pruit
Rupit i Pruit is a municipality in the comarca of Osona in Catalonia, Spain. Pruit Rupit Panareda Clopés, Josep Maria. Guia de Catalunya, Barcelona:Caixa de Catalunya. ISBN 84-87135-01-3. ISBN 84-87135-02-1. Government data pages
Sant Joan les Fonts
Sant Joan les Fonts is a municipality of the comarca of Garrotxa, located in Girona, northern Spain. As of 2014, the population is 2,919; until 1949 it was known as Begudà. It is part of the Garrotxa Volcanic Zone Natural Park, it is the second most populous municipality of Garrotxa. It is located at the confluence linking Girona to Olot and Camprodón, it is crossed by the river Fluvià, the engine behind the population's industrial development. Industry is the most developed sector in the municipality, followed by agriculture; the earliest core of the town was formed in the ninth century. Earthquakes in the years 1427 and 1428 most of the collapsed buildings. A recovery began in the area, with small population centers, hampered by civil war in the fifteenth century. During the 17th century, it lived through an age of crisis, aggravated by the War of the Spanish Succession. There was no significant population growth until the eighteenth century, with the incorporation of immigrants from Olot and the vicinity.
War resulted in another decline of the population, a decline that continued throughout the 19th century. The 1854 cholera epidemic wreaked havoc. During the 20th century, there was a social and economic revival, despite the internecine 1936 civil war. Begudà, 248 inhabitants La Canya, 557 inhabitants El Pla de Baix, 39 inhabitants El Pla de Dalt, 54 inhabitants Sant Cosme, 100 inhabitants Sant Joan les Fonts, 1,761 inhabitants Monestir de Sant Joan les Fonts is s a Romanesque building, declared a national monument; the medieval bridge, built with volcanic stone, crosses the river Fluvià and links the core of the town with the existing church and the Castanyer neighborhood. A fortress located at the Serra de Vivers. From this point one can observe the entire landscape of Garrotxa, from Besalú through the valley of Olot and the valley de Bianya; the Canadell Tower is a four-story square building with "espitlleres" on all four sides and a terrace roof. It was once surrounded by ramparts; the Juvinyà estate is known as the oldest Romanesque civil building in Catalonia.
It is located along the Fluvià river. It is a fortified manor house with the defensive tower and main building, it was declared a provincial monument in 1972. An area of archeological interest known for the lava flow that formed part of the old lock known as "la Reformada". Various holidays are celebrated: The festival of San Isidro, in May; the festival of Roser, Easter Monday. The main festival, June 24; the "pessebre vivent", Christmas. Begudà celebrates the festival of Santa Eulàlia, the main festival in the first weekend of August Ydes, France City council website Government data pages
Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain)
The National Statistics Institute is the official agency in Spain that collects statistics about demography and Spanish society. It is an autonomous organization in Spain responsible for overall coordination of statistical services of the General State Administration in monitoring and supervision of technical procedures; every 10 years, this organisation conducts a national census. The last census took place in 2011. Through the official website one can follow all the updates of different fields of study; the oldest statistics agency of Spain and the predecessor of the current agency was the General Statistics Commission of the Kingdom, created on November 3, 1856 during the reign of Isabella II. The so-then Prime Minister Narváez approved a decree creating this body and ordering that people with recognized ability in this matter were part of it. On May 1, 1861, the Commission change its name to General Statistics Board and their first work was to do a population census. By a decree of September 12, 1870, Prime Minister Serrano created the Geographic Institute and in 1873 this Institute change its name to Geographic and Statistic Institute assuming the competences of the General Statistics Board.
In 1890, the titularity of the agency was transferred from the Prime Minister's Office to the Ministry of Development. Between 1921 and 1939, change its name many times. In the same way, the agency was transferred from a ministry to another, passing through the Deputy Prime Minister's Office, the Ministry of the Presidency and the Ministry of Labour; the National Statistics Institute was created following the Law of December 31, 1945, published in the BOE of January 3, 1946, with a mission to develop and refine the demographic and social statistics existing, creating new statistics and coordination with the statistical offices of provincial and municipal areas. At the end of 1964 the first computer was installed at the INE, it was a first-generation IBM 1401, for which a team was formed consisting of four statistics faculty and ten technicians. In the four years following it was possible that said. INE Website
Arbúcies is a village in the province of Girona and autonomous community of Catalonia, Spain. The municipality covers an area of 86.24 square kilometres and the population in 2014 was 6481. Arbúcies was populated by the Iberians and by the Romans. In the Middle Ages, when feudalism was established, Montsoriu Castle and viscounts of Cabrera were important; the combat of Arbúcies was given on 14 January 1714 during the War of Catalans between the militia of the surrounding area, supporters of Archduke Charles of Austria and the Walloon forces of the Duke of Anjou. The clash took place against a 15th-century mill. Bourbon troops, en route from Hostalric to Vic, were defeated and lost six flags; the town of Arbúcies was burnt in the wave of repression unleashed by the Duke of Pópoli. Arbúcies' main industry is the manufacturing of bus chassis; the principal manufacturing companies of Spain are located in Arbúcies: Beulas, Ayats and Noge. The other important industry in the village is Jocavi, a textile company that manufactures clothes for woman and exports to all Europe.
Keita Baldé Diao, footballer Government data pages
Les Planes d'Hostoles
Les Planes d'Hostoles is a village and municipality in the province of Girona and autonomous community of Catalonia, Spain. The municipality covers an area of 37.51 square kilometres and the population in 2014 was 1,694. Government data pages