A saint is a person, recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God. However, the use of the term "saint" depends on the denomination. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Lutheran doctrine, all of their faithful deceased in Heaven are considered to be saints, but some are considered worthy of greater honor or emulation. While the English word saint originated in Christianity, historians of religion now use the appellation "in a more general way to refer to the state of special holiness that many religions attribute to certain people", with the Jewish tzadik, the Islamic walī, the Hindu rishi or Sikh guru, the Buddhist arhat or bodhisattva being referred to as saints. Depending on the religion, saints are recognized either by official ecclesiastical declaration, as in the Catholic faith, or by popular acclamation; the English word "saint" comes from the Latin "sanctus". The word translated in Greek is "ἅγιος", which means "holy"; the word ἅγιος appears 229 times in the Greek New Testament, its English translation 60 times in the corresponding text of the King James Version of the Bible.
The word sanctus was a technical one in ancient Roman religion, but due to its "globalized" use in Christianity the modern word "saint" in English and its equivalent in Romance languages is now used as a translation of comparable terms for persons "worthy of veneration for their holiness or sanctity" in other religions. Many religions use similar concepts to venerate persons worthy of some honor. Author John A. Coleman S. J. of the Graduate Theological Union, California wrote that saints across various cultures and religions have the following family resemblances: exemplary model extraordinary teacher wonder worker or source of benevolent power intercessor a life refusing material attachments or comforts possession of a special and revelatory relation to the holy. The anthropologist Lawrence Babb in an article about Sathya Sai Baba asks the question "Who is a saint?", responds by saying that in the symbolic infrastructure of some religions, there is the image of a certain extraordinary spiritual king's "miraculous powers", to whom a certain moral presence is attributed.
These saintly figures, he asserts, are "the focal points of spiritual force-fields". They exert "powerful attractive influence on followers but touch the inner lives of others in transforming ways as well". According to the Catholic Church, a "saint" is anyone in Heaven, whether recognized on Earth or not, who form the "great cloud of witnesses"; these "may include our own mothers, grandmothers or other loved ones" who may have not always lived perfect lives but "amid their faults and failings they kept moving forward and proved pleasing to the Lord". The title "Saint" denotes a person, formally canonized, authoritatively declared a saint, by the Church as holder of the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, is therefore believed to be in Heaven by the grace of God. There are many persons that the Church believes to be in Heaven who have not been formally canonized and who are otherwise titled "saints" because of the fame of their holiness. Sometimes the word "saint" denotes living Christians. In his book Saint of the Day, editor Leonard Foley, OFM says this: the " surrender to God's love was so generous an approach to the total surrender of Jesus that the Church recognizes them as heroes and heroines worthy to be held up for our inspiration.
They remind us that the Church is holy, can never stop being holy and is called to show the holiness of God by living the life of Christ."The Catholic Church teaches that it does not "make" or "create" saints, but rather recognizes them. Proofs of heroicity required in the process of beatification will serve to illustrate in detail the general principles exposed above upon proof of their "holiness" or likeness to God. According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church Chapter 2, Article 1, 61, "The patriarchs and certain other Old Testament figures have been and always will be honored as saints in all the church's liturgical traditions." On 3 January 993, Pope John XV became the first pope to proclaim a person a "saint" from outside the diocese of Rome: on the petition of the German ruler, he had canonized Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg. Before that time, the popular "cults", or venerations, of saints had been local and spontaneous and were confirmed by the local bishop. Pope John XVIII subsequently permitted a cult of five Polish martyrs.
Pope Benedict VIII declared the Armenian hermit Symeon to be a saint, but it was not until the pontificate of Pope Innocent III that the Popes reserved to themselves the exclusive authority to canonize saints, so that local bishops needed the confirmation of the Pope. Walter of Pontoise was the last person in Western Europe to be canonized by an authority other than the Pope: Hugh de Boves, the Archbishop of Rouen, canonized him in 1153. Thenceforth a decree of Pope Alexander III in 1170 reserved the prerogative of canonization to the Pope, insofar as the Latin Church was concerned. One source claims that "there are over 10,000 named saints and beatified people from history, the Roman Martyrology and Orthodox sources, but no definitive head count". Alban Butler published Lives of the Saints including a total of 1,486 saints; the latest revision of this book, edited by the Jesuit Herbert Thurston and the British author Donald Attwater, contains the lives of 2,565 saints. Monsign
Santa Claus known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture, said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved children on Christmas Eve and the early morning hours of Christmas Day. The modern Santa Claus grew out of traditions surrounding the historical Saint Nicholas, the British figure of Father Christmas and the Dutch figure of Sinterklaas; some maintain Santa Claus absorbed elements of the Germanic god Wodan, associated with the pagan midwinter event of Yule and led the Wild Hunt, a ghostly procession through the sky. Santa Claus is depicted as a portly, white-bearded man—sometimes with spectacles—wearing a red coat with white fur collar and cuffs, white-fur-cuffed red trousers, a red hat with white fur and black leather belt and boots and who carries a bag full of gifts for children; this image became popular in the United States and Canada in the 19th century due to the significant influence of the 1823 poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas" and of caricaturist and political cartoonist Thomas Nast.
This image has been maintained and reinforced through song, television, children's books and advertising. Santa Claus is said to make lists of children throughout the world, categorizing them according to their behavior, to deliver presents, including toys and candy, to all of the well-behaved children in the world, coal to all the misbehaved children, on the night of Christmas Eve, he accomplishes this feat with the aid of his elves, who make the toys in his workshop at the North Pole, his flying reindeer, who pull his sleigh. He is portrayed as living at the North Pole, laughing in a way that sounds like "ho ho ho". Saint Nicholas of Myra was a 4th-century Greek Christian bishop of Myra in Lycia. Nicholas was famous for his generous gifts to the poor, in particular presenting the three impoverished daughters of a pious Christian with dowries so that they would not have to become prostitutes, he was religious from an early age and devoted his life to Christianity. In continental Europe he is portrayed as a bearded bishop in canonical robes.
In 1087, while the Greek Christian inhabitants of Myra were subjugated by newly arrived Muslim Turkish conquerors, soon after their Greek Orthodox church had been declared to be in schism by the Catholic church, a group of merchants from the Italian city of Bari removed the major bones of Nicholas's skeleton from his sarcophagus in the Greek church in Myra. Over the objection of the monks of Myra the sailors took the bones of St. Nicholas to Bari, where they are now enshrined in the Basilica di San Nicola. Sailors from Bari collected just half of Nicholas' skeleton, leaving all the minor fragments in the church sarcophagus; these were taken by Venetian sailors during the First Crusade and placed in Venice, where a church to St. Nicholas, the patron of sailors, was built on the San Nicolò al Lido. St. Nicholas' vandalized sarcophagus can still be seen in the St. Nicholas Church in Myra; this tradition was confirmed in two important scientific investigations of the relics in Bari and Venice, which revealed that the relics in the two Italian cities belong to the same skeleton.
Saint Nicholas was claimed as a patron saint of many diverse groups, from archers and children to pawnbrokers. He is the patron saint of both Amsterdam and Moscow. During the Middle Ages on the evening before his name day of 6 December, children were bestowed gifts in his honour; this date was earlier than the original day of gifts for the children, which moved in the course of the Reformation and its opposition to the veneration of saints in many countries on the 24th and 25 December. The custom of gifting to children at Christmas has been propagated by Martin Luther as an alternative to the previous popular gift custom on St. Nicholas, to focus the interest of the children to Christ instead of the veneration of saints. Martin Luther first suggested the Christkind as the bringer of gifts, but Nicholas remained popular as gifts bearer for the people. Father Christmas dates back as far as 16th century in England during the reign of Henry VIII, when he was pictured as a large man in green or scarlet robes lined with fur.
He typified the spirit of good cheer at Christmas, bringing peace, good food and wine and revelry. As England no longer kept the feast day of Saint Nicholas on 6 December, the Father Christmas celebration was moved to the 25th of December to coincide with Christmas Day; the Victorian revival of Christmas included Father Christmas as the emblem of'good cheer'. His physical appearance was variable, with one famous image being John Leech's illustration of the "Ghost of Christmas Present" in Charles Dickens's festive classic A Christmas Carol, as a great genial man in a green coat lined with fur who takes Scrooge through the bustling streets of London on the current Christmas morning, sprinkling the essence of Christmas onto the happy populace. In the Netherlands and Belgium the character of Santa Claus has to compete with that of Sinterklaas, Santa's presumed progenitor. Santa Claus is known as de Kerstman in Dutch and Père Noël in French, but for children in the Netherlands Sinterklaas remains the predominant gift-giver in December.
The Santa Province is one of twenty provinces of the Ancash Region in Peru. The province of Santa was created on February 12, 1821, its capital, that long time ago became the first fishing port of the world, is the most important city of the coastal zone of Ancash. In 1992 it was the site of a famous massacre of campesinos; the city and port of Santa are located in the large, fertile valleys of the Santa and Lacramarca rivers. These valleys have extensive sown plains with cotton, rice and nutritional products; the city of Santa is the first colonial city of the Ancash coast. This rich valley is formed by the outlet of the Santa River; the Santa River is born in the lake Quñuqqucha in the Cordillera Blanca. It crosses the Callejón de Huaylas in all its extension, it cut the Cordillera Negra in the imposing Cañón del Pato and it ends at the plains of Santa, after a distance traveled of 336 kilometers. One of the highest peaks of the province is Quñuq Ranra at 5,822 m. Other mountains are listed below: Santa is divided into nine districts, which are: Official web site of the Santa Province
Santa with Muscles
Santa with Muscles is a 1996 American Christmas comedy film starring Hulk Hogan and directed by John Murlowski. The film was released for two weeks in cinemas. Blake Thorn is a conceited self-made millionaire who sells bodybuilding supplements and equipment that have his picture on them. One day, while recklessly playing paintball, he is targeted by police, he is chased to a shopping mall. He bangs his head, resulting in amnesia. Mistaken by Lenny as the mall Santa, Blake begins to think he is Santa Claus. Meanwhile, the evil scientist Ebner Frost tries to take over an orphanage in order to gain access to the magical crystals underneath it and dispatches his henchmen to destroy it. However, Blake after discovering that being Santa has made him a better person and that Frost wants to destroy the same orphanage he grew up in, manages to rescue the children. Frost and his henchmen are arrested, but the orphanage is destroyed due to the overload of the crystals, so Blake opens his mansion as a new home for the orphans.
Hulk Hogan - Blake Thorn Don Stark - Lenny Robin Curtis - Leslie Garrett Morris - Clayton Aria Curzon - Elizabeth Adam Wylie - Taylor Mila Kunis - Sarah Clint Howard - Hinkley Steve Valentine - Dr. Blight Ed Begley Jr. - Ebner Frost William Newman - Chas Ed Leslie - Sumo Lab Assistant Released on 8 November 1996, the film garnered $120,932 in box-office receipts during its opening weekend and grossed a total of $220,198 during its two-week run. Film critic Emanuel Levy gave the film a score of 2 out of 5. Joe Leydon in Variety described Santa with Muscles as a "weakling of a comedy" and thought that Hogan's performance was lacking the charisma of his previous work such as Suburban Commando. Leydon panned the direction in particular, stating: "Working from an irredeemably bland screenplay, John Murlowski directs with all the enthusiasm of someone going through the motions to pay off a debt." Chris Hicks, writing for the Deseret News, stated that films such as Santa with Muscles make films like Jingle All The Way look better, said that Hulk Hogan "makes Arnold Schwarzenegger seem like Laurence Olivier".
MaryAnn Johanson of Flick Filosopher called it "a awful comedy" and "Believe me, it’s dumber than it sounds." Reception for Santa with Muscles has continued to be negative. As of December 2011 it was listed at number 62 on IMDB's bottom 100 movies, it was listed as number 43 out of 50 worst children's films by Total Film, was included in Virgin Media's list of worst Christmas movies. The film was included on Atlantic City Weekly's list of worst holiday films, ranking third behind Santa Claus Conquers the Martians and the Star Wars Holiday Special. Due to Hogan's starring role, the film has been featured on the website Wrestlecrap, which acts as a "Hall of Shame" for the worst gimmicks and storylines in pro wrestling history; when Golden Globe nominee Mila Kunis, who made her film debut, was asked about the film in 2011 by GQ magazine, she said, "I was too young to understand the importance of working with Hulk Hogan. I just thought he was this huge man", while comparing the film to American Psycho 2 in which she co-starred with William Shatner.
Kunis and Stark starred in Fox network's That'70s Show. Santa with Muscles on IMDb Santa with Muscles at AllMovie Santa with Muscles at Box Office Mojo Santa with Muscles on Rotten Tomatoes
A grape tomato is a class of tomatoes believed to be of southeast Asian origin, shaped to the oval plum tomatoes but having the small size and sweetness of cherry tomatoes. Grape tomatoes produce small and oblong fruits. Introduced to the worldwide market in the 1990s, they have gained substantial popularity, due at least in part to their higher sugar content compared to regular tomatoes, due to their smaller, bite-sized shape. A commercially significant variety, the "Santa F1", was introduced into the United States market in 1997 by grower Andrew Chu, who obtained the seeds from Taiwan's Known-You Seed Company. Procacci Brothers Sales Corporation in Philadelphia acquired global exclusivity of this fruit and has aggressively marketed it under its subsidiary Santa Sweets, Inc; the Santa F1 variety is rare in seed form, being offered only by a few seed houses around the world. Other grape tomato cultivars, such as Rosalita, are more available to home gardeners. List of tomato cultivars Article from the Brooklyn Botanic Garden website Attack of the Grape Tomatoes Article from the Washington Post Catalog listing for Santa F1 seeds from Thompson & Morgan does not seem to be a live page as of May 2007, but still accessible from Google Other varieties of grape tomatoes
Santa's Slay is a 2005 Canadian-American Christmas black comedy horror film that stars professional wrestler Bill Goldberg as Santa Claus. The film was directed by David Steiman, a former assistant to Brett Ratner. On Christmas Eve, the Masons, a wealthy yet dysfunctional family, are sitting down to Christmas dinner when Santa Claus comes down the chimney and kills them all in a variety of ways; the cast for the opening scene includes bit roles by several famous Jewish actors. Riding on his sleigh driven by his "hell-deer", Santa arrives at Hell Township and decimates the locals in various holiday-themed ways. In one of his kills, Santa slaughters the occupants of a local strip club, frequented by Pastor Timmons, a crooked minister, who manages to survive the massacre. Santa murders the local Jewish delicatessen owner Mr. Green, using his own menorah. Meanwhile, teenager Nicholas Yuleson is living with his crazy grandfather, a crackpot inventor who has built a bunker in their basement to survive Christmas.
When Nicholas asks Grandpa why he hates Christmas, he is shown "The Book of Klaus", which reveals the origins of Santa Claus. Santa was the result of a virgin birth produced by Satan. Christmas was "The Day of Slaying" for Santa until A. D. 1005, when an angel defeated him in a curling match and sentenced him to deliver presents on Christmas for 1000 years. This means that Santa is free to kill again in 2005. Upon arriving at the delicatessen, Nicholas is taken to the police station for questioning about Mr. Green's murder, he is bailed out by his girlfriend Mary "Mac" Mackenzie, just before Santa arrives and kills all of the officers. Santa pursues Nicholas and Mac in a police car, but they are able to escape, thanks to a shotgun left in Mac's truck by her gun-crazed father, they flee with Santa still in pursuit. Nicholas and Mac manage to escape, care of Grandpa's snowmobile; the two teens hide in a local high school. They are killed by Santa on a Zamboni but are saved by Grandpa, the angel who defeated and sentenced Santa.
With Christmas over and his powers gone, Santa flees in his sleigh. Pastor Timmons is found dead in a Santa suit and is presumed to be the killer, while, in fact, the real killer Santa Claus is boarding a flight from Winnipeg to the North Pole. After the credits, Santa is seen looking over his Naughty List, when he looks into the camera and says "Who's Next?" It was shot in Wetaskiwin, Alberta. The film was released to home media by Lionsgate Home Entertainment. While filming the final zamboni scene in Bruderheim, one of their film trailers caught fire. Douglas Smith as Nicholas Yuleson Bill Goldberg as Santa Emilie de Ravin as Mary McKenzie Robert Culp as Grandpa Dave Thomas as Pastor Timmons Saul Rubinek as Mr Green Rebecca Gayheart as Gwen Mason Chris Kattan as Jason Mason Fran Drescher as Virginia Mason Alicia Loren as Beth Mason Annie Sorell as Taylor Mason Donna Zuk as Ms. Talbot Scott Francis Gibson as the S. W. N. D. S. U. Place Kicker Jimmy Herman as Vinny Michael David Simms as Captain/Officer Caulk Donald Bland as A Bouncer Kevin Gillese as a Disgruntled Youth Santa's Slay on IMDb Santa's Slay at Rotten Tomatoes Santa's Slay at AllMovie
Haumea is a dwarf planet located beyond Neptune's orbit. It was discovered in 2004 by a team headed by Mike Brown of Caltech at the Palomar Observatory in the United States and independently in 2005, by a team headed by José Luis Ortiz Moreno at the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Spain, though the latter claim has been contested. On September 17, 2008, it was recognized as a dwarf planet by the International Astronomical Union and named after Haumea, the Hawaiian goddess of childbirth. Haumea's mass is about one-third that of Pluto, 1/1400 that of Earth. Although its shape has not been directly observed, calculations from its light curve indicate that it is a Jacobi ellipsoid, with its major axis twice as long as its minor, its gravity is thought to be sufficient for it to have relaxed into hydrostatic equilibrium, making it a dwarf planet. Haumea's elongated shape together with its rapid rotation, high density, high albedo, are thought to be the consequences of a giant collision, which left Haumea the largest member of a collisional family that includes several large trans-Neptunian objects and Haumea's two known moons, Hiʻiaka and Namaka.
Haumea is the third-largest confirmed trans-Neptunian object, after Eris and Pluto. Two teams claim credit for the discovery of Haumea. Mike Brown and his team at Caltech discovered Haumea in December 28, 2004 on images they had taken on May 6, 2004. On July 20, 2005, they published an online abstract of a report intended to announce the discovery at a conference in September 2005. At around this time, José Luis Ortiz Moreno and his team at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía at Sierra Nevada Observatory in Spain found Haumea on images taken on March 7–10, 2003. Ortiz emailed the Minor Planet Center with their discovery on the night of July 27, 2005. Brown conceded discovery credit to Ortiz, but came to suspect the Spanish team of fraud upon learning that his observation logs were accessed from the Spanish observatory the day before the discovery announcement; these logs included enough information to allow the Ortiz team to precover Haumea in their 2003 images, they were accessed again just before Ortiz scheduled telescope time to obtain confirmation images for a second announcement to the MPC on July 29.
Ortiz admitted he had accessed the Caltech observation logs but denied any wrongdoing, stating he was verifying whether they had discovered a new object. Precovery images of Haumea have been identified back to September 22, 1955. IAU protocol is that discovery credit for a minor planet goes to whoever first submits a report to the MPC with enough positional data for a decent determination of its orbit, that the credited discoverer has priority in choosing a name. However, the IAU announcement on September 17, 2008, that Haumea had been accepted as a dwarf planet, did not mention a discoverer; the location of discovery was listed as the Sierra Nevada Observatory of the Spanish team, but the chosen name, was the Caltech proposal. Until it was given a permanent name, the Caltech discovery team used the nickname "Santa" among themselves, because they had discovered Haumea on December 28, 2004, just after Christmas; the Spanish team were the first to file a claim for discovery to the Minor Planet Center, in July 2005.
On July 29, 2005, Haumea was given the provisional designation 2003 EL61, based on the date of the Spanish discovery image. On September 7, 2006, it was numbered and admitted into the official minor planet catalogue as 2003 EL61. Following guidelines established by the IAU that classical Kuiper belt objects be given names of mythological beings associated with creation, in September 2006 the Caltech team submitted formal names from Hawaiian mythology to the IAU for both 2003 EL61 and its moons, in order "to pay homage to the place where the satellites were discovered"; the names were proposed by David Rabinowitz of the Caltech team. Haumea is the matron goddess of the island of Hawaiʻi. In addition, she is identified with Papa, the goddess of the earth and wife of Wākea, which, at the time, seemed appropriate because Haumea was thought to be composed entirely of solid rock, without the thick ice mantle over a small rocky core typical of other known Kuiper belt objects. Lastly, Haumea is the goddess of fertility and childbirth, with many children who sprang from different parts of her body.
The two known moons believed to have formed in this manner, are thus named after two of Haumea's daughters, Hiʻiaka and Nāmaka. The proposal by the Ortiz team, did not meet IAU naming requirements, because the names of chthonic deities are reserved for plutinos that resonate 3:2 with Neptune, not the case for this body, in 7:12 resonance. Haumea is a dwarf planet located beyond Neptune's orbit, it is classified as a dwarf planet because it is presumed to be massive enough to have been rounded by its own gravity into a shape in hydrostatic equilibrium, but not massive enough to have cleared its neighbourhood of sized objects. Haumea was listed as a classical Kuiper belt object in 2006 by the Minor Planet Center, but no longer; the nominal trajectory suggests that Haumea is in a weak 7:12 orbital resonance with Neptune, which would make it a resonant object instead. Although there are precovery images of Haumea dating back to March 22, 1955 from the Palomar Mountain Digitized Sky Survey, further ob