Palmdale is a city in northern Los Angeles County in the U. S. state of California. The city lies in the Antelope Valley region of Southern California; the San Gabriel Mountains separate Palmdale from the city of Los Angeles to the south. On August 24, 1962, Palmdale became the first community in the Antelope Valley to incorporate. Forty seven years in November 2009, voters approved making it a charter city. Palmdale's population was 152,750 at the 2010 census, up from 116,670 at the 2000 census. Palmdale is the 33rd most populous city in California. Together with its immediate northern neighbor of the city of Lancaster, the Palmdale/Lancaster urban area had an estimated population of 513,547 as of 2013. Populated by different cultures for an estimated 11,000 years, the Antelope Valley was a trade route for Native Americans traveling from Arizona and New Mexico to California’s coast. "Palmenthal", the first European settlement within the limits of Palmdale, was established as a village on April 20, 1886, by westward Lutheran travelers from the American Midwest of German and Swiss descent.
According to area folklore, the travelers had been told they would know they were close to the ocean when they saw palm trees. Never having seen palm trees before, they mistook the local Joshua trees for palms and so named their settlement after them. According to David L. Durham Joshua trees were sometimes called yucca palms at the time, the reason for the name; the village was established upon the arrival of a post office on June 17, 1888. By the 1890s farming families continued to migrate to Palmenthal and nearby Harold to grow grain and fruit. However, most of these settlers were unfamiliar with farming in a desert climate, so when the drought years occurred, most abandoned their settlement. By 1899, only one family was left in the original village; the rest of the settlers, including the post office, moved closer to the Southern Pacific railroad tracks. This new community was located where the present day civic center is. A railroad station was built along the tracks there; this railroad was traveled between Los Angeles and San Francisco.
The Wells Fargo stagecoach line that ran between San Francisco and New Orleans stopped there as well. The only remaining pieces of evidence of the original settlements of Palmenthal and Harold are the old Palmdale Pioneer cemetery located on the northeast corner of Avenue S and 20th Street East acquired and restored by the city as part of a future historical park, the old schoolhouse now relocated to McAdam Park. Palmdale was first inhabited by Native Americans. Spanish soldier Captain Pedro Fages explored the Antelope Valley in 1772; the opening of California to overland travel through the forbearing desert was due to Captain Juan Bautista de Anza and Father Francisco Garces, a most remarkable Spanish padre. They led a colonizing expedition including 136 settlers across the Mojave Desert from Mexico to Monterey in 1773. In 1776 while exploring the Valley, Garces with several Indian guides from the San Gabriel Mission recorded viewing the vast expanse of what was the El Tejon Rancheria of the Cuabajoy Indians.
After the Shoshone Indians left the valley, immigrants from Spain and Mexico established large cattle ranches there. In the late 1880s, the ranches were broken up into smaller homesteads by farmers from Germany and the state of Nebraska; as the population of Palmdale began to increase after relocation, water became scarce, until November 5, 1913 when the California – Los Angeles Aqueduct system was completed by William Mulholland, bringing water from the Owens Valley into Los Angeles County. During this period, crops of apples and alfalfa became plentiful. In 1915, Palmdale's first newspaper, the Palmdale Post, was published. Today it is called the Antelope Valley Press. In 1921, the first major link between Palmdale and Los Angeles was completed, Mint Canyon/Lancaster Road designated U. S. Route 6. Completion of this road caused the local agricultural industry to flourish and was the first major step towards defining the metropolis that exists today. Presently this road is known as Sierra Highway.
In 1924, the Little Rock Dam and the Harold Reservoir, present day Lake Palmdale, were constructed to assist the agricultural industry and have enough water to serve the growing communities. Agriculture continued to be the foremost industry for Palmdale and its northern neighbor Lancaster until the outbreak of World War II. In 1933, the United States government established Muroc Air Base six miles north of Lancaster in Kern County, now known as Edwards Air Force Base, they bought Palmdale Airport in 1952 and established an aerospace development and testing facility called United States Air Force Plant 42. One year in 1953, Lockheed established a facility at the airport. After this point in time, the aerospace industry took over as the primary local source of employment, where it has remained since. Today the city is referred to as the "Aerospace Capital of America" because of its rich heritage in being the home of many of the aircraft used in the United States military. In August 1956 an unpiloted out of control Navy drone flew over Palmdale while Air Force Interceptor aircraft tried to shoot it down with unguided rockets.
Many rockets landed around the city starting fires and damaging property. In 1957, Palmdale's first high school, Palmdale High School, was established, making it easier for youths to not have to travel to Antelope Valley High School in nearb
Norwalk is a suburban city in Los Angeles County, United States. The population is estimated to be 107,096 as of 2014, it is the 58th most densely-populated city in California. Founded in the late 19th century, Norwalk was incorporated as a city in 1957, it is located 17 miles southeast of downtown Los Angeles and is part of the Greater Los Angeles area. Norwalk is a member of the Gateway Cities Council of Governments. Norwalk's sister cities are Morelia, Michoacán, Hermosillo, Sonora, in Mexico; the area known as "Norwalk" was first home to the Shoshonean Native American tribe. They survived on honey, an array of berries, sage, squirrels and birds, their huts were part of the Sejat Indian village. In the late 1760s, settlers and missions flourished under Spanish rule with the famous El Camino Real trail traversing the area. Manuel Nieto, a Spanish soldier, received a Spanish land grant in 1784. After the Mexican–American War in 1848, the Rancho and mining days ended. Portions of the land were subdivided and made available for sale when California was admitted into the union of the United States.
Word of this land development reached the Sproul Brothers in Oregon. They recalled the fertile land and huge sycamore trees they saw during an earlier visit to the Southern California area. In 1869, Atwood Sproul, on behalf of his brother, purchased 463 acres of land at $11 an acre in an area known as Corazón de los Valles, or "Heart of the Valleys". By 1873, railroads were being built in the area and the Sprouls deeded 23 acres stipulating a "passenger stop" clause in the deed. Three days after the Anaheim Branch Railroad crossed the "North-walk" for the first time, Gilbert Sproul surveyed a town site. In 1874, the name was recorded as Norwalk. While a majority of the Norwalk countryside remained undeveloped during the 1880s, the Norwalk Station allowed potential residents the opportunity to visit the "country" from across the nation. What are known as the "first families" to Norwalk settled in the area in the years before 1900. D. D. Johnston pioneered the first school system in Norwalk in 1880.
Johnston was responsible for the first real industry in town, a cheese factory, by furnishing Tom Lumbard with the money in 1882. Norwalk's prosperity was evident in the 1890s with the construction of a number of fine homes that were located in the middle of orchards and dairies. Headstones for these families can be found at Little Lake Cemetery, founded in 1843 on the border between Norwalk and Santa Fe Springs at Lakeland Road. At the turn of the 19th century, Norwalk had become established as a dairy center. Of the 50 local families reported in the 1900 census, most were associated with farming or with the dairy industry. Norwalk was the home of some of the largest sugar beet farms in all of Southern California during this era. Many of the dairy farmers who settled in Norwalk during the early part of the 20th century were Dutch. After the 1950s, the Hispanic population in Norwalk grew as the area became residential. In February 1958, two military aircraft, a Douglas C-118A military transport and a U.
S. Navy P2V-5F Neptune patrol bomber, collided over Norwalk at night. 47 servicemen were killed as well as a civilian 23-year-old woman on the ground, hit by falling debris. A plaque commemorating the disaster erected by American Legion in 1961 marks the spot of the accident, today a mini-mall at the corner of Firestone Boulevard and Pioneer Boulevard. Built in 1891 by the D. D. Johnston family, the Hargitt House was built in the architectural style of Victorian Eastlake; the Hargitt House Museum, located at 12426 Mapledale, was donated to the people of Norwalk by Charles and Ida Hargitt. The museum is open to the public for free on the first and third Saturday of the month from 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Norwalk is located at 33°54′25″N 118°5′0″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.243 km2. 9.707 square miles of it is land and 0.039 square miles of it is water. Norwalk is bordered by Downey to the northwest, Bellflower to the southwest and Artesia to the south, Santa Fe Springs to the north and east.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Norwalk had a population of 105,549. The population density was 10,829.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Norwalk was 52,089 White, 4,593 African American, 1,213 Native American, 12,700 Asian, 431 Pacific Islander, 29,954 from other races, 4,569 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 74,041 persons The Census reported that 103,934 people lived in households, 315 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 1,300 were institutionalized. There were 27,130 households, out of which 13,678 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 15,190 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 5,045 had a female householder with no husband present, 2,348 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,712 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 178 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 3,417 households were made up of individuals and 1,631 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.83.
There were 22,583 families.
Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. Its estimated 2014 population was 200,167, making it the third-largest city in Los Angeles County and the 23rd-largest city in California, it is located about 8 mi north of downtown Los Angeles. Glendale lies in the southeastern end of the San Fernando Valley, bisected by the Verdugo Mountains, is a suburb in the Los Angeles metropolitan area; the city is bordered to the northwest by the Sun Tujunga neighborhoods of Los Angeles. The Golden State, Ventura and Foothill freeways run through the city. Glendale is known to have one of the largest communities of Armenian descent in the United States. In 2013, Glendale was named LA's Neighborhood of the Year by the editors of Curbed.com. Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery contains the remains of many noted celebrities and local residents. Grand Central Airport was the departure point for the first commercial west-to-east transcontinental flight flown by Charles Lindbergh; the area was long inhabited by the Tongva people, who were renamed the Gabrieleños by the Spanish missionaries, after the nearby Mission San Gabriel Arcángel.
In 1798, José María Verdugo, a corporal in the Spanish army from Baja California, received the Rancho San Rafael from Governor Diego de Borica, formalizing his possession and use of land on which he had been grazing livestock and farming since 1784. Rancho San Rafael was a Spanish concession. Unlike the Mexican land grants, the concessions were similar to grazing permits, with the title remaining with the Spanish crown. In 1860, his grandson Teodoro Verdugo built the Verdugo Adobe, the oldest building in Glendale; the property is the location of the Oak of Peace, where early Californio leaders including Pio Pico met in 1847 and decided to surrender to Lieutenant Colonel John C. Frémont. Verdugo's descendants sold the ranch in various parcels, some of which are included in present-day Atwater Village, Eagle Rock, Highland Park neighborhoods of Los Angeles. In 1884, residents gathered to form a townsite and chose the name "Glendale" (it was bounded by First Street on the north, Fifth Street on the south, Central Avenue on the west, the Childs Tract on the east.
Residents to the southwest formed "Tropico" in 1887. The Pacific Electric Railway brought streetcar service in 1904. Glendale incorporated in 1906, annexed Tropico 12 years later. An important civic booster of the era was Leslie Coombs Brand, who built an estate in 1904 called El Miradero, featuring an eye-catching mansion, the architecture of which combined characteristics of Spanish and Indian styles, copied from the East Indian Pavilion at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago, which he visited. Brand loved to fly, built a private airstrip in 1919 and hosted "fly-in" parties, providing a direct link to the soon-to-be-built nearby Grand Central Airport; the grounds of El Miradero are now city-owned Brand Park and the mansion is the Brand Library, according to the terms of his will. Brand partnered with Henry E. Huntington to bring the Pacific Electric Railway, or the "Red Cars", to the area. Today, he is memorialized by one of Brand Boulevard; the city's population rose from 13,756 in 1920 to 62,736 in 1930.
The Forest Lawn Cemetery opened in 1906 and was renamed Forest Lawn Memorial-Park in 1917. Pioneering endocrinologist and entrepreneur Henry R. Harrower opened his clinic in Glendale in 1920, which for many years was the largest business in the city; the American Green Cross, an early conservation and tree preservation society, was formed in 1926. Until as late as the 1960s, Glendale was a sundown town. Nonwhites were required to leave city limits by a certain time each day or risk arrest and possible violence. In the 1930s, Glendale and Burbank prevented the Civilian Conservation Corps from stationing African American workers in a local park, citing sundown town ordinances that both cities had adopted. In 1964, Glendale was selected by George Lincoln Rockwell to be the West Coast headquarters of the American Nazi Party, its offices, on Colorado Street in the downtown section of the city, remained open until the early 1980s. In 1977 and 1978, 10 murdered women were found in and around Glendale in what became known as the case of the Hillside Strangler.
The murders were the work of Kenneth Bianchi and Angelo Buono, the latter of whom resided at 703 East Colorado Street, where most of the murders took place. Glendale is located at the junction of the San Fernando and the San Gabriel. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 79.212 km2. It is bordered to the north by the foothill communities of La Cañada Flintridge, La Crescenta, Tujunga. Glendale is located 10 miles north of downtown Los Angeles. Several known earthquake faults criss-cross the Glendale area and adjacent mountains, as in much of Southern California. Among the more recognized faults are the
Mission San Juan Capistrano
Mission San Juan Capistrano was a Spanish mission in colonial Las Californias. It is located in Orange County, southern California; the mission was founded by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order. Named for Giovanni de Capistrano, a 15th-century theologian and "warrior priest" who resided in the Abruzzo region of Italy, San Juan Capistrano has the distinction of being home to the oldest building in California still in use, a chapel built in 1782. Known alternately as "Serra's Chapel" and "Father Serra's Church," it is the only extant structure where it has been documented that Junipero Serra celebrated Mass. One of the best known missions in Alta California, one of the few missions to have been founded twice—others being Mission San Gabriel Arcángel and Mission La Purísima Concepción; the site was consecrated on October 30, 1775, by Fermín Lasuén, but was abandoned due to unrest among the indigenous population in San Diego. The success of the settlement's population is evident in its historical records.
Prior to the arrival of the missionaries, some 550 indigenous Acjachemen peoples lived in this area of their homeland. By 1790, the number of Indian reductions had grown to 700 Mission Indians, just six years nearly 1,000 "neophytes" lived in or around the Mission compound. 1,649 baptisms were conducted that year alone, out of the none total 4,639 people converted between 1776 and 1847. More than 69 former inhabitants; the remains of St. John O'Sullivan, who recognized the property's historic value and working tirelessly to conserve and rebuild its structures, are buried at the entrance to the cemetery on west side of the property, a statue raised in his honor stands at the head of the crypt; the surviving chapel serves as the final resting place of three priests who passed on while serving at the Mission: José Barona, Vicente Fustér, Vicente Pascual Oliva are all entombed beneath the sanctuary floor. The Criolla or "Mission grape," was first planted at San Juan Capistrano in 1779, in 1783 the first wine produced in Alta California was from the Mission's winery.
The Mission entered a long period of gradual decline after Mexican government secularization in 1833. After 1850 U. S. statehood, numerous efforts were made over the latter 19th century to restore the Mission to its former state, but none achieved much success until the arrival of O'Sullivan in 1910. Restoration efforts continue, "Serra's Chapel" is still used for religious services. Over 500,000 visitors, including 80,000 school children, come to the Mission each year, and while the ruins of "The Great Stone Church" are a renowned architectural wonder, the Mission is best known for the annual "Return of the Swallows", traditionally observed every March 19. Mission San Juan Capistrano has served as a favorite subject for many notable artists, has been immortalized in literature and on film numerous times more than any other mission. In 1984, a modern church complex was constructed just north and west of the Mission compound and is now known as Mission Basilica San Juan Capistrano. Today, the mission compound serves as a museum, with the Serra Chapel within the compound serving as a chapel for the mission parish.
The natives ate acorns that they turned into soups and bread. The former Spanish settlement at Sajavit lies within that area occupied during the late Paleoindian period and continuing on into the present day by the Native American society known as the Juaneño. Many contemporary Juaneño, who identify themselves as descendents of the indigenous society living in the local San Juan and San Mateo Creek drainage areas, have adopted the indigenous term Acjachemen, their language was related to the Luiseño language spoken by the nearby Luiseño tribe. The Acjachemen territory extended from Las Pulgas Creek in northern San Diego County up into the San Joaquin Hills along Orange County's central coast, inland from the Pacific Ocean up into the Santa Ana Mountains; the bulk of the population occupied the outlets of two large creeks, San Juan Creek and San Mateo Creek. The highest concentration of villages was along the lower San Juan, where Mission San Juan Capistrano was situated and is preserved today.
The Acjachemen resided in seasonal camps. Village populations ranged from between 35 and 300 inhabitants, consisting of a single lineage in the smaller villages, of a dominant clan joined with other families in the larger settlements; each clan was "politically" independent. The elite class, a middle class, people of disconnected or wandering families and captives of war comprised the three hierarchical social classes. Native leadership consisted of the Nota, or clan chief, who conducted community rites and regulated ceremonial life in conjunction with the council of elders, made up of lineage heads and ceremonial specialists in their own right; this body decided upon matters of the community, which were carried out by the Nota and his underlings. While the placement of residential huts in a village was not regulated, the ceremonial enclo
Yorba Linda, California
Yorba Linda is a suburban city in Orange County, California 37 miles southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The suburb's most famous resident was Richard Nixon, his birthplace is a National Historic Landmark, at his presidential library and museum located there. Yorba Linda is part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area according to the US Census; as of the 2010 census, its population was 64,234. This area was the home of the Luiseño, Juaneño Indians at one time. In 1834, Jose Antonio Yorba's most successful son, Bernardo Yorba, was granted the 13,328-acre Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana by Mexican governor José Figueroa. Most of this original land was retained after the Mexican–American War in 1848 by descendants of the Yorba family. A portion of the city's land is still owned and developed by descendants of Samuel Kraemer, who acquired it through his marriage to Angelina Yorba, the great-granddaughter of Bernardo Yorba; the site of the Bernardo Yorba Hacienda, referred to as the Don Bernardo Yorba Ranch House Site, is listed as a California Historical Landmark.
Near that same site sits the second oldest private cemetery in the county, the historic Yorba Cemetery. The land was given to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles by Bernardo Yorba in 1858 since Orange County was not established out of Los Angeles County as a separate county until 1889; the cemetery was subsequently vandalized. A section of the land was sold in 1907 by the Yorba family to Fullerton businessman Jacob Stern, who used the land for barley fields and sheep grazing. Stern subsequently sold the tract to the Janss Investment Company, which first called the area Yorba Linda, proceeded to subdivide the land and sell it for agriculture and manufacturing. In 1910, the agricultural aspect of that endeavor materialized, the first of many lemon and orange groves were planted: at the time, the population was still less than 50. A year The Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company began serving Yorba Linda, the first school was constructed. In 1912, several things happened in Yorba Linda: it received its first post office.
The area that would become downtown was connected to Los Angeles by the Pacific Electric Railway in 1912 for citrus transport. In 1913, Richard Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, the chamber of commerce was set up, a library opened as part of the school, avocado trees were first planted. A year a separate district was established for the library system. In 1915, the Susanna Bixby Bryant Ranch house was constructed, it is a museum, open to the public. In 1917, the first street was paved, Yorba Linda Boulevard; the Yorba Linda Star began publication also. It has since become an online section of the OC Register. A printed version of the Star is available at various city buildings free of charge and is delivered to every household in Yorba Linda each Thursday. Past articles are on microfilm at the Yorba Linda Public Library; the population exceeded 300 for the first time prior to 1920. In 1929, the citrus association's packing house burned down, it reopened the next year. During this period, the eastern two-thirds of Yorba Linda remained part of cattle and agricultural ranches controlled by pioneer families such as the Yorba, de los Reyes, Travis, Dominguez and Bryant ranches.
The small town had grown by the 1960s, with more than 1,000 residents by the 1960 Census. Three annexation attempts were made by adjoining cities: Brea in 1958 and Anaheim and Placentia in 1963; these experiences culminated in incorporation, which occurred in 1967. The new city implemented a municipal general plan in 1972. By the 1980 Census, the population was nearing 30,000. Within ten years it exceeded 50,000. In 1990, the Birthplace of Richard Nixon opened as museum, it would become a federal presidential library. In 1994, the community center opened. With over 20,000 housing units in the city as of 2016, many residents now oppose further urban development and have organized to reduce traffic congestion; the Yorba Linda Preservation Foundation seeks to protect historical buildings in the city. In 2005, CNN ranked Yorba Linda 21st among the best places in the U. S. to live. In 2012, Yorba Linda was ranked 42nd on Money magazine's list of America's best small cities. In an article by CNN Money, Yorba Linda was one of the richest U.
S. cities and the richest in Orange County as reported by the Census data, showing a median household income of more than $120K: "Among towns of between 65,000 and 250,000 in population, Yorba Linda, where six-figure incomes are the rule, had the highest median income at $121,075". Yorba Linda has been identified as one of the richest cities in the U. S. by the U. S. Census Bureau, which shows a median household income of $121,075, higher than any other city in 2006. In 2007, Yorba Linda High School broke ground after many years of planning. In November 2008, eastern Yorba Linda suffered from fires that destroyed 113 homes and damaged 50 others; the destruction was due to erratic winds causing embers to fly up to half a mile away. On February 3, 2019 at 1:45 pm a twin engine 1981 Cessna on route from Fullerton Municipal Airport to Nevada crashed from 7500 ft into a single family residence in the 19700 block of Crestknoll Drive near Glenknoll Eleme
Long Beach, California
Long Beach is a city on the Pacific Coast of the United States, within the Los Angeles metropolitan area of Southern California. As of 2010, its population was 462,257, it is the 7th most populous in California. Long Beach is the second-largest city in the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the third largest in Southern California behind Los Angeles and San Diego. Long Beach is a charter city; the Port of Long Beach is the second busiest container port in the United States and is among the world's largest shipping ports. The city maintains a progressively declining oil industry with minor wells located both directly beneath the city as well as offshore. Manufacturing sectors include those in aircraft, automotive parts, electronic equipment, audiovisual equipment, precision metals and home furnishings. Long Beach lies in the southeastern corner of borders Orange County. Downtown Long Beach is 22 miles south of downtown Los Angeles, though the two cities share an official border for several miles.
Indigenous people have lived in coastal Southern California for over 10,000 years, several successive cultures have inhabited the present-day area of Long Beach. By the 16th-century arrival of Spanish explorers, the dominant group was the Tongva people, they had at least three major settlements within the present-day city. Tevaaxa'anga was an inland settlement near the Los Angeles River, while Ahwaanga and Povuu'nga were coastal villages. Along with other Tongva villages, they were forced to relocate in the mid-19th century due to missionization, political change, a drastic drop in population from exposure to European diseases. In 1784 the Spanish Empire's King Carlos III granted Rancho Los Nietos to Spanish soldier Manuel Nieto; the Rancho Los Cerritos and Rancho Los Alamitos were divided from this territory. The boundary between the two ranchos ran through the center of Signal Hill on a southwest to northeast diagonal. A portion of western Long Beach was part of the Rancho San Pedro, its boundaries were in dispute for years, due to flooding changing the Los Angeles River boundary, between the ranchos of Juan Jose Dominguez and Manuel Nieto.
In 1843 Jonathan Temple bought Rancho Los Cerritos, having arrived in California in 1827 from New England. He built what is now known as the "Los Cerritos Ranch House", a still-standing adobe, a National Historic Landmark. Temple created a thriving cattle ranch and prospered, becoming the wealthiest man in Los Angeles County. Both Temple and his ranch house played important local roles in the Mexican–American War. On an island in the San Pedro Bay, Mormon pioneers made an abortive attempt to establish a colony. In 1866 Temple sold Rancho Los Cerritos for $20,000 to the Northern California sheep-raising firm of Flint, Bixby & Co, which consisted of brothers Thomas and Benjamin Flint and their cousin Lewellyn Bixby. Two years previous Flint, Bixby & Co had purchased along with Northern California associate James Irvine, three ranchos which would become the city that bears Irvine's name. To manage Rancho Los Cerritos, the company selected Lewellyn's brother Jotham Bixby, the "Father of Long Beach".
Three years Bixby bought into the property and would form the Bixby Land Company. In the 1870s as many as 30,000 sheep were kept at the ranch and sheared twice yearly to provide wool for trade. In 1880, Bixby sold 4,000 acres of the Rancho Los Cerritos to William E. Willmore, who subdivided it in hopes of creating a farm community, Willmore City, he failed and was bought out by a Los Angeles syndicate that called itself the "Long Beach Land and Water Company." They changed the name of the community at that time. The City of Long Beach was incorporated in 1897. Another Bixby cousin, John W. Bixby, was influential in the city. After first working for his cousins at Los Cerritos, J. W. Bixby leased land at Rancho Los Alamitos, he put together a group: banker I. W. Hellman and Jotham Bixby, him, to purchase the rancho. In addition to bringing innovative farming methods to the Alamitos, J. W. Bixby began the development of the oceanfront property near the city's picturesque bluffs. Under the name Alamitos Land Company, J.
W. Bixby laid out the parks of his new city; this area would include Belmont Shore and Naples. J. W. Bixby died in 1888 of apparent appendicitis; the Rancho Los Alamitos property was split up, with Hellman getting the southern third and Lewellyn, the northern third, J. W. Bixby's widow and heirs keeping the central third; the Alamitos townsite was kept as a separate entity, but at first, it was run by Lewellyn and Jotham Bixby, although I. W, Hellman had a significant veto power, an influence made stronger as the J. W. Bixby heirs began to side with Hellman more; when Jotham Bixby died in 1916, the remaining 3,500 acres of Rancho Los Cerritos was subdivided into the neighborhoods of Bixby Knolls, California Heights, North Long Beach and part of the city of Signal Hill. The town grew as a seaside resort with light agricultural uses; the Pike was the most famous beachside amusement zone on the West Coast from 1902 until 1969. The oil industry, Navy shipyard and facilities and port became the mainstays of the city.
In the 1950s it was referred to as "Iowa
Orange is a city located in Orange County, California. It is 3 miles north of the county seat, Santa Ana. Orange is unusual in this region because many of the homes in its Old Town District were built before 1920. While many other cities in the region demolished such houses in the 1960s, Orange decided to preserve them; the small city of Villa Park is surrounded by the city of Orange. The population was 139,812 as of 2014. Members of the Tongva and Juaneño/Luiseño ethnic group long inhabited this area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolá, an expedition out of San Blas, Mexico, led by Father Junípero Serra, named the area Vallejo de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the area's first permanent European settlement in Alta California, New Spain. In 1801, the Spanish Empire granted 62,500 acres to José Antonio Yorba, which he named Rancho San Antonio. Yorba's great rancho included the lands where the cities of Olive, Villa Park, Santa Ana, Costa Mesa and Newport Beach stand today.
Smaller ranchos evolved from this large rancho, including the Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana. Don Juan Pablo Grijalva, a retired known Spanish soldier and the area's first landowner, was granted permission in 1809 by the Spanish colonial government to establish a rancho in "the place of the Arroyo de Santiago." After the Mexican–American War, Alta California was ceded to the United States by México with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, though many Californios lost titles to their lands in the aftermath, Grijalva's descendants retained ownership through marriages to Anglo-Americans. Since at least 1864, Los Angeles attorneys Alfred Chapman and Andrew Glassell together and separately, held about 5,400 acres along both sides of the Santiago Creek. Water was the key factor for the location of their townsite. Glassell needed a spot he could irrigate, bringing water down from the Santa Ana Canyon and the quality of the soil may have influenced his choice; the community was named Richland, but in 1873 Richland got a new name.
In the book, "Orange, The City'Round The Plaza" by local historian Phil Brigandi, it states, "In 1873 the town had grown large enough to require a post office, so an application was sent to Washington. It was refused, however, as there was a Richland, California in Sacramento County. Undaunted, the Richlanders proposed a new name – Orange." The small town was incorporated on April 1888, under the general laws of the state of California. Orange was the only city in Orange County to be planned and built around a plaza, earned it the nickname Plaza City. Orange was the first developed town site to be served by the California Southern Railroad when the nation's second transcontinental rail line reached Orange County; the town experienced its first growth spurt during the last decade of the 19th century, thanks to ever-increasing demands for California-grown citrus fruits, a period some refer to as the "Orange Era." Southern California's real estate "boom" of 1886–1888, fueled by railroad rate wars contributed to a marked increase in population.
Like most cities in Orange County, agriculture formed the backbone of the local economy, growth thereafter was slow and steady until the 1950s, when a second real estate boom spurred development. Inspired by the development of a region-wide freeway system which connected Los Angeles' urban center with outlying areas like Orange, large tracts of housing were developed from the 1950s to the early 1970s, this continues today, albeit at a much slower pace, at the eastern edge of the city; the city has a total area of 25.2 square miles, 24.8 square miles of, land and 0.4 square miles of, water. The total area is 1.75% water. Southern California is well known for year-round pleasant weather: – On average, the warmest month is August. – The highest recorded temperature was 113 °F in June 2016. – On average, the coolest month is December. – The lowest recorded temperature was 29 °F in December 1990. – The maximum average precipitation occurs in January. The period of April through November is warm to hot and dry with average high temperatures of 74 to 84 °F and lows of 52 to 64 °F.
Due to the moderating effect of the ocean, temperatures are cooler than more inland areas of Orange County, where temperatures exceed 90 °F and reach 100 °F. The period of November through March is somewhat rainy; the Orange County area is subject to the phenomena typical of a microclimate. As such, the temperatures can vary as much as 18 °F between inland areas and the coast, with a temperature gradient of over 1 °F per mile from the coast inland. California has a weather phenomenon called "June Gloom" or "May Gray," which sometimes brings overcast or foggy skies in the morning on the coast, but gives way to sunny skies by noon, during late spring and early summer; the Orange County area averages 15 in of precipitation annually, which occurs during the winter and spring with light rain showers, but sometimes as heavy rainfall and thunderstorms. Coastal Torrance receives less rainfall, while the mountains receive more. Snowfall is rare in the city basin, but the mountains within city limits receive snowfall every winter.
Old Towne, Orange Historic District