Charles Moore (architect)
Charles Willard Moore was an American architect, writer, Fellow of the American Institute of Architects, winner of the AIA Gold Medal in 1991. Moore graduated from the University of Michigan in 1947 and earned both a Master's and a Ph. D at Princeton University in 1957, where he studied under Professor Jean Labatut, he remained for an additional year as a post-doctoral fellow, serving as a teaching assistant for Louis Kahn, the Philadelphia architect who taught a design studio. It was at Princeton that Moore developed relationships with his fellow students Donlyn Lyndon, William Turnbull, Jr. Richard Peters, Hugh Hardy, remained lifelong friends and collaborators. During the Princeton years, Moore designed and built a house for his mother in Pebble Beach and worked during the summers for architect Wallace Holm of neighboring Monterey. Moore's Master's Thesis explored ways to preserve and integrate Monterey's historic adobe dwellings into the fabric of the city, his Doctoral dissertation, "Water and Architecture", was a study of the importance of water in shaping the experience of place.
The dissertation is significant for being the first work of architectural scholarship to draw from the work of Gaston Bachelard, an early source for the architectural phenomenology movement. Many decades the dissertation became the basis of a book with the same title. In 1959, Moore began teaching at the University of California, Berkeley. Moore went on to become Dean of the Yale School of Architecture from 1965 through 1970, directly after the tenure of Paul Rudolph. In 1975, he moved to the University of Los Angeles where he continued teaching. In 1985, he became the O'Neil Ford Centennial Professor of Architecture at the University of Texas at Austin. Moore's outgoing and engaging personality and his dedication to innovation, collaboration and direct experience was sharp contrast to Rudolph's authoritarian approach. With Kent Bloomer, Moore founded the Yale Building Project in 1967 as a way both to demonstrate social responsibility and demystify the construction process for first-year students.
The project remains active at Yale. Moore opened a practice in New Haven, Connecticut and in the following years practiced under a confusing variety of professional configurations and names, including Moore, Turnbull, Whitaker, MLTW, Centerbrook Architects, Moore Ruble Yudell, Urban Innovations Group, Charles W. Moore Incorporated, Moore/Andersson; the constant changes resulted, in part, from Moore's extensive worldwide travel and his moves to California and to Austin, Texas. Moore preferred conspicuous design features, including loud color combinations, stylistic collisions, the re-use of esoteric historical-design solutions, the use of non-traditional materials such as plastic, PET film, platinum tiles, neon signs, As a result, his work provokes arousal, demands attention, sometimes tips over into kitsch, his mid-1960s New Haven residence, published in Playboy, featured an open, freestanding shower in the middle of the room, its water nozzled through a giant sunflower. Such design features made Moore one of the chief innovators of postmodern architecture, along with Robert Venturi and Michael Graves, among others.
Moore's Piazza d'Italia, an urban public plaza in New Orleans, made prolific use of his exuberant design vocabulary and is cited as the archetypal postmodern project. In addition to his influential work as an architect and university educator, Moore was a prolific author, publishing a dozen books. Many other books and articles document his designs; the Place of Houses Dimensions Body and Architecture The Poetics of Gardens The City Observed: Los Angeles Water and Architecture Chambers for a Memory Palace You Have To Pay For the Public Life: Selected Essays"Body and Architecture," written with Kent Bloomer during the Yale years, is a plea for architects to design structures for three-dimensional user experience instead of two-dimensional visual appearance. "The City Observed: Los Angeles" remains an excellent guide to Los Angeles' significant architecture. The Charles W. Moore Foundation was established in 1997 in Austin, Texas to preserve Moore's last home and studio, its non-profit programs include residencies, conferences and publication of PLACENOTES, a travel guide.
The influential Sea Ranch planned community in Sonoma County, California The Faculty Club at University of California, Santa Barbara, with William Turnbull Kresge College at University of California, Santa Cruz Leland Burns House, Pacific Palisades, The exuberant, postmodern archetype Piazza d'Italia, an urban public plaza in New Orleans, Louisiana University Extension at the University of California, Irvine The Beverly Hills Civic Center in Beverly Hills, California National Dong Hwa University, Taiwan Gethsemane Episcopal Cathedral, North Dakota The California Center for the Arts, Escondido in Escondido, California The Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley Lurie Tower at the University of Michigan The Preview Center in Celebration, Florida The Williams College Museum of Art addition in Williamstown, Massachusetts. His last work, the Washington State History Museum in Tacoma, Washington N
National Register of Historic Places listings in Connecticut
This is a list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Connecticut. There are more than 1,500 listed sites in Connecticut. All 8 counties in Connecticut have listings on the National Register; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are approximate tallies of current listings by county; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are approximate and not official. New entries are added to the official Register on a weekly basis; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number. The numbers of NRHP listings in each county are documented by tables in each of the individual county list-articles.
List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Connecticut List of National Historic Landmarks in Connecticut
National Register of Historic Places listings in Hawaii
This is a list of properties and historic districts in Hawaii listed on the National Register of Historic Places. More than 340 listings appear on all but one of Hawaii's main islands and the Northwestern Islands, in all of its five counties. Included are houses, archeological sites, ships and various other types of listings; these properties and districts are listed beginning at the northwestern end of the chain. This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019; the following are approximate tallies of current listings by county. These counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site, all of which list properties by county. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings, the counts here are approximate and not official. New entries are added to the official Register on a weekly basis; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number.
The number of NRHP listings on each island are documented by tables in each of the individual island lists, the number of listings in each county is determined by adding the totals of the islands in that county. Kalawao and Maui counties are the sole exception: Kalawao County is a peninsula on Molokai, otherwise a part of Maui County. Many small islands, all uninhabited, lie northwest of Kauai, they are included despite the vast distance between them and Oahu. Kauai is the northernmost of the major islands of Hawaii, except for Niihau, the westernmost. Together with Niihau, it forms Kauai County. Oahu is the only major island in Honolulu County; the location of the city of Honolulu, Oahu is the most populous island in the state. Molokai is the northernmost of the islands of Maui County. Unlike every other island in the state, it is divided between two counties: Kalawao County consists of the island's northern peninsula. Lanai is the smallest of the populated islands of Maui County, lying between the islands of Maui and Molokai.
Maui is the easternmost island of Maui County. Kahoolawe is the southernmost island of Maui County. Alone among the state's major islands, it is uninhabited; the government of the island of Hawaii is Hawaii County, the only county that covers one island, the largest in area in the state. There are 67 properties and districts on the island, including 10 historic districts, six National Historic Landmarks, one, a National Historic Landmark District. Historic Hawaii Foundation Inventory of Historic Properties on official Hawaii State web site
1925 Santa Barbara earthquake
The 1925 Santa Barbara earthquake hit the area of Santa Barbara, California on June 29, with a moment magnitude between 6.5 and 6.8 and a maximum Mercalli Intensity of IX. It resulted in 13 casualties and destroyed the historic center of the city, with damage estimated at $8 million. Although no foreshocks were reported felt before the mainshock, a pressure gauge recording card at the local waterworks showed disturbances beginning at 3:27 a.m. which were caused by foreshocks. At 6:44 a.m. the mainshock occurred. The epicenter of the earthquake was located in the sea off the coast of Santa Barbara, in the Santa Barbara Channel; the fault on which it occurred appears to have been an extension of the Mesa fault or the Santa Ynez system. The earthquake was felt from Paso Robles to the north to Santa Ana to the south and to Mojave to the east. Major damage occurred in the city of Santa Barbara and along the coast, as well as north of Santa Ynez Mountains, including Santa Ynez and Santa Maria valleys.
Though thirteen people died, it may have been far worse without the actions of three heroes, who shut off the town gas and electricity preventing a catastrophic fire. Most homes survived the earthquake in good condition, although nearly every chimney in the city crumbled; the downtown of Santa Barbara was destroyed. Only a few buildings along State Street, the main commercial street, remained standing after the earthquake; the City Cab building and The Californian and Arlington garages, all large and occupied parking structures, collapsed full with cars. Many other vehicles were crushed in the downtown area. At least one death resulted when a driver near the San Marcos building was crushed as walls of buildings fell onto cars parked there. In the business district, an area of about 36 blocks, only a few structures were not damaged, many had to be demolished and rebuilt; the facade of the church of the Mission Santa Barbara was damaged and lost its statues. Many important buildings, including hotels and the Potter Theater, were lost.
The courthouse, library and churches were among the buildings sustaining serious damage. Concrete curbs buckled in every block in Santa Barbara. Pavement on the boulevard along the beach was displaced by about 20–36 centimeters, but the pavement in the downtown was not damaged; the earthen Sheffield Dam had been built near the city in 1917. It held 30 million US gallons of water; the soil under the dam liquefied during the earthquake and the dam collapsed. This was the only dam to fail during an earthquake in the US until the Lower San Fernando Dam failed in 1971; when it burst, a wall of water swept between Voluntario and Alisos Streets destroying trees, three houses and flooding the lower part of town to a depth of 2 feet. The Southern Pacific Company Railroad tracks were damaged in several places between Ventura and Gaviota. In particular, a portion between Naples and Santa Barbara was badly displaced. Seaside bluffs fell into the ocean, a slight tsunami was noted by offshore ships; the town was cut off from telephone and telegraph, news from the outside world arrived by shortwave radio.
The absence of post-earthquake fire permitted scientists to study earthquake damage to various types of construction. The American Legion and the Naval Reserves from the Naval Reserve Center Santa Barbara helped provide order amidst the chaos and manned posts and provided patrols throughout the town to inhibit looting of the damaged businesses and homes. Additional fire and police personnel arrived from as far as Los Angeles to assist the sailors and soldiers in maintaining order. Three strong aftershocks occurred in the next few hours, though none causing any additional damage, with events occurring at 8:08, 10:45, 10:57 am, many smaller shocks continued throughout the day. An aftershock on July 3 caused damaged chimneys. Since the downtown of Santa Barbara suffered irreparable damage, there was a large-scale construction effort in 1925 and 1926 aimed at removing or repairing damaged structures and constructing new buildings; this development altered the character of the city center. Before the earthquake, a considerable part of the center was built in the Moorish Revival style.
After the earthquake, the decision was made to rebuild it in the Spanish Colonial Revival style. This effort was undertaken by the Santa Barbara Community Arts Association, founded in the beginning of the 1920s and viewed the earthquake as the opportunity to rebuild the city center in the unified architectural style. Many architects were invited to design the building facades, among them James Osborne Craig, George Washington Smith, Carleton Winslow, Bertram Goodhue, Winsor Soule. Lionel Pries spent a year in Santa Barbara; as a result, many buildings listed on National Register of Historic Places were designed in the late 1920s, among them the Santa Barbara County Courthouse and the front of the Andalucia Building. Building codes in Santa Barbara were made more stringent after the earthquake demonstrated that traditional construction techniques of unreinforced concrete and masonry were unsafe and unlikely to survive strong temblors. List of earthquakes in 1925 List of earthquakes in California List of earthquakes in the United States Sources 1925 Santa Barbara Earthquake Survivor interview Views of Earthquake Damage in Santa Barbara, California 1925, finding aid and online photo collection, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley M 6.8 - 14km SSE of Isla Vista, CA
National Register of Historic Places listings in Michigan
This is a list of properties on the National Register of Historic Places in the U. S. state of Michigan. This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. There are no sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Gladwin County. There are no sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Kalkaska County. There are no sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Montmorency County. There are no sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Ogemaw County. There are no sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Osceola County. List of National Historic Landmarks in Michigan List of Michigan State Historic Markers List of Michigan State Historic Sites
National Register of Historic Places property types
The U. S. National Register of Historic Places classifies its listings by various types of properties. Listed properties fall into one of five categories, though there are special considerations for other types of properties which do not fit into these five broad categories or fit into more specialized subcategories; the five general categories for NRHP properties are: building, object and structure. Listed properties fall into one of five categories, though there are special considerations for other types of properties which do not fit into these five broad categories or fit into more specialized subcategories; the five general categories for NRHP properties are: building, object and district. I When multiple like properties are submitted as a group and listed together, they are known as a Multiple Property Submission. Buildings, as defined by the National Register, are structures intended to shelter some sort of human activity. Examples include a house, hotel, church or similar construction.
The term building, as in outbuilding, can be used to refer to and functionally related units, such as a courthouse and a jail, or a barn and a house. Buildings included on the National Register of Historic Places must have all of their basic structural elements as parts of buildings, such as ells and wings; as such, the whole building is considered during the nomination and its significant features must be identified. If a nominated building has lost any of its basic structural elements, it is considered a ruin and categorized as a site; the National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition, a historic district is: "a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. In addition, historic districts consist of non-contributing properties.
Historic districts possess a concentration, linkage or continuity of the other four types of properties. Objects, structures and sites within a historic district are thematically linked by architectural style or designer, date of development, distinctive urban plan, and/or historic associations." For example, the largest collection of houses from 17th and 18th century America are found in the McIntire Historic District in Salem, Massachusetts. Some NRHP-listed historic districts are further designated as National Historic Landmarks, termed National Historic Landmark Districts. All National Historic Landmarks are NRHP-listed. A contributing property is any building, object or site within the boundaries of the district which reflects the significance of the district as a whole, either because of historic associations, historic architectural qualities or archaeological features. Another key aspect of the contributing property is historic integrity. Significant alterations to a property can damage its physical connections with the past, lowering its historic integrity.
Objects are artistic in nature, or small in scale when compared to structures and buildings. Though objects may be movable, they are associated with a specific setting or environment. Examples of objects include monuments and fountains. Objects considered for inclusion on the NRHP, whether individually or as part of districts, should be designed for a specific location. Fixed outdoor sculpture, an example of public art, is appropriate for inclusion on the Register; the setting of an object is important in relation to the Register. It should be appropriate to roles, or character. In addition, objects that have been relocated to museums are not considered for inclusion on the Register. Sites may include discrete areas significant for activities in that location in the past, such as battlefields, significant archaeological finds, designed landscapes, other locations whose significance is not related to a building or structure. Sites possess significance for their potential to yield information in the future, though they are added to the Register under all four of the criteria for inclusion.
A sites need not have actual physical remains if it marks the location of a prehistoric or historic event, or if there were no buildings or structures present at the time of the events marked by the site. Site determination requires careful evaluation when the location of prehistoric or historic events cannot be conclusively determined. Structures differ from buildings, in that they are functional constructions meant to be used for purposes other than sheltering human activity. Examples include, a ship, a grain elevator, a gazebo and a bridge; the criteria of significance are applied to nominated structures in much the same fashion as they are for buildings. The basic structural elements must all be intact. An example would be a truss bridge being considered for inclusion. Said truss bridge is composed of metal or wooden truss and supporting piers. Structures that have lost their historic configuration or pattern of organization through demolition or deterioration, much like buildings, are considered ruins and classified as sites.
There are several other types of properties that do not fall neatly into the categories listed abo
National Register of Historic Places listings in Arkansas
This is a list of properties and historic districts in Arkansas that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are more than 2,600 listings in the state, including at least 8 listings in each of Arkansas's 75 counties; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are tallies of current listings in Arkansas on the National Register of Historic Places; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are not official; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number. List of National Historic Landmarks in Arkansas List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Arkansas