Paraíba do Sul
The Paraíba do Sul, or termed Paraíba, is a river in southeast Brazil. It flows 1,137 km west to northeast from its farthest source at the source of the river Paraitinga to the sea near Campos dos Goytacazes; the river receives its name. Its main tributaries are the rivers Jaguari, Paraibuna, Preto and Muriaé; these last two join the main river 140 km and 50 km from the mouth respectively. The valley of the Paraíba do Sul is porrathe latitudes 20°26' and 23°39'S and the longitudes of 41° and 46°30'W and covers an area of about 57,000 km2 distributed over three states; the main economic activities are industry and cattle raising. Presently only two parts of the river can be navigated: The lower section, between the mouth and São Fidélis, about 90 km, it has a declivity of 22 cm/km. There is incipient navigation carried out by small boats that transport construction material to the city of Campos dos Goytacazes; the upper middle section, between Cachoeira Paulista and Guararema, about 280 km. Despite the small declivity of 19 cm/km, navigation is restricted to tourist boats.
Elsewhere navigation is hampered by various obstacles. Other factors impeding navigation are the existence of highway and railway bridges, the proximity of roads and railways following the riverbank and the location of several cities on its banks; the Paraíba Valley is fertile and has always been a region of dense population. Cities located on or near the river are State of Rio de Janeiro: Barra do Piraí Barra Mansa Três Rios Paraiba do Sul Sapucaia Campos dos Goytacazes - center of a rich sugar cane growing area Vassouras - site of a respected agricultural university Volta Redonda - site of Brazil's first steel industry) State of São Paulo: Aparecida - site of Brazil's most famous Marian pilgrimage site Guaratinguetá São José dos Campos - high-tech industry and home to Embraer, Brazil's aircraft manufacturer Taubaté - Volkswagen and Ford plants State of Minas Gerais: Além Paraíba Estrela Dalva Juiz de Fora - Important manufacturing city on the Paraibuna River, one of the major tributaries of the Paraíba.
Unlike rivers in northern Brazil where seasonal variations in water temperature are limited, those in southern Brazil, such as Paraíba do Sul, exhibit distinct differences between winter and summer. During a survey of the river in Lorena, São Paulo, the water varied from 26.6 °C in the summer to 15.2 °C in the winter. The pH is neutral and fluctuates between 6 and 8; the Paraíba do Sul basin is home to just above 100 native fish species with most in the families Loricariidae and Trichomycteridae. About 40% of the fish species in the river basin are endemic and new species have been discovered in recent years, including the small catfish Pareiorhina hyptiorhachis that only was scientifically described in 2013; as a consequence of flowing through one of the most densely populated and industrialised parts of Brazil, the Paraíba do Sul suffers from pollution. Studies of the native cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis have found that levels of some heavy metals exceed the limits set by the Brazilian Food Legislation.
Other threats are dams and the 70 introduced species, including 46 species of non-native fish and the parasitic copepod Lernaea cyprinacea. Several native species are threatened, a general fall in abundance and species richness has been observed. Some, such as the endemic Hypostomus auroguttatus, have adapted to the changes; the catfish Potamarius grandoculis is only known from the vicinity of the mouth of the Paraíba do Sul and Doce Rivers, but it may be extinct. Other threatened species in the Paraíba do Sul basin are the bivalves Diplodon dunkerianus, D. expansus and D. fontaineanus, the Hoge's side-necked turtle. A national conservation plan with recommendations for the river basin was published in 2010
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry and housing. A metro area comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, boroughs, towns, suburbs, districts and nations like the eurodistricts; as social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not urban in character, but bound to the center by employment or other commerce; these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since and more are expected; because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but surrounding suburban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas; the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions"; each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports, their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved.
They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by supercity or megacity, or a large metropolis playing a leading part, within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."
The European Union's statistical agency, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone. The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine; this statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. In German definition, metropolian areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany, they comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In India, a metropolitan city is defin
Rodovia Ayrton Senna
Rodovia Ayrton Senna da Silva, is a highway in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The highway begins in the Eastern region of city of São Paulo and ends at the county of Guararema, merging with Rodovia Presidente Dutra; the cities served by Rodovia Ayrton Senna are Guarulhos, Mogi das Cruzes, Suzano, Poá and Guararema. It continues in the same direction into Rodovia Carvalho Pinto, which has the same SP-070 designation, in parallel with Dutra Highway. Near São Paulo, special highway engineering techniques had to be used, in order to cross the natural swamp area by the Tietê River without damaging the nearby ecosystem, its main traffic nowadays is between the São Paulo/Guarulhos International Airport. The highway is named in honour of Ayrton Senna, it was managed and maintained by DERSA, a state-owned company, until June 18, 2009. It is now maintained by Ecopistas. On August 3, 1979, Decree No. 13,756, gave concession to DERSA for construction and exploration of the Eastern Road, now called the Ayrton Senna Highway.
The highway, former Trabajadores, had the first stretch of São Paulo-Guararema built by DERSA in 22 months - from June 1980 to April 30, 1982 -, has a length of 48.3 km, to which were added 5, corresponding to the interconnection with the Presidente Dutra Highway in which it has the name of Access SP 070 / BR-116. The inauguration took place on May 1, 1982; the work met a historical need, determined by the growth of the São Paulo Metropolitan Region with access to the Tietê Ecological Park, São Paulo / Guarulhos International Airport and Intermodal Cargo Terminal. In addition to alleviating the traffic that congested the Presidente Dutra Highway in the busiest section, the Highway became the long-needed alternative between the city of São Paulo and the Vale do Paraíba and Rio de Janeiro, it began to facilitate tourism to the North Coast and Campos do Jordão. Since June 18, 2009, the concessionaire Ecopistas, of the EcoRodovias Group, is responsible for the management and administration of the highways that make up the Ayrton Senna / Carvalho Pinto Corridor: the SP-70, which links the city of São Paulo and Valley of the Paraíba, with 140 km of extension.
Highway system of São Paulo Brazilian Highway System
Salesópolis is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. It is part of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo; the population is 16,688 in an area of 424.997 km². Salesópolis sits at an elevation of 850 metres, it is noted for being the source of the Tietê River. Salesópolis was founded in the 19th century as São José do Paraitinga, became the parish of Santana de Mogi das Cruzes in 1838; the parish was elevated to municipality status on March 24, 1857, but renamed Salesópolis in 1905 after a visit of the president of Brazil, Campos Sales. The Tietê River flows in the northern part of the municipality, much of the southern part of the municipality is mountainous forested, inaccessible; the Atlantic Forest of Salesópolis were destroyed in the late 19th and early 20th century, but 96 ha of the municipality are now protected as part of the Boracéia Biological Station, a unit of the Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo established in 1954. Salesópolis is home to the Buchenavia rabelloana, a species of plant in the Combretaceae family.
The species is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Official website citybrazil.com.br
São Paulo (state)
São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus. As the richest Brazilian state and a major industrial complex dubbed the "locomotive of Brazil", the state is responsible for 33.9% of the Brazilian GDP. São Paulo has the second highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita, the fourth lowest infant mortality rate, the third highest life expectancy, the third lowest rate of illiteracy among the federative units of Brazil, being by far, the safest state in the country; the homicide rate is 3.8 per 100 thousand as of 2018 1/4 of the Brazilian rate. São Paulo alone is richer than Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia combined. If São Paulo were an independent country, its nominal GDP would be ranked among the top 20 in the world; the economy of São Paulo State is the most developed in Brazil. With more than 45 million inhabitants in 2017, São Paulo is the most populous Brazilian state, the most populous national subdivision in the Americas, the third most populous political unit of South America, surpassed only by the rest of the Brazilian Federation and Colombia.
The local population is one of the most diverse in the country and descended from Italians, who began immigrating to the country in the late 19th century. In addition, Germans, Japanese and Greeks are present in the ethnic composition of the local population; the area that today corresponds to the state territory was inhabited by indigenous peoples from 12,000 BC. In the early 16th century, the coast of the region was visited by Portuguese and Spanish explorers and navigators. In 1532 Martim Afonso de Sousa would establish the first Portuguese permanent settlement in the Americas—the village of São Vicente, in the Baixada Santista. In the 17th century, the paulistas bandeirantes intensified the exploration of the interior of the colony, which expanded the territorial domain of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire in South America. In the 18th century, after the establishment of the Province of São Paulo, the region began to gain political weight. After independence in 1820, São Paulo began to become a major agricultural producer in the newly constituted Empire of Brazil, which created a rich regional rural oligarchy, which would switch on the command of the Brazilian government with Minas Gerais's elites during the early republican period in the 1880s.
Under the Vargas Era, the state was one of the first to initiate a process of industrialization and its population became one of the most urban of the federation. The city of São Paulo, the homonymous state capital, is ranked as the world's 12th largest city and its metropolitan area, with 20 million inhabitants, is the 9th largest in the world and second in the Americas, after Greater Mexico City. Regions near the city of São Paulo are metropolitan areas, such as Campinas, Sorocaba and São José dos Campos; the total population of these areas coupled with the state capital—the so-called "Expanded Metropolitan Complex of São Paulo"—exceeds 30 million inhabitants, i.e. 75 percent of the population of São Paulo statewide, the first macro-metropolis in the southern hemisphere, joining 65 municipalities that together are home to 12 percent of the Brazilian population. In pre-European times, the area, now São Paulo state was occupied by the Tupi people's nation, who subsisted through hunting and cultivation.
The first European to settle in the area was João Ramalho, a Portuguese sailor who may have been shipwrecked around 1510, ten years after the first Portuguese landfall in Brazil. He became a settler. In 1532, the first colonial expedition, led by Martim Afonso de Sousa of Portugal, landed at São Vicente. De Sousa added Ramalho's settlement to his colony. Early European colonisation of Brazil was limited. Portugal was more interested in Asia, but with English and French raiding privateer ships just off the coast, the territory had to be protected. Unwilling to shoulder the burden of naval defence himself, the Portuguese ruler, King Joao III, divided the coast into "captaincies", or swathes of land, 50 leagues apart, he distributed them among well-connected Portuguese. The early port and sugar-cultivating settlement of São Vicente was one rare success connected to this policy. In 1548, João III brought Brazil under direct royal control. Fearing Indian attack, he discouraged development of the territory's vast interior.
Some whites headed nonetheless for Piratininga, a plateau near São Vicente, drawn by its navigable rivers and agricultural potential. Borda do Campo, the plateau settlement, became an official town in 1553; the history of São Paulo city proper begins with the founding of a Jesuit mission of the Roman Catholic order of clergy on January 25, 1554—the anniversary of Saint Paul's conversion. The station, at the heart of the current city, was named São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga. In 1560, the threat of Indian attack led many to flee from the exposed Santo André da Borda do Campo to the walled fortified Colegio. Two years the Colégio was besieged. Though the town survived, fighting took place sporadically for another three decades. By 1600, the town had about 1,500 citizens and 150 household
Municipalities of Brazil
The municipalities of Brazil are administrative divisions of the Brazilian states. At present, Brazil has 5,570 municipalities, making the average municipality population 34,361; the average state in Brazil has 214 municipalities. Roraima is the least subdivided state, with 15 municipalities, while Minas Gerais is the most subdivided state, with 853; the Federal District cannot be divided into municipalities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, the Federal District assumes the same constitutional and legal powers and obligations of the states and municipalities, instead, it is divided by administrative regions. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution treats the municipalities as parts of the Federation and not dependent subdivisions of the states; each municipality has an autonomous local government, comprising a mayor and a legislative body called municipal chamber. Both the local government and the legislative body are directly elected by the population every four years; these elections take place at the same time all over the country.
Each municipality has the constitutional power to approve its own laws, as well as collecting taxes and receiving funds from the state and federal governments. However, municipal governments have no judicial power, courts are only organised at the state or federal level. A subdivision of the state judiciary, or comarca, can either correspond to an individual municipality or encompass several municipalities; the seat of the municipal administration is a nominated city, with no specification in the law about the minimum population, area or facilities. The city always has the same name as the municipality. Municipalities can be subdivided, only for administrative purposes, into districts. Other populated sites with no legal effect or regulation. All municipalities are subdivided into neighbourhoods, although most municipalities do not define their neighbourhood limits. Municipalities can be split or merged to form new municipalities within the borders of the state, if the population of the involved municipalities expresses a desire to do so in a plebiscite.
However, these must abide by the Brazilian Constitution, forming exclaves or seceding from the state or union is expressly forbidden. Municipalities of Acre Municipalities of Alagoas Municipalities of Amapá Municipalities of Amazonas Municipalities of Bahia Municipalities of Ceará Municipalities of Espírito Santo Municipalities of Goiás Municipalities of Maranhão Municipalities of Mato Grosso Municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul Municipalities of Minas Gerais Municipalities of Pará Municipalities of Paraíba Municipalities of Paraná Municipalities of Pernambuco Municipalities of Piauí Municipalities of Rio de Janeiro Municipalities of Rio Grande do Norte Municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul Municipalities of Rondônia Municipalities of Roraima Municipalities of Santa Catarina Municipalities of São Paulo Municipalities of Sergipe Municipalities of Tocantins Lists of cities List of largest cities in Brazil List of municipalities of Brazil Administrative region Map on the World Gazetteer at Archive.today Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
Southeast Region, Brazil
The Southeast Region of Brazil is composed by the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It is the richest region of the country, responsible for 60% of the Brazilian GDP. São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais are three richest states of Brazil, the top three Brazilian states in terms of GDP; the Southeast of Brazil has the highest GDP per capita among all Brazilian regions. The Southeast region leads the country in population, urban population, population density, industries, airports, highways, schools and many other areas. São Paulo Heart of the largest continued remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, the Ribeira Valley is a Natural Heritage of Humanity, granted heritage as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. One of the biggest attractions is the biologic and ecosystems diversity, where 400 species of birds, amphibians and mammals live; the Alto Ribeira Tourist State Park is paradise for ecotourists, for its enormous diversity in geologic formations, among grottos and caves and waterfalls.
There are 454 caves registered by the Brazilian Society of Speleology in the State of São Paulo, all at the Ribeira Valley. The 280 caves located at PETAR represent the biggest concentration of caves in Brazil. Minas Gerais The landscape of the State is marked by mountains and caverns. In the Serra do Cipó, Sete Lagoas and Lagoa Santa, the caves and waterfalls. Minas Gerais is the source of some of the biggest rivers in Brazil, most notably the São Francisco, the Paraná and to a lesser extent, the Rio Doce; the state holds many hydroelectric power plants, including Furnas dam. Some of the highest peaks in Brazil are in the mountain ranges in the southern part of the state, such as Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Cervo, that mark the border between Minas and its neighbors São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro; the most notable one is the Pico da Bandeira, the third highest mountain in Brazil at 2890 m, standing on the border with Espírito Santo state. The state has huge reserves of iron and sizeable reserves of gold and gemstones, including emerald and aquamarine mines.
Rio de Janeiro The state is part of the Mata Atlântica biome, its topography comprises both mountains and plains, located between the Mantiqueira Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. Its coast is carved by the bays of Guanabara and Ilha Grande. There are prominent slopes near the ocean, featuring diverse environments, such as restinga vegetation, bays and tropical forests. Rio de Janeiro is one of the smallest in Brazil, it has, the third longest coastline in the country, extending 635 kilometers. Espírito Santo With 46.180 square kilometers, it is about the size of Estonia, or half the size of Portugal, has a variety of habitats including coastal plains, mountain forest and many others. The main river in the state is the Doce. Other important river basins include the Santa Maria River Basin, the northern branch of rivers which join the sea at Vitoria, Jucu River Basin which flows into the sea at the same place, but corresponds to the southern branch. Espírito Santo's climate is tropical with dry winters and rainy summers.
North of Doce River it's drier and hot. In the mountainous regions in the south and south west of the state, the tropical climate is influenced by altitude, the average temperatures are colder; the state can be divided into two areas: the low lying coastline and the highland area known as Serra, part of the larger Serra do Caparaó, the Caparaó Mountain Range. In the map to the right it is in the gray area in the extreme southwest of the state, is shared with Minas Gerais. São Paulo state is responsible for one-third of Brazilian GDP; the state's GDP consists of 550 billion dollars, making it the second biggest economy of South America after Brazil and the biggest subdivision economy in Latin America. Its economy is based on machinery, the automobile and aviation industries, financial companies, textiles, orange growing, sugar cane and coffee production. Minas Gerais is a growing state. Vehicles: 36,030,943. Portuguese is the official national language, thus the primary language taught in schools.
English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. French is widely studied. Universidade de São Paulo. São Paulo São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport connects Brazil to 28 countries and is visited every day by nearly 100 thousand people. With capacity to serve 15 million passengers a year, in two terminals, the airport handles 12 million users. Construction of a third passenger terminal is pending, to raise yearly capacity to 29 million passengers; the project, in the tendering phase, is part of the