OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
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Western Refrigerator Line
Two distinct and separate railroad refrigerator car companies have operated under the name Western Refrigerator Line. The first, the Western Refrigerator Line was a refrigerator car leasing company founded by the Western Pacific Railroad on January 1, 1923 to service the fruit and green vegetable farmers in California's Central Valley. In early 1924, the WP and Pacific Fruit Express entered into an agreement whereby the PFE would handle all of Western Pacific's perishable goods. All of the WP's 2,000 pieces of existing rolling stock were placed into PFE's car pool, including an additional 775 units ordered that year. All cars delivered prior to the agreement were painted yellow with black ends and roofs, were lettered "Western Refrigerator Line," and bore a diamond-shaped herald formed by the words "Perishable Products" surrounding the letters "WRL." Units arriving after the contract's execution were painted yellow-orange, were lettered and numbered according to PFE's classification, were emblazoned with WP's "Feather River Route" emblem on each side.
After three decades of service, 900 of the best cars were reconditioned at PFE's Roseville, California shops. The units were outfitted with electrically powered circulation fans and other improvements required to bring them up to current standards. By 1967, all but a few of the cars had been retired. Facing the need to invest millions of dollars toward the purchase of new, mechanically cooled refrigerator cars, the Western Pacific chose instead to become a partner in the PFE's rival Fruit Growers Express in June of that year. A handful of the original wood refrigerator cars were converted for ice service on the WP system; the Western Refrigerator Line Company was established in 1929 to operate a 500-car fleet of reefers for the Green Bay and Western Railroad. WRX was headquartered at Norwood Yard in Green Bay, Wisconsin until the property was purchased by the GBW in the 1960s. WRX rolling stock sported the GBW's "Green Bay Route" emblem. By 1981, the WRX had become part of the Burlington Northern Railroad.
Western Refrigerator Line Company Roster, 1930–1970: Source: The Great Yellow Fleet, p. 17. White, John H.. The Great Yellow Fleet. Golden West Books, San Marino, CA. ISBN 0-87095-091-6. Template:White – American railroad freight car History of the Green Bay Route: Western Refrigerator Line Company
San Marino, California
San Marino is a residential city in Los Angeles County, United States. It was incorporated on April 25, 1913. With a median home price of $2,431,900, San Marino is one of the most expensive and exclusive communities in the United States; the city takes its name from the ancient Republic of San Marino, founded by Saint Marinus who fled his home in Dalmatia at the time of the Diocletianic Persecution of Christians. Marinus took refuge at Monte Titano on the Italian peninsula, where he built a chapel and founded a monastic community in 301 A. D; the state which grew from the monastery is the world's oldest surviving republic. The seal of the City of San Marino, California is modeled on that of the republic, depicting the Three Towers of San Marino each capped with a bronze plume, surrounded by a heart-shaped scroll with two roundels and a lozenge at the top; the crown representing the monarchy on the original was replaced with five stars representing the five members of the City's governing body.
Beneath the city's seal are crossed palm fronds and orange branches. The city celebrated its centennial in 2013, including publication by the San Marino Historical Society of a 268-page book, San Marino, A Centennial History, by Elizabeth Pomeroy. In September 2014, this book and author Elizabeth Pomeroy received a prestigious Award of Merit for Leadership in History from the American Association for State and Local History; the site of San Marino was occupied by a village of Tongva Indians located where the Huntington School is today. The area was part of the lands of the San Gabriel Mission. Principal portions of San Marino were included in an 1838 Mexican land grant of 128 acres to Victoria Bartolmea Reid, a Gabrieleña Indian.. She called the property Rancho Huerta de Cuati. After Hugo Reid's death in 1852, Señora Reid sold her rancho in 1854 to Don Benito Wilson, the first Anglo owner of Rancho San Pascual. In 1873, Don Benito conveyed to his son-in-law, James DeBarth Shorb, 500 acres, including Rancho Huerta de Cuati, which Shorb named "San Marino" after his grandfather's plantation in Maryland, which, in turn, was named after the Republic of San Marino located on the Italian Peninsula in Europe.
In 1903, the Shorb rancho was purchased by Henry E. Huntington, who built a large mansion on the property; the site of the Shorb/Huntington rancho is occupied today by the Huntington Library, which houses a world-renowned art collection and rare-book library, botanical gardens. In 1913 the three primary ranchos of Wilson and Huntington, together with the subdivided areas from those and smaller ranchos, such as the Stoneman and Rose ranchos, were incorporated as the city of San Marino; the first mayor of the city of San Marino was George Smith Patton. The son of a slain Confederate States of America colonel in the U. S. Civil War, Patton graduated from the Virginia Military Institute in 1877, just before moving west, he married the daughter of Don Benito Wilson. Their son was George S. Patton, Junior. To a prior generation of Southern Californians, San Marino was known for its old-money wealth and as a bastion of the region's WASP gentry. By mid-century, other European ethnic groups had become the majority.
The city is located in the San Rafael Hills, is divided into seven zones, based on minimum lot size. The smallest lot size is about 4,500 square feet, with many averaging over 30,000 square feet; because of this and other factors, most of the homes in San Marino, built between 1920 and 1950, do not resemble the houses in surrounding Southern California neighborhoods. San Marino has fostered a sense of historic preservation among its homeowners. With minor exceptions, the city's strict design review and zoning laws have thus far prevented the development of large homes found elsewhere in Los Angeles. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.8 square miles all land. San Marino is restrictive of commercial operations in the city, it is one of the few cities that requires commercial vehicles to have permits to work within the city. The rationale is that commercial vehicle operators and service providers, such as gardeners, pool service providers and maintenance workers, are more to cause social disruption within the city, so must be preauthorized for crime control and prosecutorial purposes.
This regulation and others, including the bans on apartment buildings and overnight parking, are some of the more obvious examples. The 2010 United States Census reported that San Marino had a population of 13,147; the population density was 3,483.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Marino was 5,434 White, 55 African American, 5 Native American, 7,039 Asian, 2 Pacific Islander, 198 from other races, 414 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 855 persons; the census reported that 13,066 people lived in households, 81 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 4,330 households, out
Western Fruit Express
Western Fruit Express was a railroad refrigerator car leasing company formed by the Fruit Growers Express and the Great Northern Railway on July 18, 1923 in order to compete with the Pacific Fruit Express and Santa Fe Refrigerator Despatch in the Western United States. The arrangement added 3,000 cars to the FGE's existing equipment pool, it is now a wholly owned subsidiary of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Corporation, the Great Northern's successor. The success of the WFE led to the creation of the Burlington Refrigerator Express in May 1926. Western Fruit Express Roster, 1930–1970: Source: The Great Yellow Fleet, p. 17. White, John H.. The Great Yellow Fleet. Golden West Books, San Marino, CA. ISBN 0-87095-091-6. White, John H. Jr.. The American Railroad Freight Car: From the Wood-Car Era to the Coming of Steel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4404-5. OCLC 26130632; the Florida Railroad Company Inc. / The Fruit Growers Express Company History of FGE
American Refrigerator Transit Company
The American Refrigerator Transit Company was a St. Louis, Missouri-based private refrigerator car line established in 1881 by the Missouri Pacific and Wabash railroads, it is now a subsidiary of the Union Pacific Corporation. American Refrigerator Transit Company, 1900–1970: *estimated. Source: The Great Yellow Fleet, p. 16. Green, Gene "Refrigerator Car Color Guide", Morning Sun Books, Scotch Plains, NJ. ISBN 1-58248-165-2. White, John W.. The Great Yellow Fleet. Golden West Books, San Marino, CA. ISBN 0-87095-091-6. White, John H. Jr.. The American Railroad Freight Car: From the Wood-Car Era to the Coming of Steel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4404-5. OCLC 26130632
Railway Express Agency
The Railway Express Agency, founded as the American Railway Express Agency and renamed the American Railway Express Inc. was a national package delivery service that operated in the United States from 1918 to 1975. REA arranged transport and delivery via existing railroad infrastructure, much as today's UPS or DHL companies use roads and air transport, it was created through the forced consolidation of existing services into a federal near-monopoly to ensure the rapid and safe movement of parcels and goods during World War I. REA ceased operations in 1975. Express delivery in the early 19th century was all by horse, whether by stagecoach or riders; the first parcel express agency in the United States is considered to have been started by William Frederick Harnden, who in 1839 began regular trips between New York City and Boston, Massachusetts, as a courier transporting small parcels and other valuables. Another one, Wells Fargo & Co. was founded in 1853. Other early express companies included Adams Express Company.
The express business flourished in the latter half of the 19th century, by 1900 there were four principal parcel express companies, all of which included the advancing railways as one of their means of transport: Adams Express Company, Southern Express Company, American Express Company, Wells Fargo. Another competitor arrived in 1913: the U. S. Post Office with its Parcel Post service. Still, private railway express business increased through the end of World War I. During the winter of 1917, the United States suffered a severe coal shortage. On December 26, President Woodrow Wilson commandeered the railroads on behalf of the United States government to move federal troops, their supplies, coal. Treasury Secretary William Gibbs McAdoo was assigned to consolidate the railway lines for the war effort. All contracts between express companies and railroads were nullified and McAdoo proposed that all existing express companies be consolidated into a single company to serve the country's needs; the result was that a new company called the American Railway Express Agency formed in July 1918.
The new entity took custody of all the pooled property of existing express companies. During World War I, the United States Railroad Administration took over the nation's railroads. Under the USRA, the four major and three minor express companies were consolidated as American Railway Express, Inc. except for the portion of Southern Express that operated over the Southern Railway and the Mobile & Ohio. In March 1929, the assets and operations of American Railway Express Inc. were transferred to Railway Express Agency. REA was owned by 86 railroads in proportion to the express traffic on their lines. In response to customer demand, REA added a Chicago, Illinois-based refrigerator car line. In 1927, REA began an Air Express Division. In 1938, the remainder of Southern Express joined the consolidated REA. Due to rate increases, express operations remained profitable into the 1950s. REA concentrated on express refrigerator service after 1940, continued to expand its fleet of express reefers until the mid- to late-1950s, business declined owing to competition from refrigerated motor trucks.
By this time, overall rail express volume had decreased substantially. In 1959, REA negotiated a new contract allowing it to use any mode of transportation, it acquired rights to allow continued service by truck freight after passenger trains were discontinued. REA unsuccessfully attempted entering the container business. Another blow came when the Civil Aeronautics Board terminated REA's exclusive agreement with the airlines for air express. In the early 1960s Railway Express Agency was renamed REA Express. By 1965 many of REA's refrigerator cars, now stripped of their refrigeration equipment, were in lease service as bulk mail carriers. Many were relegated to work train service. In 1969, after several years of losses, REA was sold to five of its corporate officers. By its entire business constituted less than 10% of all intercity parcel traffic, while 10% of its business moved by rail. REA Express became embroiled in extensive litigation with the railroads and the United Parcel Service as well as with the Brotherhood of Railway Workers' Union.
In November 1975, REA Express filed for bankruptcy. During the strike in October 1974, the first Altair 8800 microcomputer was lost, it had been shipped from Albuquerque to Popular Electronics magazine in New York via REA and never arrived. The Historical Guide to North American Railroads, George Drury, ed. Kalmbach Publishing Co. 1985 edition The Adams Express Company: 150 Years NRHS Archives: Railway Express Agency North East Rails: Railway Express Agency Drury, George H.. "Railway Express Agency: Yesterday's Federal Express". Trains Magazine. Kalmbach Publishing
A refrigerator car is a refrigerated boxcar, a piece of railroad rolling stock designed to carry perishable freight at specific temperatures. Refrigerator cars differ from simple insulated boxcars and ventilated boxcars, neither of which are fitted with cooling apparatus. Reefers can be ice-cooled, come equipped with any one of a variety of mechanical refrigeration systems, or utilize carbon dioxide as a cooling agent. Milk cars may or may not include a cooling system, but are equipped with high-speed trucks and other modifications that allow them to travel with passenger trains. After the end of the American Civil War, Illinois emerged as a major railway center for the distribution of livestock raised on the Great Plains to Eastern markets. Transporting the animals to market required herds to be driven up to 1,200 miles to railheads in Kansas City, Missouri or other locations in the midwest, such as Abilene and Dodge City, where they were loaded into specialized stock cars and transported live to regional processing centers.
Driving cattle across the plains caused tremendous weight loss, with some animals dying in transit. Upon arrival at the local processing facility, livestock were either slaughtered by wholesalers and delivered fresh to nearby butcher shops for retail sale, smoked, or packed for shipment in barrels of salt. Costly inefficiencies were inherent in transporting live animals by rail the fact that about sixty percent of the animal's mass is inedible; the death of animals weakened by the long drive further increased the per-unit shipping cost. Meat processors sought a way to ship dressed meats from their Chicago packing plants to eastern markets. During the mid-19th century, attempts were made to ship agricultural products by rail; as early as 1842, the Western Railroad of Massachusetts was reported in the June 15 edition of the Boston Traveler to be experimenting with innovative freight car designs capable of carrying all types of perishable goods without spoilage. The first refrigerated boxcar entered service on the Northern Railroad.
This "icebox on wheels" was a limited success. That same year, the Ogdensburg and Lake Champlain Railroad began shipping butter to Boston in purpose-built freight cars, utilizing ice for cooling; the first consignment of dressed beef left the Chicago stock yards in 1857 in ordinary boxcars retrofitted with bins filled with ice. Placing meat directly against ice resulted in discoloration and affected the taste, proving to be impractical. During the same period Gustavas Swift experimented by moving cut meat using a string of ten boxcars with their doors removed, made a few test shipments to New York during the winter months over the Grand Trunk Railway; the method proved too limited to be practical. Detroit's William Davis patented a refrigerator car that employed metal racks to suspend the carcasses above a frozen mixture of ice and salt. In 1868, he sold the design to George H. Hammond, a Detroit meat packer, who built a set of cars to transport his products to Boston using ice from the Great Lakes for cooling.
The load had the tendency of swinging to one side when the car entered a curve at high speed, use of the units was discontinued after several derailments. In 1878 Swift hired engineer Andrew Chase to design a ventilated car, well insulated, positioned the ice in a compartment at the top of the car, allowing the chilled air to flow downward; the meat was packed at the bottom of the car to keep the center of gravity low and to prevent the cargo from shifting. Chase's design proved to be a practical solution, providing temperature-controlled carriage of dressed meats, This allowed Swift and Company to ship their products across the United States and internationally. Swift's attempts to sell Chase's design to major railroads were rebuffed, as the companies feared that they would jeopardize their considerable investments in stock cars, animal pens, feedlots if refrigerated meat transport gained wide acceptance. In response, Swift financed the initial production run on his own — when the American roads refused his business — he contracted with the GTR to haul the cars into Michigan and eastward through Canada.
In 1880 the Peninsular Car Company delivered the first of these units to Swift, the Swift Refrigerator Line was created. Within a year, the Line's roster had risen to nearly 200 units, Swift was transporting an average of 3,000 carcasses a week to Boston, Massachusetts. Competing firms such as Armour and Company followed suit. By 1920, the SRL operated 7,000 of the ice-cooled rail cars; the General American Transportation Corporation would assume ownership of the line in 1930. In the 1870s, the lack of a practical means to refrigerate peaches limited the markets open to Samuel Rumph, a Georgia peach grower. In 1875, he invented a refrigerated railcar and crates that allowed him to grow peaches on a large scale and ship them to distant markets, he was the first to achieve this. His innovations created Georgia's fame for peaches, a crop now eclipsed economically by blueberries. Edwin Tobias Earl was born on a fruit ranch near Red Bluff, California on May 30, 1858, his father was his mother, Adelia Chaffee.
His brother was Guy Chaffee Earl. Career, he started his career in the shipping of fruits. By 1886, he was President of the Earl Fruit Company. In 1890, he invented the refrigerator car to