The Reconquista is a name used in English to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492. The completed conquest of Granada was the context of the Spanish voyages of discovery and conquest, the Americas—the "New World"—ushered in the era of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires. Traditional historiography has marked the beginning of the Reconquista with the Battle of Covadonga, the first known victory in Iberia by Christian military forces since the 711 military invasion of Iberia by combined Arab-Berber forces. In that small battle, a group led by the nobleman Pelagius defeated a Muslim patrol in the mountains of northern Iberia and established the independent Christian Kingdom of Asturias. In the late 10th century, the Umayyad vizier Almanzor waged military campaigns for 30 years to subjugate the northern Christian kingdoms.
His armies composed of Slavic and African Mamluks, ravaged the north sacking the great shrine of Santiago de Compostela. When the government of Córdoba disintegrated in the early 11th century, a series of petty successor states known as taifas emerged; the northern kingdoms struck deep into Al-Andalus. After a Muslim resurgence in the 12th century the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian forces in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248—leaving only the Muslim enclave of Granada as a tributary state in the south. After 1491, the entire peninsula was controlled by Christian rulers; the conquest was followed by the Alhambra Decree which expelled Jews who would not convert to Christianity from Castile and Aragon, a series of edicts which forced the conversions of the Muslims in Spain, although a significant part of them was expelled from the Iberian Peninsula. The concept of Reconquista, consolidated in Spanish historiography in the second half of the 19th century, was associated with the development of a Spanish national identity, emphasizing nationalistic and romantic, colonialist, aspects.
Since the 19th century traditional historiography has stressed the existence of the Reconquista, a continuous phenomenon by which the Christian Iberian kingdoms opposed and conquered the Muslim kingdoms, understood as a common enemy who had militarily seized territory from native Iberian Christians. The concept of a Christian reconquest of the peninsula first emerged, in tenuous form, at the end of the 9th century. A landmark was set by the Christian Chronica Prophetica, a document stressing the Christian and Muslim cultural and religious divide in Iberia and the necessity to drive the Muslims out. Both Christian and Muslim rulers fought amongst themselves. Alliances between Muslims and Christians were not uncommon. Blurring distinctions further were the mercenaries from both sides who fought for whoever paid the most; the period is seen today to have had long episodes of relative religious tolerance. The Crusades, which started late in the 11th century, bred the religious ideology of a Christian reconquest, confronted at that time with a staunch Muslim Jihad ideology in Al-Andalus by the Almoravids, to an greater degree by the Almohads.
In fact, previous documents from the 10th and 11th centuries are mute on any idea of "reconquest". Propaganda accounts of Muslim-Christian hostility came into being to support that idea, most notably the Chanson de Roland, a fictitious 11th-century French version of the Battle of Roncevaux Pass dealing with the Iberian Saracens, taught as historical fact in the French educational system since 1880; the modern idea of Reconquista is inextricably linked to the foundational myths of Spanish nationalism in the 19th century, consolidated by the mid-20th century during Franco's National-Catholic dictatorship, based on a strong underlying Castilian ideological element. The idea of a "liberation war" of reconquest against the Muslims, depicted as foreigners, suited well the anti-Republican rebels during the Spanish Civil War who agitated for the banner of a Spanish fatherland threatened by regional nationalisms and communism, their rebellious pursuit was thus a crusade for the restoration of the Church's unity, where Franco stood for both Pelagius of Asturias and El Cid.
The Reconquista has become a rallying call for right and far-right parties in Spain to expel from office incumbent progressive or peripheral nationalist options, as well as their values, in different political contexts as of 2018. Some contemporary authors consider it proved that the process of Christian state-building in Iberia was indeed defined by the reclamation of lands, lost to the Moors in generations past. In this way, state-building might be characterised—at least in ideological, if not practical, terms—as a process by which Iberian states were being'rebuilt'.. In turn, other recent historians dispute the whole concept of Reconquista as a concept created a posteriori in the service of political goals. A few historians point out that Spain and Portugal did not exist as nations, therefore the heirs of the Christian Visigothic Kingdom were not technically reconquering them, as the name suggests. One of the first Spanish intellectuals to question the idea of a "reconquest" that lasted for eight centuries was José Ortega y Gasset, writing in the first half of the 20th century.
However, the term is still in use
Banyalbufar is a municipality on the Spanish Balearic island of Majorca. The town of the same name is the administrative seat of the municipality, it borders the municipalities of Estellencs, Puigpunyent and Valldemossa. The municipality of Banyalbufar has an area of 18.1 km² and lies next to the Serra de Tramuntana mountain off the C-710 along the road from Andratx to Valldemossa. The municipality contains four smaller mountains, of which Mola de Planícia is the highest at 942 m, Sa Talaia is the lowest at 309 m. Rainfall can occur all year round; the driest month is July with an average rainfall of 10.1 l/m². The heaviest rainfall is in October at 80.9 l/m². The heaviest rainfall in Banyalbufar occurred on 10 June 1975 at 170 l/m²; the original name Banyalbahar comprises two different components, both of Arabic origin: banya and bahar. Banya derives from the name of a Moorish settlement established on the island in the 10th century; the original meaning of Banyalbufar is, therefore, "founded by the sea".
Following the Catalan conquest of Majorca in 1229, Banyalbufar came under control of Gilabert de Cruïlles and Ramon sa Clusa. During the Middle Ages and up until the 15th century, the valley was ruled under a absolutist government, the Barony of Banyalbufar; the baron maintained the criminal jurisdiction over the entire population. The inhabitants of Banyalbufar devoted themselves exclusively to agriculture. Fishing remained a secondary industry. Produce included wheat, pulses, flax, saffron and, above all, wine; the local Malvasier grape was prized. After a long period of decline, there are now efforts to revive this fruit. In previous times, the location was in reality a large vineyard. Around 2,000 steppes emanate from the peak of the location, which were once devoted to the production of Malvasier wine; the wine was favoured by the King of Aragon, was in no small part a motive for the conquest by James I. Today tomatoes and other fruits are produced. Irrigation of the fields is inextricably linked to the production of wine.
The solution presented to solve irrigatory problems in this region is impressive and prime example of the Moorish hydro-expertise on the island. The aqueducts, which provide vital cost-free water from the mountains for the agriculture, originate for the greater part from the Arabic period. Dry walls, constructed by the Moors from the stones in the fields, halt the flow of water, numerous water basins capture any excess water. Banyalbufar has 568 inhabitants with a population density of 31 persons/km². In 1991, 85.7% of the inhabitants were Majorcan, 8.3% came from other Spanish regions and only around 6% was foreigners. The highest population recorded was in 1920 at 894 inhabitants; the population dropped drastically in the next ten years due to political unrest in the locality. In 1930, Banyalbufar had only 200 inhabitants. In 1991 there were still illiterate people in Banyalbufar; the majority of the population receive either no formal education, a basic education or a mid-stage education, with only 47 persons undertaking the Bachillerato.
The population spread is. Figures do not include isolated communities. Banyalbufar - 407 inhabitants Es Port des Canonge - 62 inhabitants Son Coll - 28 inhabitants In order to protect themselves from Moorish pirates, the inhabitants constructed a watchtower outside of the municipality; the watchtower, known as the Torre de ses Animes, overlooks the sea and is today the most-visited point of interest in Majorca. The small bay-beach is accessible only by a steep stairway. Near the centre of the village lies an old manor-house known as La Baronía which now operates as a hotel. One of the most beautiful walks around the island is the route to the Port des Canonge in Banyalbufar. Once a philosophers' path through the peaceful fishing bay, the route leads imperceptibly downhill through shaded pine forests. Further on, the route is bounded by bizarre rock formations and affords magnificent views of the coast; the far-flung bay of Port des Canonge, with its tiny gravel beaches, comes alive only at weekends, when the local fishermen set their boats to the water.
The endpoint of the walk is a curve in the road between km posts 86 east of Banyalbufar. The walk traverses an easy to moderately difficult, wide forest path to Port des Canonge; the path is marked at intervals with orange signs. Playas y calas within the community of Banyalbufar include Cala Banyalbufa, Es Corral Fals, Son Bunyola and Es Port des Canonge. There are 190 rooms across three hotels, Sa Baronia, Sa Coma and Mar i Vent, as well as the rural guesthouse, Ca'n Busquets; the Community of Banyalbufar — available in Catalan, Spanish and German Informació de l'Institut d'Estadística de les Illes Balears — data information from the Balearic Institute of Statistics All Things Mallorca — general information and images on Banyalbufar
Alcúdia is a municipality and township of the Spanish autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. It is the main tourist centre in the North of Majorca on the eastern coast, it is a large resort popular with families. Most of the hotels are located in Port d'Alcúdia and Platja d'Alcúdia along the 14 km long beach that stretches all the way to Can Picafort. In Alcúdia the old town is well preserved with houses dating back to the 13th century; the old town is surrounded by a medieval wall. The area where Alcúdia is located has been inhabited since the Bronze Age, but it is with the arrival of the Romans that the city makes its entry in the history books; the Romans used the beaches of Alcúdia bay when they captured the island in 123 B. C. Shortly after this the capital Palma was founded and the city of Pollentia. From Pollentia it was possible to view both the bay of Alcúdia. Pollentia served as a guard for other invaders; the city was mentioned in Rome since they here produced excellent fabrics that were used in the most exclusive togas.
After Rome lost its position as the dominant power in the western Mediterranean, Pollentia was attacked by pirates and several times by the Vandals. The city was abandoned, the remaining population left to create a new town at a more protected location; this town became the area where Pollentia stood was left to ruins. After the invasion of the Moors, a farmstead was created close to where the ancient village of Pollentia had been; the farm was called Alcúdia, Arabic for "on the hill". In 1229, the Moors were defeated by King James I of Aragon. In 1298, King James II of Aragon founded the new town. A church, a graveyard, a house for priests, a square were created in the same year; the construction of the walls was initiated at the same time and finished in 1362. The city plan, made at the time remains the same for Alcúdia today. During the Renaissance, walls were reconstructed, a second wall was constructed outside the first one; this wall has since been torn down and only details show where it once was.
During the 16th century pirates attacked the city several times. The population shrank, there was from time to time a risk that the city would be abandoned totally. In 1779 a decision was taken to support the city by constructing a harbour; this improved the economy of Alcúdia and the village was saved. But it remained a rather poor village. In the 1920s the first tourists began to visit Mallorca and Alcúdia; this was in a limited scale and the economy of the village stayed weak. In the early'70s it started to be clear. 15 years the old harbour of Puerto de Alcúdia had developed into a major resort for European tourism. In the'90s the construction boom calmed down and several regulations were put in place to secure the quality of the resort; the focus is on visitors searching for both activity. A golf course has been constructed and both bicycle and hiking trips are commonplace; the old town has been pedestrianised. It has now become one of the most visited villages in Majorca; the old town has a 14th-century wall and it is possible to step up on the wall and follow it all around the village.
There are remains of a Roman town just outside the medieval town walls, in front of the Church of St. Jaume, belonging to the ancient city of Pollentia. There is a small Roman theatre. North of the town is a bull ring from the 19th century; the old town hosts a market both on Sundays and Tuesdays all year round. Inside the walls there are several popular restaurants and bistros famous for good home-cooked food in small settings. In Port d'Alcúdia most of the restaurants are located around the marina. Most of these restaurants are only open in the tourist season. Further north and west are some coves and beaches ideal for sunbathing, swimming or snorkeling; the beach at Alcúdia stretches as far as C'an Picafort. Alcúdia joins onto Playa de Muro, home to S'Albufera. Alcúdia celebrates the festival of St. Jaume every summer, it goes on for nine days at the beginning of July. Before the festival starts the town is decorated and each street picks out a theme for that year's look. During the festival several traditional evening festivities are arranged in the old town such as the Night of the Romans where the streets are full of locals dressed in traditional ancient Roman dresses.
There are outdoor theatres, sport tournaments and the traditional bullfight. The fiesta is finished with La Noche de Sant Jaume, a fireworks display and philharmonic concert by the old walls. Alcúdia hosts many other fairs and festivals throughout the year. During the summer, there are plenty of al fresco events, with dramatised tours of the old town, theatre productions in the old Roman amphitheatre; the Alcúdia Jazz Festival runs for a month. International sporting events are held down the road at the port, with an Ironman Triathlon twice a year, beach volleyball and beach rugby... There is an agricultural fair in the Autumn at the beginning of October and a nautical fair in April, which features the cuttlefish. Taking place every three years is the Triennial of Sant Crist, a religious procession where the population walks barefoot through the town in silence, for several hours; the origin of this procession dates back to 1507. According to tradition, the image of Sant Crist sweated blood and water, thus putting an end to a drought.
Alcúdia is home to UD Alcúdia who plays at Els Arcs, which
The talaiots, or talayots, are Bronze Age megaliths on the islands of Menorca and Majorca forming part of the Talaiotic Culture or Talaiotic Period. They date back to the late second millennium and early first millennium BC. There are at least 274 of them, in, related to Talaiotic settlements and Talaiotic navetes. While some had a defensive purpose, the use of others is not understood; some believe them to have served the purpose of lookout or signalling towers, as on Menorca, where they form a network. These monuments pre-date the taulas, which are found nearby. Talayots on Menorca were much less prone to weathering. Despite this few grave goods have been found in Menorcan talayots, leading historians to believe that the island had a poorer economy than its larger neighbor; the first author who wrote about these structures was Joan Ramis in his book Celtic antiques on the island of Menorca, edited 1818, being the first book in Spanish language devoted to Prehistory" Similar, but not related, are the "nuraghes" of Sardinia, the "torri" of Corsica, the "sesi" of Pantelleria.
Talaiotic sites include: Capocorb Vell, 12 km south of Llucmajor, Majorca: five talaiots and ancient village Ses Païsses, near Artà, Majorca Son Oleza dolmen, discovered in 1999 Bocchoris, Majorca Settlement at S'illot, Majorca Talatí de Dalt, Menorca Trebalúger, Menorca Trepucó, Menorca Torre d'en Galmés, Menorca Gymnesian Islands Naveta Idjang Megalithic Menorca. Discovering Menorca Guide to Menorca: Prehistory Talayots.es - Comprehensive site for prehistoric monuments in Mallorca and Menorca
Campanet is a town situated in the northeast of Majorca, close to Búger, Escorca, Sa Pobla, Inca. The population reached 2616 inhabitants in 2011; this town is known for its caves and the Fonts Ufanes
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Andratx is a municipality on Majorca, one of the Balearic Islands, along the Mediterranean east coast of Spain. It is located on the southwest tip of the island. Port d'Andratx, located a few miles south of Andratx, is an exclusive resort; the town of Andratx is ancient and until was inhabited by local Majorcan people. The area was occupied by the Romans, who called the town Andrachium, in the 2nd century BC and pottery and coins found there give evidence of this; the town was built inland from the coast as a precaution against the constant threat of raids from Barbary pirates. In the 16th century a system of observation towers was erected on the island as a means of protection against pirates. From 14 towers in the municipalities of Andratx and Calvià, 12 still exist; the municipality includes the towns of Port d'Andratx, Sa Coma, S'Arracó, Sant Elm and Camp de Mar. It includes the uninhabited islet Sa Dragonera; the municipality has undergone a transformation since 2004, following the input of EU finance which has resulted in a facelift for the town and brought in foreign investment.
Andratx municipality is located in the southwestern corner of the Sierra de Tramontana, the most significant mountains of the island of Majorca. In the southern part are a number of valleys, which are the most densely populated areas; the northern part of the municipality is mountainous and rugged, is uninhabited. The highest point is at 927 metres. Off the coast of the municipality is the islet of Sa Dragonera, declared a Natural Park in 1995, it can be accessed by sea from Puerto de Andratx or Sant Elm The main activity in Andratx today is tourism. Agriculture and fishing as a means of livelihood have declined and is practiced nowfor private consumption and recreation purposes; the main crops are almonds, carob and citrus fruit and grapes producing "Santa Catarina" wine. Throughout the twentieth century the population declined to a low in the 1950s. Since the population has been recovering except in 1960 when the population increased by 2,000 people. In the early twenty-first century the pace of growth has accelerated again.
With 2,200 new inhabitants between 2001 and 2005 and increasing urban pressure on the environment in the capital-population centers Andratx and Puerto de Andratx. Andratx is one of the municipalities of Mallorca with the highest percentage of foreign residents. According to the 2001 census about 15% of the population was foreign and among them 43% were EU nationals, including 15% German, 15% British and 10% French; the main monuments in the municipality are Church of Santa Maria de Andrach, Iglesia de la Virgen del Carmen del Puerto de Andratx, Church of s'Arracó, the Castell de Son Mas, the Andratx Castle, the former Trappist monastery, now in ruins. The legendary Teatro Argentino, dating back to 1912, belongs to former symbols of the municipality that have disappeared. Contemporary art is shown in Sa Coma, north of Andratx. Stephen Gately – singer John Noakes – TV presenter Guy Hamilton - film director Kerima – actress & widow of film director Guy Hamilton Baltasar Porcel – novelist José Luis de Vilallonga – actor Mark Lawrenson - footballer and broadcaster Ajuntament d'Andratx