Orange County, California
Orange County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,010,232 making it the third-most populous county in California, the sixth-most populous in the United States and its county seat is Santa Ana. It is the second most densely populated county in the state, the countys four largest cities, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach each have populations exceeding 200,000. Several of Orange Countys cities are on the Pacific coast, including Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Orange County is included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Thirty-four incorporated cities are located in the county, the newest is Aliso Viejo, Anaheim was the first city, incorporated in 1870, when the region was still part of neighboring Los Angeles County. Whereas most population centers in the United States tend to be identified by a major city and it is mostly suburban except for some traditionally urban areas at the centers of the older cities of Anaheim, Huntington Beach and Santa Ana.
There are several edge city-style developments such as Irvine Business Center, Newport Center, the county is famous for its tourism as the home of attractions like Disneyland, Knotts Berry Farm, and several beaches along its more than 40 miles of coastline. It is part of the Tech Coast, members of the Tongva, Juaneño, and Luiseño Native American groups long inhabited the area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Junipero Serra named the area Valle de Santa Ana, on November 1,1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the areas first permanent European settlement. Among those who came with Portolá were José Manuel Nieto and José Antonio Yorba, both these men were given land grants—Rancho Los Nietos and Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, respectively. The Nieto heirs were granted land in 1834, the Nieto ranches were known as Rancho Los Alamitos, Rancho Las Bolsas, and Rancho Los Coyotes. Yorba heirs Bernardo Yorba and Teodosio Yorba were granted Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana and Rancho Lomas de Santiago, other ranchos in Orange County were granted by the Mexican government during the Mexican period in Alta California. A severe drought in the 1860s devastated the industry, cattle ranching.
In 1887, silver was discovered in the Santa Ana Mountains, attracting settlers via the Santa Fe and this growth led the California legislature to divide Los Angeles County and create Orange County as a separate political entity on March 11,1889. The county is said to have named for the citrus fruit in an attempt to promote immigration by suggesting a semi-tropical paradise–a place where anything could grow. Other citrus crops and oil extraction were important to the early economy. Orange County benefited from the July 4,1904 completion of the Pacific Electric Railway, the link made Orange County an accessible weekend retreat for celebrities of early Hollywood. It was deemed so significant that Pacific City changed its name to Huntington Beach in honor of Henry E. Huntington, president of the Pacific Electric, Transportation further improved with the completion of the State Route and U. S. Route 101 in the 1920s
Negro is a term traditionally used to denote persons considered to be of Negroid heritage. It has various equivalents in other languages, around 1442, the Portuguese first arrived in Southern Africa while trying to find a sea route to India. The term negro, literally meaning black, was used by the Spanish, Negro denotes black in Spanish and Portuguese, derived from the Latin word Niger, meaning black, which itself is probably from a Proto-Indo-European root *nekw-, to be dark, akin to *nokw-, night. Negro was used of the peoples of West Africa in old maps labelled Negroland, from the 18th century to the late 1960s, negro was considered to be the proper English-language term for people of black African origin. According to Oxford Dictionaries, use of the word now seems out of date or even offensive in both British and US English, a specifically female form of the word, was occasionally used. However, like Jewess, it has all but completely fallen from use, Negroid has traditionally been used within physical anthropology to denote one of the three purported races of humankind, alongside Caucasoid and Mongoloid.
The suffix -oid means similar to, Negroid as a noun was used to designate a wider or more generalized category than Negro, as an adjective, it qualified a noun as in, for example, negroid features. Negro superseded colored as the most polite word for African Americans at a time when black was considered more offensive, du Bois and Dr. Carter G. Woodson used it in the titles of their non-fiction books, The Negro and The Mis-Education of the Negro respectively. Negro was accepted as normal, both as exonym and endonym, until the late 1960s, after the African-American Civil Rights Movement. One well-known example is the identification by Martin Luther King, Jr. of his own race as Negro in his famous I Have a Dream speech of 1963, malcolm X preferred Black to Negro, but started using the term Afro-American after leaving the Nation of Islam. Since the late 1960s, various terms have been more widespread in popular usage. These include black, Black African, Afro-American and African American, the word Negro fell out of favor by the early 1970s.
However, many older African Americans initially found the term black more offensive than Negro, the United States Census Bureau included Negro on the 2010 Census, alongside Black and African-American, because some older black Americans still self-identify with the term. The U. S. Census now uses the grouping Black, African-American, Negro is used in efforts to include older African Americans who more closely associate with the term. The constitution of Liberia limits Liberian nationality to Negro people, people of other racial origins, even if they have lived for many years in Liberia, are thus precluded from becoming citizens of the Republic. In Spanish, negro is most commonly used for the color black, in Spain and almost all of Latin America, negro means black person. As in English, this Spanish word is used figuratively and negatively, to mean irregular or undesirable. In Venezuela the word negro is similarly used, despite its large West African slave-descended population percentage, in certain parts of Latin America, the usage of negro to directly address black people can be colloquial
The snowy plover is a small wader in the plover bird family. It breeds in Ecuador, Chile, the southern and western United States, long considered to be a subspecies of the Kentish plover, it is now known to be a distinct species. Other taxonomic committees are reviewing the relationship, snowy plovers are shorter-legged and greyer above than its Old World sister species, and breeding males lack a rufous cap. The eye mask is developed or absent. The snowy plover breeds on coasts and brackish inland lakes. It nests in a scrape and lays three to five eggs. The breeding birds in warmer countries are largely sedentary, but northern and inland populations are migratory, food is insects and other invertebrates, which are obtained by a run-and-pause technique, rather than the steady probing of some other wader groups. On March 5,1993 the western snowy plover was listed as a species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. As of June 19,2012, the habitat along the California, Oregon, in many parts of the world, it has become difficult for this species to breed on beaches because of disturbance from the activities of humans or their animals.
Chesser, R. Terry, Richard C, barker, F. Keith, Carla, Jon L. Kratter, Andrew W. Lovette, Irby J. Rasmussen, Pamela C. Remsen, J. V. Rising, James D. Stotz, Douglas F. Winker, fifty-second supplement to the American Ornithologists Union Check-List of North American Birds. Western Snowy Plover - Tools and Resources for Recovery Charadrius nivosus, birdLife species factsheet for Charadrius nivosus Charadrius nivosus. Snowy plover photo gallery at VIREO Interactive range map of Charadrius nivosus at IUCN Red List maps Audio recordings of Snowy plover on Xeno-canto, Charadrius nivosus in the Flickr, Field Guide Birds of the World Snowy plover media at ARKive
Yokohama Cultural Gymnasium
Yokohama Cultural Gymnasium is an indoor sports arena located in Naka-ku, Japan. The capacity of the arena is 5,000 people and was opened in 1962 and it is a five-minute walk from the closest subway station, Kannai Station, on the JR/Yokohama Municipal Subway. The arena hosted the events of the 1964 Summer Olympics. Official website 1964 Summer Olympics official report
Bruces Beach was a small beach resort in the city of Manhattan Beach, that was owned by and operated for African Americans. It provided the African American community with opportunities unavailable at other areas because of segregation. As a result of friction from disgruntled white neighbors, the property was seized using eminent domain proceedings in the 1920s. Some of the area was turned into a city park in the 1960s. George H. Peck developed Pecks Pier, the pier in the area open to African Americans. Willa and Charles Bruce bought a property in the area for $1,225 that was set aside from Henry Willard in 1912. They established a resort and named it for Mrs. Bruce, the development included a bathhouse and dining house for blacks, whose access to public beaches was highly restricted. In 1920s the resort was attacked by the Ku Klux Klan in an attempt to get the city to back the land from the rightful owners. Under the pretense of building a city park, the city of Manhattan Beach did take the land away from the Bruce family and it was not until 2007, practically eighty years later, that this traversity was acknowledged by the city and the beach was renamed Bruces Beach.
It was ceremoniously renamed in March 2007 during an event exhibiting a deep tide of goodwill, the park is on a slope overlooking the ocean and includes rolling grassy terraces with benches and small trees. It is located a few blocks from the beach, between 26th and 27th Street, and runs west from Highland Avenue to Manhattan Avenue, whats the Matter with Bruces Beach. Val Verde, California Bruces Beach The History of Bruces Beach, radio program on Weekend America
Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, United States. The Census Bureau population for Santa Monica in 2010 was 89,736, due in part to an agreeable climate, Santa Monica became a famed resort town by the early 20th century. The city has experienced a boom since the late 1980s through the revitalization of its core, significant job growth. The Santa Monica Pier remains a popular and iconic destination, Santa Monica was long inhabited by the Tongva people. Santa Monica was called Kecheek in the Tongva language, the first non-indigenous group to set foot in the area was the party of explorer Gaspar de Portolà, who camped near the present-day intersection of Barrington and Ohio Avenues on August 3,1769. Named after the Christian saint Monica, there are two different accounts of how the name came to be. One says it was named in honor of the feast day of Saint Monica, another version says it was named by Juan Crespí on account of a pair of springs, the Kuruvungna Springs, that were reminiscent of the tears Saint Monica shed over her sons early impiety.
In Los Angeles, several battles were fought by the Californios, following the Mexican–American War, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave Mexicans and Californios living in state certain unalienable rights. US government sovereignty in California began on February 2,1848, in the 1870s the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, connected Santa Monica with Los Angeles, and a wharf out into the bay. The first town hall was a modest 1873 brick building, a beer hall and it is Santa Monicas oldest extant structure. By 1885, the towns first hotel was the Santa Monica Hotel, around the start of the 20th century, a growing population of Asian Americans lived in and around Santa Monica and Venice. A Japanese fishing village was near the Long Wharf while small numbers of Chinese lived or worked in Santa Monica, the two ethnic minorities were often viewed differently by White Americans who were often well-disposed towards the Japanese but condescending towards the Chinese. The Japanese village fishermen were an economic part of the Santa Monica Bay community.
Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. built a plant in 1922 at Clover Field for the Douglas Aircraft Company, in 1924, four Douglas-built planes took off from Clover Field to attempt the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. Two planes returned after covering 27,553 miles in 175 days, the Douglas Company kept facilities in the city until the 1960s. The Great Depression hit Santa Monica deeply, one report gives citywide employment in 1933 of just 1,000. Hotels and office building owners went bankrupt, in the 1930s, corruption infected Santa Monica. The federal Works Project Administration helped build several buildings, most notably City Hall, the main Post Office and Barnum Hall were among other WPA projects
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Muscle Beach Venice was officially titled in 1987 by the City of Los Angeles with the distinguishing name Venice added to the location to honor the original Santa Monica site. The contemporary Muscle Beach Venice is located two blocks north of Venice Boulevard on Ocean Front Walk in Venice, Muscle Beach dates back to the 1930s when the Works Progress Administration installed exercise equipment immediately south of the Santa Monica Pier in Santa Monica, California. Popular gymnastic and acrobatic exhibitions were held there on city-provided equipment. A platform on the beach with weight lifting equipment provided an area for such famous bodybuilders as Vic Tanny, Jack LaLanne. Muscle House was a crashpad just off the beach where many bodybuilders would live for cheap rent and convenient access to the beach and it was a common waypoint for bodybuilders such as Chet Yorton, Steve Reeves, Vince Edwards, Jack Delinger, George Eiferman, and Dave Draper. Yet the original regulars of Muscle Beach in Santa Monica continued to congregate at the setting with an emphasis on gymnastics events and adagio training.
In 1989, the City of Santa Monica officially rededicated the original Muscle Beach and today it serves gymnasts and youth with an extensive gymnastics training area. In 1987, the City of Los Angeles officially dedicated Muscle Beach Venice with the word of Venice in the title to distinguish it from the original Muscle Beach in Santa Monica. After the closing of the original Muscle Beach, bodybuilding attention shifted south to the somewhat lesser-known Venice Beach Weight Pen, operated by the Los Angeles Recreation and Parks Department. Today it is a playground with a gated area that encloses weight lifting equipment, the second area is a sand box with gymnastic, rope climbing. By extension, Muscle Beach Venice refers to a concentration of weightlifting. Dave Draper, Larry Scott, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Danny Trejo, Chet Yorton trained at Muscle Beach Venice in the early to mid-1960s to prepare for his victory over Arnold Schwarzenegger in the 1966 NABBA Mr. Universe contest
There is the similar, but differently named Lafayette Hillside Memorial in Lafayette, in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Arlington West refers to the cemetery itself, as well as Veterans for Peaces project of installing the temporary memorial. Arlington National Cemetery is the location of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, the memorial in Santa Barbara, which was first put together on November 2,2003 by local activist Stephen Sherrill, was soon adopted by the local chapter of Veterans for Peace. It is installed each Sunday by a team of volunteers on the beach immediately west of Stearns Wharf, visitors walking to the tourist attractions on the wharf have a clear view, from the boardwalk, along the beach with the white crosses in the foreground. From the walkway, visitors can see a flag-draped coffin and more than 3,000 crosses, made of wood, which are intended to resemble and represent traditional military grave markers. In addition to the graveyard, a placard listing all the fallen American military personnel since the U. S.
invaded and occupied Iraq is prominently displayed. Due to logistical constraints, the number of new crosses was halted at just over 3000 even though the latest death toll has exceeded 4400. Adjacent to the placards is a sign containing the message, At 3000 crosses, a memorial for the Iraqi dead would be 141 feet wide and 12.8 miles long. The second Arlington West was installed in Santa Monica, California on February 15,2004, a Sunday. It was built on the sand just north of the pier at Santa Monica Beach, as a way to acknowledge the costs, like the initial memorial in Santa Barbara, it has been reinstalled each Sunday and Fourth of July since its inception. Because of the difficulty of finding out the faiths and/or philosophies of the people who died, but both memorials have many markers that are the Star of David or crescents. Approximately twenty similar memorials have been installed in locations across the United States. The San Diego Veterans For Peace, Chapter 91, installs the memorial 6–8 times/year on beaches, on December 14,2003 Arlington West Santa Barbara was illuminated by 455 candles in red cups for the citys annual Parade of Lights.
The cups glowed a blood red while the light projected upward from the cups caused the white crosses to glow in a flickering, living light, photojournalists on hand commented that the sight of the illuminated memorial upstaged the Parade of Lights. The display drew thousands of spectators during the two hours the candles burned, the group has published a how-to for organising and constructing and erecting Arlington West. Several other Memorials have been erected by chapters of Veterans for Peace, in August 2010, the members of the Santa Barbara chapter of Veterans for Peace decided to replace the traditional Arlington West memorial with one which focuses on the War in Afghanistan. There was a film, Arlington West, The Film. This installation, entitled CrossCurrents, predated Arlington West by several months, a subsequent article in Art New England magazine documents this display with a photograph and article
Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which is usually carrying the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are primarily found in the ocean, surfers can utilize artificial waves such as those from boat wakes and the waves created in artificial wave pools. The term surfing refers to the act of riding a wave, regardless of whether the wave is ridden with a board or without a board, and regardless of the stance used. The native peoples of the Pacific, for instance, surfed waves on alaia and other such craft, and did so on their belly and knees. The modern-day definition of surfing, most often refers to a riding a wave standing up on a surfboard. Another prominent form of surfing is body boarding, when a surfer rides a wave on a bodyboard, either lying on their belly, drop knee, other types of surfing include knee boarding, surf matting, and using foils. Body surfing, where the wave is surfed without a board, using the surfers own body to catch, recently with the use of V-drive boats, Wakesurfing, in which one surfs on the wake of a boat, has emerged.
For centuries, surfing was a part of ancient Polynesian culture. Surfing may have first been observed by British explorers at Tahiti in 1767, samuel Wallis and the crew members of the Dolphin who were the first Britons to visit the island in June of that year. Another candidate is the botanist Joseph Banks being part of the first voyage of James Cook on the HMS Endeavour, who arrived on Tahiti on 10 April 1769. Lieutenant James King was the first person to write about the art of surfing on Hawaii when he was completing the journals of Captain James Cook upon Cooks death in 1779. When Mark Twain visited Hawaii in 1866 he wrote, In one place we came upon a company of naked natives. In July 1885, three teenage Hawaiian princes took a break from their school, St. Mathew’s Hall in San Mateo. George Freeth is often credited as being the Father of Modern Surfing and he is thought to have been the first modern surfer. In 1907, the interests of the land baron Henry E. Huntington brought the ancient art of surfing to the California coast.
While on vacation, Huntington had seen Hawaiian boys surfing the island waves, looking for a way to entice visitors to the area of Redondo Beach, where he had heavily invested in real estate, he hired a young Hawaiian to ride surfboards. George Freeth decided to revive the art of surfing, but had success with the huge 16-foot hardwood boards that were popular at that time. When he cut them in half to them more manageable, he created the original Long board