The Marietta Earthworks is an archaeological site located at the confluence of the Muskingum and Ohio Rivers in Washington County, United States. Most of this Hopewellian complex of earthworks is now covered by the modern city of Marietta. Archaeologists have dated the ceremonial site's construction to 100 BCE to 500 CE. Early European American settlers gave the structures Latin names; the complex includes the Sacra Via, three walled enclosures, the Quadranaou, Capitolium and at least two other additional platform mounds, the Conus burial mound and its accompanying ditch and embankment. The Capitolium is a truncated pyramidal mound with three ramps leading to its summit, it is smaller than the Quadranaou mound. Although not in pristine condition, it has been preserved due to the construction of the Washington County Library on its summit in 1916. According to measurements and research done by archaeoastronomer William F. Romain in the 1990s, when the mound was constructed it was aligned to within about one degree with the winter solstice sunset.
The Conus is a large burial mound, encompassed by an embankment and a ditch, much like a round barrow. A gap in the embankment and an earthen ramp across the ditch gives access to the base of the mound; when an earthen wall was constructed outside the ditch, as in this location, it means that the mound was for ceremonial use, not as a type of fortification. The mound today is the sole intact feature of the earthworks; the ditch surrounding the mound is 15 feet in width and 4 feet deep, with its surrounding embankment measuring 20 feet across its base and 585 feet in circumference. The site has three large enclosures, surrounded by earthen embankments; the largest, enclosing 50 acres, is on the northwestern end of the complex and is a rectangular enclosure with the Sacra Via ceremonial walled pathway leading down to the Muskingum River. Located within the enclosure were four large platform mounds, including the two largest at the site, the Quadranaou located in the western corner of the enclosure and the Capitolium located along the southeastern side.
The two smallest mounds are located in the northern corners. The Sacra Via was a 680 feet long by 150 feet wide graded way that begins at the center of the southwestern side of the enclosure and ended at or near the Muskingum River, it was flanked on its side by embankments that are 10 feet high at the enclosure and 20 feet high at their termini. Sections of the Sacra Via are preserved as a parkway leading from Third Street to Sacra Via Park; as with the Quadranaou and the Capitolium mounds, research has shown that when the site was constructed the Sacra Via and the walls of the enclosure were aligned with the winter solstice sunset. The second largest enclosure is located to the east of largest and encloses 27 acres, it was made up of a series of 5 feet high walls with ten gates, several being single openings, but two were double openings. Eight mounds were positioned with the double gates each having a single mound; the third and smallest enclosure was a series of straight line embankments located in between the second enclosure and the berm surrounding the Conus mound.
The Quadranaou was the largest of the platform mounds at the site and was 180 feet in length by 32 feet in width and stood 10 feet in height. The mound had four graded ramps leading to the summit located at the midpoint of each side, each being 25 feet in width and 60 feet in length; the mound is preserved as "Quadranaou Park". According to research done in the 1990s, when the mound was constructed it was aligned to within two-tenths of one degree with the winter solstice sunset; the site was first investigated in 1786 by the commander of Fort Harmar. Hart drew a plan of the site that appeared in the May 1787 issue of Columbian Magazine and conducted investigations into one of the mounds. In 1788 Benjamin Franklin conjectured that the earthworks may have been built by members of the 1540 Hernando de Soto expedition through southeastern North America; the next investigations were by Rufus Putnam in 1788 and Reverend Manasseh Cutler in 1789 as they began surveying and founding the modern city of Marietta.
Cutler had several trees growing out of the earthworks chopped down so he could count the growth rings. This tree ring data, coupled with the fact that the trees had been preceded by another such round of growth of at least equal age, argued against the de Soto theory and pushed the date for the construction of the earthworks back at 1000 yrs before the 1780s. Given this greater age, others theorized that the mounds had been built by groups as various as the Toltecs from Central America and Scythians from Europe. Between 1788 and 1796 members of the Ohio Company of Associates made provisions for the mounds to be surveyed and protected, gave them their Latin names, placed the mounds under the domain of the future mayor of Marietta; this kept the mounds secure for a century before the residents of Marietta began dismantling them for various construction projects. In 1801 Mound Cemetery was founded at the Conus mound; the cemetery is thought to house the graves of more American Revolutionary War officers than any other.
The complex was again surveyed and drawn in 1838 by Samuel R. Curti
The Ellis Mounds are a complex of Native American mounds near Marysville in Union County, United States. These three mounds form an east-west line on a small ridgeline in a farm field. Believed to have been built by Hopewellian peoples, the mounds are important because they may reveal information about daily life in the Hopewell culture. Archaeologists who study the Hopewell have concentrated on their largest ceremonial centers: as a result, while the mortuary customs of the Hopewell are well known, other aspects of their culture are little understood. For this reason, a site such as Ellis that bears the potential of yielding information about such aspects is valuable indeed because its date has not yet been established: Ellis may have been built as early as 300 BC and as late as AD 600. Furthermore, the location of the mounds outside of the Hopewellian heartland farther south may demonstrate the spread of Hopewell influence, since excavations in numerous locations have demonstrated the necessity of assembling a complex society with many workers in order to construct the ceremonial mounds for which the Hopewell are well known.
In 1974, the archaeological significance of the Ellis Mounds was recognized when they were listed on the National Register of Historic Places. They are one of seven National Register sites in Union County and the only one in the county's northern regions: three of the other six are within Marysville's city limits.
Santa Rosa Island (Florida)
Santa Rosa Island is a 40-mile barrier island located in the U. S. state of Florida, thirty miles east of the Alabama state border. The communities of Pensacola Beach, Navarre Beach, Okaloosa Island are located on the island. On the northern side of the island, are Pensacola Bay on the west and Choctawhatchee Bay on the east, joined through Santa Rosa Sound. Santa Rosa Island has weathered numerous hurricanes and other tropical cyclones, including the hurricane of September 1559, Hurricane Erin and Hurricane Opal, Hurricane Ivan, Hurricane Dennis, Tropical Storm Claudette, the remnants of Hurricane Ida. Parts of the island are protected from development within the Gulf Islands National Seashore. Santa Rosa Island was the site of a settlement in August 1559 led by Tristan de Luna from New Spain, considered the earliest European settlement in what is now the mainland United States. Santa Rosa Island was explored by Spanish Conquistadors circa 1519. Years an expedition led by Tristan de Luna arrived from Vera Cruz in August 1559 to found a settlement.
Spanish settlements in the area were abandoned in 1561, following damage from storms, lack of supplies resulting in famine, conflicts with the Pensacola natives. The Spanish settlement of St. Augustine, Florida on the Atlantic coast, established on August 28, 1565, has been continuously inhabited since then. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Santa Rosa Island took place here on October 9, 1861. Confederate Richard Anderson crossed from the Florida mainland onto Santa Rosa Island with 1200 men, in two small steamers, in a failed attempt to capture Fort Pickens; the Union held the fort throughout the war. Considering Fort Pickens to be outdated, the U. S. War Department sold Santa Rosa Island in 1929 to Escambia County, for US$10,000. Ten years the county returned the island to the federal government in the expectation that it would be developed as a U. S. National Monument preserving the remnants of Fort Pickens; the fort and other areas are now preserved within the Gulf Islands National Seashore.
On July 8, 1950 the federal government conveyed an 875-acre parcel of Santa Rosa Island with 3 miles of Gulf frontage to Okaloosa County. The county paid the federal government $4,000 to complete the transaction, supported by Congressman Bob Sikes; the portion of Santa Rosa Island transferred is now known as Okaloosa Island. The twelve-mile long beach road onto U. S. Air Force property, west of the Okaloosa Island portion of Santa Rosa Boulevard, was unguarded and accessible into the 1980s, but heightened security concerns have since led to it being guarded or blocked at all times. Various military missile launch and test facilities exist on Santa Rosa Island south and southwest of Hurlburt Field; the island has been hit by many tropical cyclones. Hurricane Dennis hit the island in July 2005, with 120 mph winds, was the strongest storm to do so. Tropical Storm Claudette hit in 2009. In 2008-2009, a sunken Spanish ship was located and excavated offshore; these findings confirmed reports of the 1559 expedition by Tristan de Luna, which had established a settlement at Pensacola.
One of the final missions in the Florida Phase of the US Army's Ranger School is conducted on Santa Rosa Island. Gulf Breeze, Florida - city linked by bridge to Santa Rosa Island Pensacola Beach, Florida#Novelty houses, a dome home built to withstand 133 m/s winds Fort Pickens Fort McRee "American Civil War - Santa Rosa Island | Battle Summaries", CivilWar.com, 2008, web: CivilWar-Santa-Rosa
Beam Farm Woodland Archaeological District
The Beam Farm Woodland Archaeological District is a group of archaeological sites in the southwestern part of the U. S. state of Ohio. Located at 3983 Stone Road near the village of Sabina in Clinton County, the district is composed of one Native American mound and two other archaeological sites spread out over an area of 2 acres. Known as the Beam Farm Mound and the Beam Sites 9 and 12, the sites that compose the district have yielded artifacts from the Adena culture and the Hopewell tradition, both of which inhabited southwestern Ohio during the Woodland period; because both the Adena and the Hopewell lived around the mound, because both cultures built mounds, the identity of the people who constructed the Beam Farm Mound cannot be established. Although small, the Beam Farm Mound is significant as a well-preserved relic of Native American prehistory; the Beam family, which owns the property on which the district is located, has never permitted any excavation of the mound. The owners and the Ohio Historical Society cooperated to place a historical marker at the site in 2001.
Because of the archaeological value of the mound and the other sites, they were declared a historic district and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2006. It joined four other Clinton County sites that were on the Register: the Cowan Creek Circular Enclosure and the Keiter and Hillside Haven Mounds
The Orators Mound is a Native American mound in the western part of the U. S. state of Ohio. Although its cultural affiliation is disputed, it is an important archaeological site. In 1908, forty-one different earthworks were known in Greene County. One of these is located atop the cliffs near a large natural spring called the "Yellow Spring", close to the village of Yellow Springs; because of its location near the spring, it was plainly known throughout much of prehistory. During the 1840 election campaign, the mound served as an orator's platform for Daniel Webster and Henry Clay, who spoke before a great audience on the same summer afternoon; until it was excavated in 1953, the mound was built of stone and measured 15 metres in diameter and 1.6 metres high, although its size may have grown since white settlement of the region, since locals are known to have added earth to the mound to resist erosion. Today, the mound is located within a National Natural Landmark; the earliest known excavation of the mound took place in 1953 and 1954, under the supervision of a man known as Frank Van Wort.
It appeared that he tried to dig through the middle of the mound but missed to the northern side. A more systematic excavation was conducted in 1971 by Antioch College students under the supervision of archaeologist Wolfgang Marschall, their work revealed the presence of a burial chamber at the heart of the mound. Archaeologists have failed to come to a conclusion on the archaeological culture that built the mound. Van Wort found five skeletons within the mound — two men and three infants — that he interpreted as being from the Adena culture, as well as Adena-style projectile points. Conversely, Marschall's team recovered detailed information about skeletons, grave goods, their relationships with each other, the general stratigraphy of the mound, their work concluded that the mound was produced by Hopewellian peoples. Seven skeletons from this excavation, along with various artifacts and records of the excavation, were placed in the Dayton Museum of Natural History; the mound's location within Glen Helen puts it in the bounds of a nature reserve and a National Natural Landmark.
It was given further protection in 1974, at which time it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The mound's continued preservation was threatened in 2008, as maintenance funding and labor was ended when Antioch College closed for lack of funds, but multiple grants obtained in 2010 included money for upgrading the trail by which the mound is accessed
The Portsmouth Earthworks are a large prehistoric mound complex constructed by the Ohio Hopewell culture mound builder indigenous peoples of eastern North America. The site was one of the largest earthwork ceremonial centers constructed by the Hopewell and is located at the confluence of the Scioto and Ohio Rivers, in present-day Ohio; the majority of the mound complex site is now covered by the city of Portsmouth in Scioto County, Ohio. Several individual sections of the complex have been included on the National Register of Historic Places; the Portsmouth Earthworks consisted of three sections extending over twenty miles of the Ohio River valley, crossing from Ohio to Kentucky in several places. It was surveyed and mapped by E. G. Squier in 1847 for inclusion in the seminal archaeological and anthrolopological work Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley; the northernmost section was made up of a number of circular enclosures, two large horseshoe-shaped enclosures, three sets of parallel-walled roads leading away in different directions.
One set of walled roads extends across the Ohio River into South Portsmouth, Kentucky to the southwest to Portsmouth Earthworks, Group A. Another set of walled roads lead to the southeast where it crossed the Ohio River and lead to Portsmouth Earthworks, Group C; the third set of walled roads lead to the northwest for an undetermined distance, may point to Tremper Mound and Works, some 5 miles away. The City of Portsmouth maintains a public park which includes one of the remaining horseshoe-shaped enclosures, known as Mound Park, it is the only publicly accessible part of the complex. Under the name Horseshoe Mound it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. Known as the Old Fort Earthworks it is a series of rectangular enclosures near South Portsmouth in Greenup County, Kentucky. Group A is a large square enclosure with two series of parallel walls extending from the northeast and southwest corners; the Old Fort Earthworks consist of several sites, including the Old Fort Earthworks, Mays Mound, Hicks Mound, Stephenson Mound, several other unnamed mounds and enclosures.
It is the location of Lower Shawneetown, a protohistoric/historic Fort Ancient and Shawnee settlement and colonial trading post which are all part of the Lower Shawneetown Archeological District, along with the Thompson and Hansen Sites Also known as the Biggs Site, Group C was a large series of concentric circles surrounding a central cone mound, believed to have been built by the Adena culture. This section of the earthworks is located in Greenup County, Kentucky several miles to the east of South Shore, but connected to Group B by a causeway. List of Hopewell sites
The Hopewell tradition describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 100 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland period. The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a dispersed set of related populations, they were connected by a common network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell exchange system. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from the Crystal River Indian Mounds in modern-day Florida as far north as the Canadian shores of Lake Ontario. Within this area, societies participated in a high degree of exchange with the highest amount of activity along waterways; the Hopewell exchange system received materials from all over. Most of the items traded were exotic materials and were received by people living in the major trading and manufacturing areas; these people converted the materials into products and exported them through local and regional exchange networks.
The objects created by the Hopewell exchange system spread far and wide and have been seen in many burials outside the Midwest. Although the origins of the Hopewell are still under discussion, the Hopewell culture can be considered a cultural climax. Hopewell populations originated in western New York and moved south into Ohio, where they built upon the local Adena mortuary tradition. Or, Hopewell was said to have originated in western Illinois and spread by diffusion... to southern Ohio. The Havana Hopewell tradition was thought to have spread up the Illinois River and into southwestern Michigan, spawning Goodall Hopewell; the name "Hopewell" was applied by Warren K. Moorehead after his explorations of the Hopewell Mound Group in Ross County, Ohio, in 1891 and 1892; the mound group itself was named after Mordecai Hopewell, whose family who owned the earthworks at the time. What any of the various groups now defined as Hopewellian called themselves is unknown, it is used to describe a wide scattering of people who lived near rivers in temporary settlements of 1-3 households and practiced a mixture of hunting and crop growing.
The Hopewell inherited from their Adena forebears an incipient social stratification. This increased social stability and reinforced sedentism, social stratification, specialized use of resources, population growth. Hopewell societies cremated most of their deceased and reserved burial for only the most important people. In some sites, hunters received a higher status in the community because their graves were more elaborate and contained more status goods; the Hopewellian peoples had leaders, but they were not like powerful rulers who could command armies of slaves and soldiers. These cultures accorded certain families a special place of privilege; some scholars suggest that these societies were marked by the emergence of "big-men". These leaders acquired their position because of their ability to persuade others to agree with them on important matters such as trade and religion, they perhaps were able to develop influence by the creation of reciprocal obligations with other important members of the community.
Whatever the source of their status and power, the emergence of "big-men" was another step toward the development of the structured and stratified sociopolitical organization called the chiefdom. The Hopewell settlements were linked by extensive and complex trading routes, which doubled as communication networks, bring people together for important ceremonies. Today, the best-surviving features of the Hopewell tradition era are mounds built for uncertain purposes. Great geometric earthworks are one of the most impressive Native American monuments throughout American prehistory. Eastern Woodlands mounds have various geometric shapes and rise to impressive heights; the gigantic sculpted earthworks took the shape of animals, birds, or writhing serpents. The function of the mounds is still under debate. Due to considerable evidence and surveys, plus the good survival condition of the largest mounds, more information can be obtained. Several scientists, including Dr. Bradley T. Lepper, Curator of Archaeology, Ohio Historical Society, hypothesize that the Octagon earthwork at Newark, was a lunar observatory oriented to the 18.6-year cycle of minimum and maximum lunar risings and settings on the local horizon.
The Octagon covers the size of 100 football pitches. Dr. John Eddy completed an unpublished survey in 1978, proposed a lunar major alignment for the Octagon. Ray Hively and Robert Horn of Earlham College in Richmond, were the first researchers to analyze numerous lunar sightlines at the Newark Earthworks and the High Banks Works in Chillicothe, Ohio. Christopher Turner noted that the Fairground Circle in Newark, Ohio aligns to the sunrise on May 4, i.e. that it marked the May cross-quarter sunrise. In 1983, Turner demonstrated that the Hopeton earthworks encode various sunrise and moonrise patterns, including the winter and summer solstices, the equinoxes, the cross-quarter days, the lunar maximum events, the lunar minimum events due to their precise straight and parallel lines. William F. Romain has written a book on the subject of "astronomers and magicians" at the earthworks. Many of the mounds contain various types of burials. Precious burial good have been found in the mounds; these include objects of adornment made of copper and obsidian, imported to the region hundreds of miles away.
Stone and ceramics were fashioned into intricate shapes. The Hopewell created artwork of the Americas. Most of their works had some religious significance, their graves were filled with neck