The Yuki are an indigenous people of California, whose traditional territory is around Round Valley, Mendocino County. Today they are enrolled members of the Round Valley Indian Tribes of the Round Valley Reservation. Yuki tribes are thought to have settled as far south as Hood Mountain in present-day Sonoma County; as European-American settlers began to flock to Northern California in the early 1850s, they drove the Yuki from their lands. The Indians suffered deaths in raids by the local ranchers and the authorities, captives were taken into slavery. In 1856, the US government established the Indian reservation of Nome Cult Farm at Round Valley, it forced thousands of Yuki and other local tribes on to these lands without sufficient support for the transition. These events and tensions led to the Mendocino War, where US forces killed hundreds of Yuki and took others by force to Nome Cult Farm; the Yuki language is no longer spoken. It is distantly related to the Wappo language, forming the Yukian family with it.
The Yuki people had a quaternary counting system, based on counting the spaces between the fingers, rather than the fingers themselves. Scholarly estimates have varied for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California, as historians and anthropologists have tried to evaluate early documentation. Alfred L. Kroeber estimated the 1770 population of the Yuki proper and Coast Yuki as 2,000, 500, 500 or 3,000 in all. Sherburne F. Cook raised this total to 3,500. Subsequently, he proposed a higher estimate of 9,730 Yuki. In the 2010 census, 569 people claimed Yuki ancestry. 255 of them were full-blooded. Yuki traditional narratives Cook, Sherburne F. 1956. "The Aboriginal Population of the North Coast of California", Anthropological Records, 16:81-130. University of California, Berkeley. Cook, Sherburne F. 1976. The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization. University of California Press, Berkeley. Harrison, K. David 2007; when Languages Die. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kroeber, A. L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D. C. Four Directions Institute Round Valley history "Central California culture", Four Directions Institute
Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited into water by aquatic animals. As a verb, to spawn refers to the process of releasing the eggs and sperm, the act of both sexes is called spawning. Most aquatic animals, except for aquatic mammals and reptiles, reproduce through the process of spawning. Spawn consists of the reproductive cells of many aquatic animals, some of which will become fertilized and produce offspring; the process of spawning involves females releasing ova into the water in large quantities, while males or sequentially release spermatozoa to fertilize the eggs. Most fish reproduce by spawning, as do most other aquatic animals, including crustaceans such as crabs and shrimps, molluscs such as oysters and squid, echinoderms such as sea urchins and sea cucumbers, amphibians such as frogs and newts, aquatic insects such as mayflies and mosquitoes and corals, which are small aquatic animals—not plants. Fungi, such as mushrooms, are said to "spawn" a white, fibrous matter that forms the matrix from which they grow.
There are many variations in the way spawning occurs, depending on sexual differences in anatomy, how the sexes relate to each other and how the spawn is released and whether or how the spawn is subsequently guarded. Marine animals, bony fish reproduce by broadcast spawning; this is an external method of reproduction where the female releases many unfertilised eggs into the water. At the same time, a male or many males release a lot of sperm into the water which fertilises some of these eggs; the eggs contain a drop of nutrient oil to sustain the embryo. The oil provides buoyancy, so the eggs float and drift with the current; the strategy for survival of broadcast spawning is to disperse the fertilised eggs, preferably away from the coast into the relative safety of the open ocean. There the larvae develop as they consume their fat stores, hatch from the egg capsule into miniature versions of their parents. To survive, they must become miniature predators themselves, feeding on plankton. Fish encounter others of their own kind, where they form aggregations and learn to school.
Internally, the sexes of most marine animals can be determined by looking at the gonads. For example, male testes of spawning fish are smooth and white and account for up to 12% of the mass of the fish, while female ovaries are granular and orange or yellow, accounting for up to 70% of the fish's mass. Male lampreys and salmon discharge their sperm into the body cavity where it is expelled through pores in the abdomen. Male sharks and rays can pass sperm along a duct into a seminal vesicle, where they store it for a while before it is expelled, while teleosts employ separate sperm ducts. Externally, many marine animals when spawning, show little sexual dimorphism or little difference in colouration. Where species are dimorphic, such as sharks or guppies, the males have penis-like intromittent organs in the form of a modified fin. A species is semelparous if its individuals spawn only once in their lifetime, iteroparous if its individuals spawn more than once; the term semelparity comes from the Latin semel and pario, to beget, while iteroparity comes from itero, to repeat, pario, to beget.
Semelparity is sometimes called "big bang" reproduction, since the single reproductive event of semelparous organisms is large and fatal to the spawners. The classic example of a semelparous animal is the Pacific salmon,which lives for many years in the ocean before swimming to the freshwater stream of its birth and dying. Other spawning animals which are semelparous include mayflies, octopus, smelt and some amphibians. Semelparity is associated with r-strategists. However, most fish and other spawning animals are iteroparous; when the internal ovaries or egg masses of fish and certain marine animals are ripe for spawning they are called roe. Roe from certain species, such as shrimp, scallop and sea urchins, are sought as human delicacies in many parts of the world. Caviar is a name for the processed, salted roe of non-fertilized sturgeon; the term soft roe or white roe denotes fish milt. Lobster roe is called coral. Roe are eaten either raw or cooked. "The reproductive behaviour of fishes is remarkably diversified: they may be oviparous, ovoviparous, or viviparous.
All cartilaginous fishes—the elasmobranches —employ internal fertilization and lay large, heavy-shelled eggs or give birth to live young. The most characteristic features of the more primitive bony fishes is the assemblage of polyandrous breeding aggregations in open water and the absence of parental care..."There are two main reproduction methods in fish. The first method is by laying the second by live-bearing. In the first method, the female fish lays eggs either on the sea floor or on the leaves of an aquatic plant. A male fish fertilizes the eggs, both work together to protect the eggs/babies from danger until they can defend themselves. In the second method, the male fish uses its anal fin to transmit sperm into the female fish and fertilize the fish eggs; the female gives live birth to her fry. Monogamy occurs; this is called pair spawning. Most fish are not monogamous, when they are, they alternate with non-mon
Matanzas Creek is an 11.4-mile-long year-round stream in Sonoma County, United States, a tributary of Santa Rosa Creek. Matanzas Creek springs from the northern slope of Sonoma Mountain and flows northward into Bennett Valley to join the South Fork Matanzas Creek; the stream runs the length of Bennett Valley between Taylor Mountain and Bennett Mountain, flowing under Grange Road near Bennet Valley Road, through Matanzas Creek Reservoir and Bennett Valley Golf Course to the city of Santa Rosa. In Santa Rosa, the creek parallels Creekside Road, Cypress Road, Hoen Avenue westward to Doyle Park, where it is joined by Spring Creek. From there, the creek continues westward to a confluence with Santa Rosa Creek just north of the Luther Burbank Home and Gardens; the waters of Matanzas Creek reach the Pacific Ocean south of Jenner, California, by way of Santa Rosa Creek, the Laguna de Santa Rosa, Mark West Creek, the Russian River. The upper reaches of Matanzas Creek have gradients of five to fifteen percent as the stream cascades down Sonoma Mountain.
Matanzas Creek channel has been deepened 4 to 5 meters to minimize urban flooding where it flows through Quaternary alluvium of the Santa Rosa Plain for 1 mile prior to confluence with Santa Rosa Creek. In downtown Santa Rosa, the creek passes through a 1,400-foot-long culvert designed to allow maximum development of the city. A proposal was developed for retrofitting the structure with inflatable bladders that will allow fish to scale the fish ladder, while allowing pools to form, thus preventing low flow uniformly shallow depths. Brush Creek List of watercourses in the San Francisco Bay Area Pomo people Spawn Stream gage for Mantanzas Creek
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel. The stream encompasses surface and groundwater fluxes that respond to geological, geomorphological and biotic controls. Depending on its location or certain characteristics, a stream may be referred to by a variety of local or regional names. Long large streams are called rivers. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, corridors for fish and wildlife migration; the biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity; the study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology and is a core element of environmental geography. Brook A stream smaller than a creek one, fed by a spring or seep, it is small and forded. A brook is characterised by its shallowness.
Creek In North America and New Zealand, a small to medium-sized natural stream. Sometimes navigable by motor craft and may be intermittent. In parts of Maryland, New England, the UK and India, a tidal inlet in a salt marsh or mangrove swamp, or between enclosed and drained former salt marshes or swamps. In these cases, the stream is the tidal stream, the course of the seawater through the creek channel at low and high tide. River A large natural stream, which may be a waterway. Runnel the linear channel between the parallel ridges or bars on a shoreline beach or river floodplain, or between a bar and the shore. Called a swale. Tributary A contributory stream, or a stream which does not reach a static body of water such as a lake or ocean, but joins another river. Sometimes called a branch or fork. There are a number of regional names for a stream. Allt is used in Highland Scotland. Beck is used in Lincolnshire to Cumbria in areas which were once occupied by the Danes and Norwegians. Bourne or winterbourne is used in the chalk downland of southern England.
Brook. Burn is used in North East England. Gill or ghyll is seen in Surrey influenced by Old Norse; the variant "ghyll" is used in the Lake District and appears to have been an invention of William Wordsworth. Nant is used in Wales. Rivulet is a term encountered in Victorian era publications. Stream Syke is used in lowland Cumbria for a seasonal stream. Branch is used to name streams in Virginia. Creek is common throughout the United States, as well as Australia. Falls is used to name streams in Maryland, for streams/rivers which have waterfalls on them if such falls have a small vertical drop. Little Gunpowder Falls and The Jones Falls are rivers named in this manner, unique to Maryland. Kill in New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey comes from a Dutch language word meaning "riverbed" or "water channel", can be used for the UK meaning of'creek'. Run in Ohio, Michigan, New Jersey, Virginia, or West Virginia can be the name of a stream. Run in Florida is the name given to streams coming out of small natural springs.
River is used for larger springs like the Silver Rainbow River. Stream and brook are used in Midwestern states, Mid-Atlantic states, New England. Bar A shoal that develops in a stream as sediment is deposited as the current slows or is impeded by wave action at the confluence. Bifurcation A fork into two or more streams. Channel A depression created by constant erosion. Confluence The point at which the two streams merge. If the two tributaries are of equal size, the confluence may be called a fork. Drainage basin The area of land. A large drainage basin such as the Amazon River contains many smaller drainage basins. Floodplain Lands adjacent to the stream that are subject to flooding when a stream overflows its banks. Gaging station A site along the route of a stream or river, used for reference marking or water monitoring. Headwaters The part of a stream or river proximate to its source; the word is most used in the plural where there is no single point source. Knickpoint The point on a stream's profile where a sudden change in stream gradient occurs.
Mouth The point at which the stream discharges via an estuary or delta, into a static body of water such as a lake or ocean. Pool A segment where the water is deeper and slower moving. Rapids A turbulent, fast-flowing stretch of a stream or river. Riffle A segment where the flow is shallower and more turbulent. River A large natural stream, which may be a waterway. Run A somewhat smoothly flowing segment of the stream. Source The spring, or other point of origin of a stream. Spring The point at which a stream emerges from an underground course through unconsolidated sediments or through caves. A stream can with caves, flow aboveground for part of its course, underground for part of its course. Stream bed The bottom of a stream. Stream corridor Stream, its floodplains, the transitional upland fringe Streamflow The water moving through a stream channel. Thalweg The river's longitudinal section, or the line joining the deepest point in the channel at each stage from source to mouth. Waterfall or cascade The fall of water where the stream goes over a sudden drop called a knickpoint.
The stream expends kinetic energy in "trying" to eliminate the
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there to colonize the area. Settlers are from a sedentary culture, as opposed to nomads who share and rotate their settlements with little or no concept of individual land ownership. Settlements are built on land claimed or owned by another group. Many times settlers are backed by large countries, they sometimes leave in search of religious freedom. One can witness how settlers often occupied land residents to long-established peoples, designated as indigenous. In some cases, as colonialist mentalities and laws change, the legal ownership of some lands is contested by indigenous people, who either claim or seek restoration of traditional usage, land rights, native title and related forms of legal ownership or partial control; the word "settler" was not usually used in relation to a variety of peoples who became a part of settler societies, such as enslaved Africans, indentured labourers, or convicts. In the figurative usage, a "person who goes first or does something first" applies to the American English use of "pioneer" to refer to a settler—a person who has migrated to a less occupied area and established permanent residence there to colonize the area.
In United States history it refers to those people. In Canada, the Indian Act, passed in 1876, created a fundamental division between First Nations peoples and all others, who are termed Settlers; as the Indian Act is still in force, this distinction continues to present day with an existing Indigenous-Settler division, set in a settler-colonial context where it reproduces an inequitable racial structure. In this usage, pioneers are among the first to an area, whereas settlers can arrive after first settlement and join others in the process of human settlement; this correlates with the work of military pioneers who were tasked with construction of camps before the main body of troops would arrive at the designated campsite. In Imperial Russia, the government invited Russians or foreign nationals to settle in sparsely populated lands; these settlers were called "colonists". See, e.g. articles Slavo-Serbia, Volga German, Russians in Kazakhstan. Although they are thought of as traveling by sea—the dominant form of travel in the early modern era—significant waves of settlement could use long overland routes, such as the Great Trek by the Boer-Afrikaners in South Africa, or the Oregon Trail in the United States.
Anthropologists record tribal displacement of native settlers who drive another tribe from the lands it held, such as the settlement of lands in the area now called Carmel-by-the-Sea, California where Ohlone peoples settled in areas inhabited by the Esselen tribe. In the Middle East, there are a number of references to various squatter and specific policies referred as "settler". Among those: Iraq – the Arabization program of the Ba'ath Party in the late 1970s in North Iraq, which aimed at settling Arab populations instead of Kurds following the Second Iraqi-Kurdish War. Israel – Israelis who moved to areas captured during the Six-Day War in 1967 are termed Israeli settlers. In recent years Israeli settlers have been settling in Palestinian territory such as the Gaza Strip and West Bank. However, this has caused political unrest and many settlers are forcibly removed from their settlements by the Israeli government. Syria – In recent times, Arab settlers have moved in large numbers to ethnic minority areas, such as northeast Syria.
Women and children experience violence in these dangerous areas because of the conflict. Many natives face displacement. During 1948 Palestine war, in which Israel was created, over 750,000 Palestinians were displaced from their homes and not allowed to return. Oftentimes fences or walls are built preventing the natives from traveling back onto the land. Settlements can make it difficult for native people to continue their work. For example, if the settlers take part of the land which the olive trees grow on the natives no longer have access to those olive trees and their livelihood is compromised. Many are met with violence. Settlers in hypothetical societies, such as on other planets feature in science fiction or fantasy fiction and/or video games. Mascot for Texas Woman's University, more there called the "Pioneer." The reasons for the emigration of settlers vary, but they include the following factors and incentives: the desire to start a new and better life in a foreign land, personal financial hardship, cultural, ethnic, or religious persecution, political oppression, government incentive policies aimed at encouraging foreign settlement.
The colony concerned is sometimes controlled by the government of a settler's home country, emigration is sometimes approved by an imperial government
The coho salmon is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family, one of the several species of Pacific salmon. Coho salmon are known as silver salmon or "silvers"; the scientific species name is based on the Russian common name kizhuch. During their ocean phase, coho salmon have dark-blue backs. During their spawning phase, their jaws and teeth become hooked. After entering fresh water, they develop bright-red sides, bluish-green heads and backs, dark bellies and dark spots on their backs. Sexually maturing fish develop a light-pink or rose shading along the belly, the males may show a slight arching of the back. Mature adults have a pronounced red skin color with darker backs and average 28 inches and 7 to 11 pounds reaching up to 36 pounds, they develop a large kype during spawning. Mature females may be darker with both showing a pronounced hook on the nose; the eggs hatch in early spring after six to seven weeks in the redd. Once hatched, they remain immobile in the redd during the alevin life stage, which lasts for 6–7 weeks.
Alevin no longer have the protective egg shell, or chorion, rely on their yolk sacs for nourishment during growth. The alevin life stage is sensitive to aquatic and sedimental contaminants; when the yolk sac is resorbed, the alevin leaves the redd. Young coho spend one to two years in their freshwater natal streams spending the first winter in off-channel sloughs, before transforming to the smolt stage. Smolts are 100–150 mm and as their parr marks fade and the adult's characteristic silver scales start to dominate. Smolts migrate to the ocean from late March through July; some fish leave fresh water in the spring, spend summer in brackish estuarine ponds, return to fresh water in the fall. Coho salmon live in salt water for one to three years before returning to spawn; some precocious males, known as "jacks", return as two-year-old spawners. Spawning males develop kypes, which are hooked snouts and large teeth; the traditional range of the coho salmon runs along both sides of the North Pacific Ocean, from Hokkaidō, Japan and eastern Russia, around the Bering Sea to mainland Alaska, south to Monterey Bay, California.
Coho salmon have been introduced in all the Great Lakes, as well as many landlocked reservoirs throughout the United States. A number of specimens, were caught in waters surrounding Denmark and Norway in 2017, their source is unknown, but the salmon species is farmed at several locations in Europe, making it probable that the animal has slipped the net at such a farm. The total North Pacific harvest of coho salmon in 2010 exceeded 6.3 million fish, of which 4.5 million were taken in the United States and 1.7 million in Russia. This corresponds to some 21,000 tonnes in all. Coho salmon are the backbone of the Alaskan troll fishery. Coho salmon average 3.5 % by 5.9 % by weight of the annual Alaska salmon harvest. The total North Pacific yields of the pink salmon, chum salmon and sockeye salmon are some 10–20 fold larger by weight. In North America, coho salmon is a game fish in fresh and salt water from July to December with light fishing tackle, it is one of the most popular sport fish in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada.
Its popularity is due in part to the reckless abandon which it displays chasing bait and lure while in salt water, the large number of coastal streams it ascends during its spawning runs. Its habit of schooling in shallow water, near beaches, makes it accessible to anglers on the banks, as well as in boats. Ocean-caught coho is regarded as excellent table fare, it has a moderate to high amount of fat, considered to be essential when judging taste. Only spring chinook and sockeye salmon have higher levels of fat in their meat. Due to the lower fat content of coho, when smoking, it is best to use a cold-smoking rather than hot-smoking process. Coho, along with other species, has been a staple in the diet of several indigenous peoples, who would use it to trade with other tribes farther inland; the coho salmon is a symbol of several tribes, representing life and sustenance. In their freshwater stages, coho feed on plankton and insects switch to a diet of small fish upon entering the ocean as adults.
Spawning habitats are small. Salmonid species on the west coast of the United States have experienced dramatic declines in abundance during the past several decades as a result of human-induced and natural factors; the U. S. National Marine Fisheries Service has identified seven populations, called Evolutionary Significant Units, of coho salmon in Washington and California. Four of these ESUs are listed under the U. S. Endangered Species Act; these are the Lower Columbia River, Oregon Coast, Southern Oregon and Northern California Coasts, Central California Coast. The long-term trend for the listed populations is still downward, though there was one recent good year with an increasing trend in 2001; the Puget Sound/Strait of Georgia ESU in Washington is an NMFS "Species of Concern". Species of Concern are those species for which insufficient information prevents resolving the U. S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's concerns regarding status and threats and whether to list the species under the ESA.
On May 6, 1997, NMFS, on behalf of the Secretary of Commerce, listed as threatened the Southern Oregon/Northern California Coast coho salmon ESU