Fritillaria biflora is a species of fritillary native to western California and northern Baja California. It occurs in the chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, often in serpentine soil formations, Fritillaria biflora is a perennial herb up to 60 cm tall. It is called chocolate lily because its flowers can resemble the color of chocolate, although sometimes they are brown, greenish purple. Flowers bloom in March and April, Fritillaria biflorashould not be confused with Arthropodium strictum, which is called chocolate lily. In the latter, the scent is reminiscent of chocolate, rather than the color, the Kamchatka fritillary is sometimes called chocolate lily in Alaska. Two varieties are recognized, Fritillaria biflora var. biflora—leaves widely lanceolate, photo gallery Theodore Payne Foundation, Chocolate Lily
A habitat is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant, or other type of organism. The term typically refers to the zone in which the organism lives and it is the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the physical environment that surrounds a species population. Every organism has certain habitat needs for the conditions in which it will thrive, habitat types include polar, temperate and tropical. The terrestrial vegetation type may be forest, grassland, the word habitat has been in use since about 1755 and derives from the Latin third-person singular present indicative of habitāre, to inhabit, from habēre, to have or to hold. Habitat can be defined as the environment of an organism. It is similar in meaning to a biotope, an area of environmental conditions associated with a particular community of plants. Generally speaking, animal communities are reliant on specific types of plant communities, some plants and animals are generalists, and their habitat requirements are met in a wide range of locations.
The small white butterfly for example is found on all the continents of the world apart from Antarctica and its larvae feed on a wide range of Brassicas and various other plant species, and it thrives in any open location with diverse plant associations. Disturbance is important in the creation of biodiverse habitats, in the absence of disturbance, a climax vegetation cover develops that prevents the establishment of other species. Lightning strikes and toppled trees in tropical forests allow species richness to be maintained as pioneering species move in to fill the gaps created. Similarly coastal habitats can become dominated by kelp until the seabed is disturbed by a storm, another cause of disturbance is when an area may be overwhelmed by an invasive introduced species which is not kept under control by natural enemies in its new habitat. Terrestrial habitat types include forests, grasslands and deserts, within these broad biomes are more specific habitats with varying climate types, temperature regimes, soils and vegetation types.
Many of these habitats grade into each other and each one has its own communities of plants. A habitat may suit a particular species well, but its presence or absence at any particular location depends to some extent on chance, on its dispersal abilities, freshwater habitats include rivers, lakes, ponds and bogs. Although some organisms are found across most of these habitats, the majority have more specific requirements, aquatic plants can be floating, semi-submerged, submerged or grow in permanently or temporarily saturated soils besides bodies of water. Marine habitats include brackish water, bays, the sea, the intertidal zone. Further variations include rock pools, sand banks, brackish lagoons and pebbly beaches, the benthic zone or seabed provides a home for both static organisms, anchored to the substrate, and for a large range of organisms crawling on or burrowing into the surface. A desert is not the kind of habitat that favours the presence of amphibians, with their requirement for water to keep their skins moist, some frogs live in deserts, creating moist habitats underground and hibernating while conditions are adverse
The opossums, known as possums, are marsupial mammals of the order Didelphimorphia /daɪˌdɛlfᵻˈmɔːrfiə/). The largest order of marsupials in the Western Hemisphere, it comprises 103 or more species in 19 genera, opossums originated in South America, and entered North America in the Great American Interchange following the connection of the two continents. Their unspecialized biology, flexible diet, and reproductive habits make them successful colonizers and survivors in diverse locations and conditions, the word opossum is borrowed from the Powhatan language and was first recorded between 1607 and 1611 by John Smith and William Strachey. Both men encountered the language at the British settlement of Jamestown, stracheys notes describe the opossum as a beast in bigness of a pig and in taste alike, while Smith recorded it hath an head like a swine. Tail like a rat. of the bigness of a cat, the Powhatan word ultimately derives from a Proto-Algonquian word meaning white dog or dog-like beast. The opossum is known as a possum, particularly in the Southern United States.
Didelphimorphia refers to the fact that, like all marsupials, these animals have two wombs, didelphimorphs are small to medium-sized marsupials, ranging in size from a small mouse to a large house cat. They tend to be omnivores, although there are many exceptions. Most members of this taxon have long snouts, a braincase. By mammalian standards, this is an unusually full jaw, the incisors are very small, the canines large, and the molars are tricuspid. Didelphimorphs have a stance and the hind feet have an opposable digit with no claw. Like some New World monkeys, opossums have prehensile tails, like all marsupials, the fur consists of awn hair only, and the females have a pouch. The tail and parts of the feet bear scutes, the stomach is simple, with a small cecum. Notably, the male opossum has a forked penis bearing twin glandes, opossums have a remarkably robust immune system, and show partial or total immunity to the venom of rattlesnakes and other pit vipers. Opossums are about eight times less likely to carry rabies than wild dogs, although all living opossums are essentially opportunistic omnivores, different species vary in the amount of meat and vegetation they include in their diet.
Members of the Caluromyinae are essentially frugivorous, whereas the lutrine opossum, the yapok is particularly unusual, as it is the only living semi-aquatic marsupial, using its webbed hindlimbs to dive in search of freshwater mollusks and crayfish. As a marsupial, the female opossum has a system that includes a bifurcated vagina, a divided uterus and a marsupium. The average estrous cycle of the opossum is about 28 days, opossums do possess a placenta, but it is short-lived, simple in structure, unlike that of placental mammals, is not fully functional
Restoration ecology emerged as a separate field in ecology in the 1980s. Restoration ecology is commonly used for the academic study of the process. E. O. Wilson, a biologist states that, Here is the means to end the great extinction spasm, the next century will, I believe, be the era of restoration in ecology. Restoration ecology is the study of ecological restoration. Estimates of the current extinction rate is 1,000 to 10,000 times more than the normal rate, for many people biological diversity, has an intrinsic value that humans have a responsibility towards other living things, and an obligation to future generations. On a more level, natural ecosystems provide human society with food, fuel. Such processes have been estimated to be trillions of dollars annually. Habitat loss is the cause of both species extinctions and ecosystem service decline. The two ways to reverse trend of habitat loss are conservation of currently viable habitat and restoration of degraded habitats. The fundamental difference between restoration and other conservation efforts is analogous to the difference between disease prevention and treatment, conservation attempts to maintain and protect existing habitat and biodiversity, whereas restoration attempts to reverse existing environmental degradation and population declines.
Targeted human intervention is used to promote habitat, biodiversity recovery, the possibility of restoration, does not provide an excuse for converting extremely valuable pristine habitat into other uses, as in medicine, it better to prevent than to treat. Though restoration ecologists and other conservation biologists generally agree that habitat is the most important locus of biodiversity protection, conservation biology as an academic discipline is rooted in population biology. Because of that, it is organized at the genetic level. Restoration ecology is organized at the community level, looking at specific ecosystems, conservation biologys focus on rare or endangered species limit the number of manipulative studies that can be performed. As a consequence, conservation studies tend to be descriptive, however, the highly manipulative nature of restoration ecology allows the researcher to test the hypotheses vigorously. Restorative activity often reflects an experimental test of what limits populations, Restoration ecology draws on a wide range of ecological concepts.
Disturbance is a change of environmental conditions, which interferes with the functioning of a biological system, disturbance, at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, is a natural component of many communities. Humans have had limited natural impacts on ecosystems for as long as humans have existed, however and minimizing the differences between modern anthropogenic and natural disturbances is crucial to restoration ecology
The Inland Empire is a metropolitan area and region in Southern California. The term may be used to refer to the cities of western Riverside County, most of the areas population is located in southwestern San Bernardino County and northwestern Riverside County. At the end of the century, the Inland Empire was a major center of agriculture, including citrus, dairy. The term Inland Empire is documented to have used by the Riverside Enterprise newspaper as early as April 1914. Developers in the area likely introduced the term to promote the region, the Inland part of the name is derived from the regions location, about 60 miles inland from Los Angeles and the Pacific Ocean. Originally, this area was called the Orange Empire due to the acres of citrus groves that once extended from Pasadena to Redlands during the first half of the twentieth century. The Inland Empire is a region, but is defined as the cities of western Riverside County. A generally broader definition will include the community of Palm Springs and its surrounding area.
What is now known as the Inland Empire was inhabited for thousands of years, prior to the eighteenth century, by the Tongva, Serrano. With Spanish colonization and the subsequent Mexican era the area was populated at the land grant Ranchos. The first American settlers, a group of Mormon pioneers, arrived over the Cajon Pass in 1851, although the Mormons left a scant six years later, recalled to Salt Lake City by Brigham Young during the churchs Utah War with the US government, other settlers soon followed. Base Line road, a thoroughfare, today runs from Highland to San Dimas. San Bernardino County was first formed out of parts of Los Angeles County on April 26,1853, while the partition once included what is today most of Riverside County, the region is not as monolithic as it may sound. On August 14,1893, the state Senate allowed Riverside County to form out of previously in San Bernardino and San Diego counties. County and become the seat of what would have been called San Antonio County, the arrival of rail and the importation of navel and Valencia orange trees in the 1870s touched off explosive growth, with the area quickly becoming a major center for citrus production.
In 1926, Route 66 came through the parts of the area. The region experienced significant economic and population growth through most of the half of the twentieth century. In the early 1990s, the loss of the military bases
Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night. The common adjective used for daytime activity is diurnal, the timing of activity by an animal depends on a variety of environmental factors such as the temperature, the ability to gather food by sight, the risk of predation, and the time of year. Diurnality is a cycle of activity within a period, cyclic activities called circadian rhythms are endogenous cycles not dependent on external cues or environmental factors. Animals active at dawn or dusk are crepuscular, those active at night are nocturnal, plants that open their flowers during the day are referred to as diurnal, while those that bloom at night are nocturnal. The timing of opening is often related to the time at which preferred pollinators are foraging. For example, sunflowers open during the day in order to attract bees, many animal species are diurnal, including many mammals, insects and birds.
In some animals, especially insects, external patterns of the environment control the activity, diurnality is descriptive, it refers to an observed 24-hour pattern, as opposed to ~24-hour circadian rhythms which are self-sustaining within the organism. In many species, the switches from nocturnal to diurnal foraging depending on the environmental temperature. This allows the individual to maximize its feeding efficiency during the summer and lower its risk of predation during the winter. Diurnal insects include some bees, such as Anthidium maculosum and these carder bees are diurnal and active only when the temperatures are above freezing. They are most active when there are plenty of such as flowers, from which they can extract pollen. Some primarily nocturnal or crepuscular animals, like dogs and cats, have been domesticated and have become diurnal to coincide with the cycle of human life, these animals may exhibit their species original behavior when they are born feral. Other animals have been forced from their normal cycle to a one as a means of avoiding predators.
Many plants are diurnal or nocturnal, depending on the period when the most effective pollinators, i. e. insects. Most angiosperm plants are visited by insects, so the flower adapts its phenology to the most effective pollinators. For example, the baobab is pollinated by bats and starts blooming in late afternoon. Services that alternate between high and low utilization in a daily cycle are described as being diurnal, many web sites have the most users during the day and little utilization at night, or vice versa. Operations planners can use this cycle to plan, for example, maintenance that needs to be done when there are fewer users on the web site
Vernal pools, called vernal ponds or ephemeral pools, are temporary pools of water that provide habitat for distinctive plants and animals. Certain tropical fish lineages have adapted to this habitat specifically. During most years, a vernal pool basin will experience inundation from local surface runoff and these conditions are commonly associated with Mediterranean climate. Most pools are dry for at least part of the year, some pools may remain at least partially filled with water over the course of a year or more, but all vernal pools dry up periodically. Some authorities restrict the definition of vernal pools to exclude seasonal wetlands that have defined inlet and outlet channels, flow patterns increase the periodic scouring and silting effect of flows through or simply into the wetland. Thirdly, longer distance inflow and outflow make for less strictly endemic populations, low dissolved mineral concentrations of smaller vernal pool basins may be characterized as oligotrophic, and poorly buffered with rapid pH shifts due to carbon dioxide uptake during photosynthesis.
Vernal pools are so called because they are often, though not necessarily, there are many local names for such pools, depending upon the part of the world in which they occur. Vernal pools may form in forests, but they are typically associated with grasslands. Playas may be inundated less frequently than vernal pools, and inundation typically coincides with colder weather unfavorable for plant growth, despite being dry at times, vernal pools teem with life when filled. The most obvious inhabitants are various species of breeding frogs and toads, some salamanders utilize vernal pools for reproduction, but the adults may visit the pool only briefly. Other notable inhabitants are Daphnia and fairy shrimp, the often used as an indicator species to decisively define a vernal pool. Other indicator species, at least in New England, are the frog, the spadefoot toad. Certain plant species are associated with vernal pools, although the particular species depend upon the ecological region. The flora of South African vernal pools, for example, are different from those of Californian vernal pools, in some northern areas, tadpole shrimp are more common.
Vernal pools can form anywhere that a depression fills with water and they can be found on bedrock of many kinds, or in grasslands that form over a variety of soil types containing silts and clays. They can develop hydric soils which are typical of flooded areas, including accumulations of organic matter, in some cases there is a hard pan layer which causes the retention of water in the pools. In vernal pools, flowering occurs simultaneously because of the seasonality of favorable conditions, vernal pool ecosystems may include both cosmopolitan species and endemic species adapted to unique environmental conditions. These include moisture gradients, salinity gradients, and reduced levels of competition, many vernal pool plants have buried seeds which accumulate in the soil
Coastal sage scrub
It is within the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, of the Mediterranean forests and scrub biome. Plant community Coastal sage scrub is characterized by low-growing aromatic, flora Characteristic shrubs and subshrubs include, California sagebrush, black sage, white sage, California buckwheat, coast brittle-bush, golden yarrow. Larger shrubs include and lemonade berry, herbaceous plants, and in some locales and succulents, are part of the flora. The coastal sage plant community is divided into two geographical subtypes — northern coastal scrub and southern coastal scrub. Northern coastal scrub occurs along the Pacific Coast from the northern San Francisco Bay Area northwards to southern Oregon and it frequently forms a landscape mosaic with the California coastal prairie plant community. The predominant plants are low evergreen shrubs and herbs, Characteristic shrubs include coyote brush, yerba santa, coast silk-tassel and yellow bush lupine. Herbaceous species include western blue-eyed grass, Douglas iris, and grasses, Southern coastal scrub is mostly found along the maritime Central Coast region, and the terraces and mountains with coastal climate influence in Southern California.
The plants of this community prefer the mild maritime climates found along Southern Californias coastline, world Wildlife Fund estimates that only 15 percent of the coastal sage scrublands remain undeveloped. Bernard Field Station at the Claremont Colleges, in San Diego County, the Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base protects larger areas, and the Marine Corps Air Station Miramar has vernal pools and the endemic mint Pogogyne abramsii. One of the largest remaining areas of coastal sage scrub is found in the Temescal Mountains of Riverside County. A number of rare and endangered species occur in coastal scrub habitats. For example, the California gnatcatcher is a bird species endemic to the coastal sage scrublands. Other endemic fauna includes the El Segundo blue butterfly in the LAX dunes, the endangered Torrey pine is the dominant tree at Torrey Pines State Reserve in San Diego, one of only two known stands of this pine species. Terrace California coastal prairie California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion Native grasses of California Index, California chaparral and woodlands In, Mayer KE, a Guide to Wildlife Habitats of California.
Sacramento, CA, California Department of Fish and Game, Coastal Scrub, de Becker, berkeley, CA, University of California Press. California coastal sage scrub and chaparral, Claremont Colleges, Robert J. Bernard Field Station website — Lists and photographs of organisms found in Coastal sage scrub. Las Pilitas horticulture database, California coastal sage plant community — text. Theodore Payne Foundation for Wild Flowers and Native Plants, Native Plant Guides — Southern California species
California mule deer
The California mule deer is a subspecies of mule deer whose range covers much of the state of California. One of the means of distinguishing the closely related black-tailed deer. In the case of the California mule deer, the fork in an upward growth. This deer is much less frequently found on the floor of the interior valleys, the California mule deer has a preference for hill terrain, especially an oak woodland habitat. It is a browser and typically takes over 90% of its diet from shrubs and leaves, California mule deer usually browse close to lakes or streams providing their water. From that water source, they may roam 1-2 mi, repeatedly used beds often are scratched to a nearly level surface, about 2 m in diameter. Less regularly used bedding areas are seen as flattened grass, on hot summer days, California mule deer often seek shade and rest in the midday. In summer, California mule deer browse on leaves of small trees and herbaceous plants. In winter, they may expand their forage to conifers, willow, juniper, year-round, they feed on acorns, grasses are a secondary food source.
Fawns and does tend to forage together in familial groupings, while bucks tend to travel singly or with other bucks, California mule deer browse most actively near dawn and dusk, but forage at night in open agricultural areas or when experiencing hunting pressure. Rutting season occurs in autumn when the does come into estrus for a period lasting several days. Males exibit aggressive behavior in competing for mates, does begin estrus again if they do not become pregnant. The gestation period is about 200 days, with fawns arriving in the spring, the bucks antlers fall off in the winter, and commence growing once more in spring in anticipation of next autumns rut. Since prehistoric times, the Native American indigenous peoples of California are known to have hunted California mule deer, since about 12,000 BCE, Gage suggests that human populations have served as a control to the numbers of California mule deer. In addition, human growth in California has consumed large amounts of natural habitat of the California mule deer starting in the late 19th century.
Black-tailed deer Sitka deer California chaparral and woodlands Bovid — family Bovidae U. S. Forest Service treatment — Odocoileus hemionus — including subspecies californicus
The desert cottontail, known as Audubons cottontail, is a New World cottontail rabbit, and a member of the family Leporidae. The desert cottontail is found throughout the western United States from eastern Montana to western Texas, westwards its range extends to central Nevada and southern California and Baja California. It is found at heights of up to 2,000 m and it is particularly associated with the dry near-desert grasslands of the American southwest, though it is found in less arid habitats such as pinyon-juniper forest. The desert cottontail is quite similar in appearance to the European rabbit and it is social among its peers, often gathering in small groups to feed. The desert cottontail uses burrows made by rodents rather than making its own, like all cottontail rabbits, the desert cottontail has a rounded tail with white fur on the underside which is visible as it runs away. It is a light grayish-brown in color, with almost white fur on the belly, adults are 33 to 43 cm long and weigh up to 1.5 kg.
The ears are 8 to 10 cm long, and the feet are large. There is little sexual dimorphism, but females tend to be larger than the males, the desert cottontail is not usually active in the middle of the day, but it can be seen in the early morning or late afternoon. It mainly eats grass, but will eat other plants, vegetables. It rarely needs to drink, getting its water mostly from the plants it eats or from dew, like most lagomorphs, it is coprophagic, re-ingesting and chewing its own feces, this allows more nutrition to be extracted. Southwestern Native Americans hunted them for meat but used their fur, the cottontails normal anti-predator behavior is to run away in evasive zigzags, it can reach speeds of over 30 km/h. The young are born in a burrow or above ground, but they are helpless when born. Where climate and food supply permit, females can produce several litters a year, unlike the European rabbit, they do not form social burrow systems, but compared with some other leporids, they are extremely tolerant of other individuals in their vicinity.
The lifespan of a cottontail averages about two years, depending on the location, unfortunately for the cottontail, almost every living carnivorous creature larger or faster than the Lagomorph is its predator. Cottontail lagomorphs borrow burrows that have been vacated by other animals and she is defenseless against any and all that would get close enough to eat her or her young. Though cottontails are very sexually active creatures, and mated pairs have several offspring many times in all seasons and those that do manage to avoid being eaten, grow very quickly and are considered full grown adults at three months. It can only use its nose to move and adjust the position of the food that it directly in front of its front paws on the ground. The cottontail rabbit will turn the food with its nose to find the cleanest part of the vegetation to begin its meal, the only time a cottontail uses its front paws to enable eating is when vegetation is above its head on a living plant
The desert woodrat is a species of pack rat native to desert regions of western North America. Desert woodrats are relatively small for pack rats, measuring 28 to 39 cm in length and they weigh from 122 to 350 g, with males being larger than females. Their coloring varies between individuals, and can be anything from pale gray to cinnamon to near-black. Regardless of the color on the rest of the body, the tail is distinctly bicolored, and has more hair, and fewer visible scales, than the tails of brown rats. Desert woodrats have a snout, long whiskers, and relatively long ears that are almost the length of the hind feet. Desert woodrats range from southeastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho, south through Nevada and western Utah to California in the US, and Baja California and extreme northwestern Sonora in Mexico. They are generally found in scrub areas, in chaparral, and in deserts and rocky slopes with scattered cactus, pine/juniper. They are most abundant in areas with numerous crevices or rock piles in which they can seek shelter from predators.
Twenty three subspecies are recognised, many of them restricted to islands in the Gulf of California. They feed on beans and leaves of mesquite, on juniper and they eat creosote bushes, Ephedra, Mustard plants and buckwheat. They will eat green vegetation, fruits, acorns. In desert habitats, they are dependent upon prickly pear cacti for water balance. Predators include snakes, hawks and other carnivorous mammals and they are commonly parasitized by bot fly larvae. Desert woodrats breed in the spring and summer, and give birth to litters of up to five young after a period of 30 to 36 days. The young weigh about 10 g at birth, and are blind and their eyes open after about ten days. The teeth achieve their shape after about twelve days. They live up to five years in captivity, desert woodrats are primarily nocturnal and are aggressively solitary. They may defend water sources, such as succulent plants, against other species and this provides a formidable defense against predators
It is distinct from the short-tailed weasel, known as a stoat, a close relation which originated in Eurasia and crossed into North America some half million years ago. The long-tailed weasels ancestors were larger than the current form, the long-tailed weasel arose in North America 2 million years ago, shortly before the stoat evolved as its mirror image in Eurasia. The species thrived during the Ice Age, as its size and long body allowed it to easily operate beneath snow. The long-tailed weasel and the stoat remained separated until half a million years ago, unlike the latter species, the long-tailed weasel never crossed the land bridge, and did not spread into Eurasia. The long-tailed weasel is one of the members of the genus Mustela in North America. It adds that I n most populations, females are 10–15% smaller than males, thus making them about the size as large male stoats. A third states they range from 11 to 22 inches in length, with the tail measuring an additional 3 to 6 inches and it maintains the long-tailed weasel weighs between 3 and 9 ounces with males being about twice as large as the females.
The eyes are black in daylight, but glow bright green when caught in a spotlight at night. The dorsal fur is brown in summer, while the underparts are whitish, the tail has a distinct black tip. Long-tailed weasels in Florida and the southwestern US may have markings of a white or yellowish colour. In northern areas in winter, the long-tailed weasels fur becomes white, sometimes with yellow tints, the long-tailed weasel moults twice annually, once in autumn and once in spring. Each moult takes about 3–4 weeks and is governed by day length, unlike the stoat, whose soles are thickly furred all year, the long-tailed weasels soles are naked in summer. The long-tailed weasel has well-developed anal scent glands, which produce a strong, the long-tailed weasel mates in July–August, with implantation of the fertilized egg on the uterine wall being delayed until about March. Litter size generally consists of 5–8 kits, which are born in April–May, the kits are born partially naked and weighing 3 grams, about the same weight of a hummingbird.
The long-tailed weasels growth rate is rapid, as by the age of three weeks, the kits are well furred, can crawl outside the nest and eat meat, at this time, the kits weigh 21–27 grams. At five weeks of age, the eyes open. Weaning begins at this stage, with the kits emerging from the nest, the kits are fully grown by autumn, at which time the family disbands. The females are able to breed at 3–4 months of age, the long-tailed weasel dens in ground burrows, under stumps or beneath rock piles