Southern California, often abbreviated as SoCal, is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises Californias 10 southernmost counties. The region is described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara. The more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. Southern California is an economic center for the state of California. The 8-county and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater Southern California Megaregion, the megaregions area is more expansive, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana.5 million people. With over 22 million people, Southern California contains roughly 60 percent of Californias population, located east of Southern California is the Colorado Desert and the Colorado River at the border with Arizona. The Mojave Desert is located at the border with the state of Nevada while towards the south is the Mexico–United States border, within Southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the countrys largest metropolitan areas.
With a population of 3,792,621, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation. The counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverside are the five most populous in the state, the motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in Southern California. Hollywood, a district within Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, headquartered in Southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Brothers. Universal, Warner Brothers, and Sony run major record companies, Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, some of the worlds biggest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, and the U. S.
Open of Surfing, are all held in Southern California. Southern California is important to the world of yachting, the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii, is one of yachtings premier events. The San Diego Yacht Club held the Americas Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995, Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the Southern California coast for its popular beaches, the desert city of Palm Springs is popular for its resort feel and nearby open spaces. Southern California is not a geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes Southern California vary. Geographically, Californias North-South midway point lies at exactly 37°958.23 latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose, when the state is divided into two areas, the term Southern California usually refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state
Santa Susana Mountains
The Santa Susana Mountains are a transverse range of mountains in Southern California, north of the city of Los Angeles, in the United States. The range runs east-west, separating the San Fernando Valley and Simi Valley on its south from Santa Clara River Valley to the north, the Oxnard Plain is to the west of Santa Susana Mountains. The Newhall Pass separates the Santa Susana Mountains from the San Gabriel Mountains to the east, Newhall Pass is the major north-south connection between the San Fernando Valley and the Santa Clarita Valley, and Interstate 5 and a railroad line share Newhall Pass. The Santa Susana Pass connects the Simi and San Fernando valleys, Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park, is located in the Simi Hills, just south of the Santa Susana Pass, at the northwestern edge of the San Fernando Valley. The Santa Susana Mountains are not as steep or high as the San Gabriel Mountains, the western half of the range lies in Ventura County, and the eastern half lies in Los Angeles County.
The southeastern slopes of the Santa Susana Mountains are part of the City of Los Angeles, the city of Simi Valley lies to the southwest. The Sunshine Canyon Landfill is at the eastern end. The mountains have a climate, with warm, dry summers and cool. Snow falls in winter in higher areas, such as Oat Mountain. Annual Precipitation totals vary between 18 and 25 inches, depending on exposure to the rain-bearing winds, most of the rain falls between November and March. Because of the drought, wildfires sometimes occur in summer and fall before the rains start, especially during hot. The highest peaks in the range are Oat Mountain, Mission Point, Rocky Peak, the summit of Rocky Peak lies directly atop the line separating Ventura and Los Angeles counties and is indicated by a battered marker imbedded into the sandstone boulder summit. The first discovery of oil in California was in Pico Canyon, on the side of the mountains, The California Star Oil Works, Chevron. It became famous not only as the first well in California, Well No.4 has the distinction of being the first site in Los Angeles County to be listed on the National Register of Historic Places, in 1966.
The surrounding town, Mentryville, is maintained as the oil ghost town Mentryville Historical Park, many active oil and gas fields remain in the area, with some of the larger operators including Vintage Production, Freeport McMoRan, and the Southern California Gas Company. The largest of SoCalGass four underground storage natural gas facilities is within the Aliso Canyon Oil Field north of Porter Ranch, the City of Los Angeles maintains OMelveny Park at the eastern end of the mountains. The south-facing slopes are covered in Chaparral shrubland, grasslands. The north-facing slopes are home to magnificent oak woodlands and conifer woodlands, some of which have been protected in the Santa Clarita Woodlands Park, the mountains are part of the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion
Mojave National Preserve
Mojave National Preserve is a United States National Preserve located in the Mojave Desert of San Bernardino County, California, USA, between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The preserve was established October 31,1994 with the passage of the California Desert Protection Act by the US Congress, previously, it was the East Mojave National Scenic Area, under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management. At 1,600,000 acres, it is the third largest unit of the National Park System in the contiguous United States. Natural features include the Kelso Dunes, the Marl Mountains and the Cima Dome, as well as volcanic formations such as Hole-in-the-Wall, the preserve encloses Providence Mountains State Recreation Area and Mitchell Caverns Natural Preserve, which are both managed by the California Department of Parks and Recreation. Impressive Joshua Tree forests cover parts of the preserve, the Cima Dome and Shadow Valley forests are the largest in the world. The defunct railroad depot and ghost town of Kelso are found there, the depot is now the visitor center.
The preserve is commonly traversed by 4 wheel drive vehicles traveling on the historic Mojave Road, summer temperatures average 90 °F, with highs exceeding 105 °F. Elevations in the Preserve range from 7,929 feet at Clark Mountain to 880 feet near Baker. Annual precipitation varies from 3.37 inches near Baker, to almost 9 inches in the mountains, at least 25% of precipitation comes from summer thunderstorms. Snow is often found in the mountains during the winter, the California Desert Protection Act of 1994 designated a wilderness area within Mojave National Preserve of approximately 695,200 acres. The National Park Service manages the wilderness in accordance with the Wilderness Act, the CDPA, the following climate data is for a higher elevation area in the preserve. See Climate of the Mojave Desert, Mojave Memorial Cross Official website Photo tour of Mojave National Preserve - from USGS
Simi Valley, California
The city of Simi Valley, in the eponymous valley, is in the southeast corner of Ventura County, United States. 30 miles from Downtown Los Angeles, Simi Valley is part of the Greater Los Angeles Area, the city sits next to Thousand Oaks and Los Angeles. The citys 2014 population has been estimated at 126,871, the city of Simi Valley is surrounded by the Santa Susana Mountain range and the Simi Hills, west of the San Fernando Valley, and northeast of the Conejo Valley. It is largely a bedroom community, feeding the cities in the Los Angeles area and the San Fernando Valley to the east. The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, where the president was buried in 2004, is in Simi Valley. Simi Valley has been ranked twice as the 18th most conservative city in the United States, once by The Bay Area Center For Voting Research, the Reagan Library has hosted Republican primary debates, last in 2012, and the first primary debates in 2016. A study done by the University of Vermont ranked Simi Valley as the fifth-happiest city in the United States, according to crime statistics by the FBI in 2013, Simi Valley is the seventh-safest city in the U. S. with a population of 100,000 or more.
The U. S. Census Bureau of 2012 reported a household income of $87,894, which is higher than the California median of $70,231. Simi Valley was once inhabited by the Chumash people, who settled much of the region from the Salinas Valley to the Santa Monica Mountains, with their presence dating back 10, around 5,000 years ago these tribes began processing acorns, and harvesting local marshland plants. Roughly 2,000 years later, as hunting and fishing techniques improved, shortly after this sharp increase a precious stone money system arose, increasing the viability of the region by offsetting fluctuations in available resources relating to climate changes. The native people who inhabited Simi Valley spoke a dialect of the Chumash language. Simi Valleys name derived from the Chumash word Shimiyi, which refers to the stringy, the name could have derived from strands of mist from coastal fog that move into the Oxnard Plain and wind their way up the Calleguas Creek and the Arroyo Las Posas into Simi Valley.
The origin of the name was preserved because of the work of the anthropologist John P. Harrington, whose brother, the word Simiji was constructed by whites to the word Simi. There are other explanations about the name Simi, but this one was given to me by my brother who worked over 40 years for the Smithsonian Institution and it seems most plausible to me. Three Chumash settlements existed in Simi Valley during the Mission period in the late 18th and early 19th century, Shimiyi, Ta’apu, the cave is located on private land owned by Boeing, formerly operated by Rocketdyne for testing rocket engines and nuclear research. Other areas containing Chumash Native American pictographs in the Simi Hills are for instance by Lake Manor, the first Europeans to visit Simi Valley were members of the Spanish Portolà expedition, the first European land entry and exploration of the present-day state of California. The expedition traversed the valley on January 13–14,1770, traveling from Conejo Valley to San Fernando Valley and they camped near a native village in the valley on the 14th.
Rancho Simi was the earliest Spanish colonial land grant within Ventura, the name derives from Shimiji, the name of the Chumash Native American village here before the Spanish
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
The Simi Hills are a low rocky mountain range of the Transverse Ranges in eastern Ventura County and western Los Angeles County, of southern California, United States. The Simi Hills are aligned east-west and run for 26 miles, the Simi Hills are part of the central Transverse Ranges System. They lie almost entirely within southeastern Ventura County, with southern and eastern foothills within western Los Angeles County. The Simi Hills are on the edge of the San Fernando Valley. The Simi Valley lies to the north, and the Conejo Valley lies to the southwest, the San Fernando Valley communities of Chatsworth, West Hills, and Woodland Hills are in the eastern hills and adjacent valley floor in Los Angeles city and county. The cities of Thousand Oaks, Agoura Hills, and Simi Valley city are in the hills, the two nearby mountain ranges are, the higher Santa Susana Mountains adjacent on the northeast across Santa Susana Pass, and the Santa Monica Mountains running nearby along the south. The Simis undeveloped native habitat provides routes that protect larger land wildlife of the Santa Monicas from genetic isolation, large sections of the Simi Hills are protected by parks and open space preserves.
The Santa Susana Field Laboratory property, a wildlife corridor to the Santa Susanas, has been proposed for public open space parkland after the closed sites cleanup completion. The hills provide the complete or partial watersheds for several year-round creeks, Bell Creek and Arroyo Calabasas are the headwaters of the Los Angeles River, by name its beginning with their confluence in nearby Canoga Park. 90% of the Santa Susana Field Lab property drains into the Los Angeles River via tributaries, because of its low elevation, the Simi Hills typically experience rainy, mild winters. Snow is rare in the Simi Hills, even in the highest areas, summers are warm and dry and wildfires do occur here. The Simi Hills further block these winds, which bring cool weather in summer and winter from the San Fernando Valley. Peaks in this region include Simi Peak,2,403 ft, Chatsworth Peak,2,314 ft, the southern lower hills are mostly covered in grasslands and oak savanna. The northern rocky hills area is primarily chaparral shrubland and oak woodlands, the Simi Hills are part of the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion.
The oaks include, the evergreen live oak, the deciduous valley oak. Riparian zone plants include California sycamores and arroyo willows, spring wildflowers include the redbush monkey flower, Plummers mariposa lily, and canyon sunflower. Poison oak is an important member of the plant habitat community here. The Simi Hills were inhabited for over 8,000 years by Paleo-indians and Chumash-Venturaño Native Americans for settlements, the Chumash had the established village of Huwam in Cañon del Escorpión
Chatsworth, Los Angeles
Chatsworth is a neighborhood in the northwestern San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles, California. The area was home to Native Americans, some of whom left caves containing rock art, Chatsworth was explored and colonized by the Spanish beginning in the 18th Century. The land was part of a Mexican land grant in the 19th Century, Chatsworth has seven public and eight private schools. There are large open-space and smaller recreational parks as well as a public library, distinctive features are the former Chatsworth Reservoir, the Santa Susana Field Laboratory and a number of private businesses. Overall, Chatsworth has one of the lowest densities of any neighborhood in the city, and it has a relatively high income level. The 2000 U. S. census counted 35,073 residents in the 15. 24-square-mile Chatsworth neighborhood—or 2,301 people per square mile, in 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 37,102. In 2000 the median age for residents was 40, considered old for city and county neighborhoods, the neighborhood was considered moderately diverse ethnically within Los Angeles, with a relatively high percentage of whites and of Asian people.
The breakdown was Whites,65. 7%, Latinos,13. 5%, Asians,14. 4%, Blacks,2. 2%, and others,4. 2%. Korea and the Philippines were the most common places of birth for the 25. 2% of the residents who were born abroad—a low figure for Los Angeles, the median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $84,456, considered high for the city. The percentages of families earned more than $40,000 was considered high for the county. Renters occupied 28. 9% of the stock, and house- or apartment-owners held 71. 1%. The average household size of 2.6 people was considered average for Los Angeles, in 2000 there were 2,933 military veterans, or 10. 8% of the population, a high percentage compared to the rest of the city. The percentages of married people were among the countys highest, the rate of 10% of families headed by single parents was low for the city. Chatsworth is flanked by, the Santa Susana Mountains on the north, porter Ranch and Northridge on the east. Winnetka, Canoga Park, and West Hills on the south, the Simi Hills, and unincorporated Los Angeles County and Ventura County on the west.
Twin Lakes, a community founded by San Franciscos George Haight in the early 20th Century and this region experiences hot and dry summers, with average daily high temperatures of 90–100 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Chatsworth has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, Chatsworth was inhabited by the Tongva-Fernandeño, Chumash-Venturaño, and Tataviam-Fernandeño Native American tribes. Native American civilizations had inhabited the Valley for an estimated 8,000 years, Stoney Point is the site of the Tongva Native American settlement of Ashaawanga or Momonga, that was a trading place with the neighboring Tataviam and Chumash people
Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U. S. state of California. Situated on a section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States. Santa Barbaras climate is described as Mediterranean, and the city has been promoted as the American Riviera. The population of the county in 2010 was 423,895. In 2004, the sector accounted for fully 35% of local employment. Education in particular is well represented, with four institutions of learning on the south coast. The Santa Barbara Airport serves the city, as does Amtrak, U. S. Highway 101 connects the Santa Barbara area with Los Angeles to the southeast and San Francisco to the northwest. Behind the city, in and beyond the Santa Ynez Mountains, is the Los Padres National Forest, Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are located approximately 20 miles offshore. Evidence of human habitation of the area begins at least 13,000 years ago, an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Chumash lived on the south coast of Santa Barbara County at the time of the first European explorations.
Five Chumash villages flourished in the area, portuguese explorer João Cabrilho, sailing for the Kingdom of Spain, sailed through what is now called the Santa Barbara Channel in 1542, anchoring briefly in the area. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno gave the name Santa Barbara to the channel, a land expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà visited in 1769, and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, named a large native town Laguna de la Concepcion. Cabrillos earlier name, however, is the one that has survived, the first permanent European residents were Spanish missionaries and soldiers under Felipe de Neve, who came in 1782 to build the Presidio. They were sent both to fortify the region against expansion by other such as England and Russia. Many of the Spaniards brought their families with them, and those formed the nucleus of the small town – at first just a cluster of adobes – that surrounded the Presidio, the Santa Barbara Mission was established on the Feast of Saint Barbara, December 4,1786.
It was the tenth of the California Missions to be founded by the Spanish Franciscans and it was dedicated by Padre Fermín Lasuén, who succeeded Padre Junipero Serra as the second president and founder of the California Franciscan Mission Chain. The Mission fathers began the work of converting the native Chumash to Christianity. The Chumash laborers built a connection between the creek and the Santa Barbara Mission water system through the use of a dam. During the following decades, many of the natives died of such as smallpox
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, is the most populous county in both the United States and the state of California, the countrys most populous state. Its population is larger than that of 42 individual U. S. states and it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of the U. S. states of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S and its county seat, the City of Los Angeles, is its most populous city at about four million. Los Angeles County is one of the counties of California. The county originally included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Riverside, as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, and Orange County in 1889. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley, the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, and are contained mostly within the Angeles National Forest. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, non-Hispanic whites numbered 2,728,321, or 28% of the population. Hispanic or Latino residents of any race numbered 4,687,889, 36% of Los Angeles Countys population was of Mexican ancestry,3. 7% Salvadoran, and 2. 2% Guatemalan heritage. The largest Asian groups of the 1,346,865 Asians in Los Angeles County are 4. 0% Chinese,3. 3% Filipino,2. 2% Korean,1. 0% Japanese,0. 9% Vietnamese,0. 8% Indian, and 0.
3% Cambodian. The racial makeup of the county is 48. 7% White,11. 0% African American,0. 8% Native American,10. 0% Asian,0. 3% Pacific Islander,23. 5% from other races, and 4. 9% from two or more races. 44. 6% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race, the largest European-American ancestry groups are German, Irish and Italian. 45. 9% of the population reported speaking only English at home,37. 9% spoke Spanish,2. 22% Tagalog,2. 0% Chinese,1. 9% Korean,1. 87% Armenian,0. 5% Arabic, and 0. 2% Hindi. At the census of 2000, there were 9,519,338 people,3,133,774 households, the population density was 2,344 people per square mile. There were 3,270,909 housing units at a density of 806 per square mile. 25% of all households were made up of individuals and 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.98 and the average family size was 3.61. In the county, the population was out with 28% under the age of 18, 10% from 18 to 24, 33% from 25 to 44, 19% from 45 to 64
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-American actor, businessman, author, activist and former professional bodybuilder. He served two terms as the 38th Governor of California from 2003 until 2011, Schwarzenegger began weight training at the age of 15. He won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times, Schwarzenegger has remained a prominent presence in bodybuilding and has written many books and articles on the sport. He is widely considered to be among the greatest bodybuilders of all time as well as bodybuildings biggest icon, Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon. His breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, in 1984, Schwarzenegger appeared in James Camerons science-fiction thriller film The Terminator, which was a massive critical and box-office success. Schwarzenegger subsequently reprised the Terminator character in the installments in 1991,2003. He appeared in a number of films, such as Commando, The Running Man, Twins, Total Recall, Kindergarten Cop.
In 2015, it was announced Schwarzenegger would replace Donald Trump as the host of The Celebrity Apprentice and he was nicknamed the Austrian Oak in his bodybuilding days, Arnie during his acting career, and The Governator during his political career. As a Republican, he was first elected on October 7,2003, Schwarzenegger was sworn in on November 17, to serve the remainder of Daviss term. Schwarzenegger was sworn in for his term on January 5,2007. In 2011, Schwarzenegger completed his term as governor. Schwarzenegger was born in Thal and christened Arnold Alois and his parents were Gustav Schwarzenegger and Aurelia Schwarzenegger. He married Aurelia on October 20,1945, he was 38, according to Schwarzenegger, both of his parents were very strict, Back in Austria it was a very different world. If we did something bad or we disobeyed our parents, the rod was not spared, Schwarzenegger grew up in a Roman Catholic family who attended Mass every Sunday. Gustav had a preference for his son, over Arnold.
His favoritism was strong and blatant, which stemmed from unfounded suspicion that Arnold was not his biological child, Schwarzenegger has said his father had no patience for listening or understanding your problems. He had a relationship with his mother and kept in touch with her until her death. Gustavs background received wide press attention during the 2003 California recall campaign, at school, Schwarzenegger was reportedly academically average, but stood out for his cheerful, good-humored, and exuberant character
Kings Canyon National Park
Kings Canyon National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Fresno, California. The park was established in 1940 and covers 461,901 acres and it incorporated General Grant National Park, established in 1890 to protect the General Grant Grove of giant sequoias. The park is north of and contiguous with Sequoia National Park and they were designated the UNESCO Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976. Humans have inhabited the area for thousands of years, the first Native Americans in the area were Paiute peoples, who moved into the region from their ancestral home east of Mono Lake. The Paiute Nation people used deer and other animals for food. They created trade routes that extended down the slope of the Sierra into the Owens Valley. Kings Canyon had been known to white settlers since the mid-19th century, United States Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes fought to create the Kings Canyon National Park. He hired Ansel Adams to photograph and document this among other parks, the bill combined the General Grant Grove with the backcountry beyond Zumwalt Meadow.
Kings Canyons future was in doubt for nearly fifty years, some wanted to build a dam at the western end of the valley, while others wanted to preserve it as a park. The debate was settled in 1965, when the valley, along with Tehipite Valley, was added to the park, Kings Canyon National Park consists of two sections. The parks Giant Sequoia forests are part of 202,430 acres of old-growth forests shared by Sequoia and this section of the park is mostly mixed conifer forest, and is readily accessible via paved highways. Both the South and Middle Forks of the Kings Rivers have extensive glacial canyons, one portion of the South Fork canyon, known as the Kings Canyon, gives the entire park its name. Kings Canyon, with a depth of 8,200 feet, is one of the deepest canyons in the United States. The canyon was carved by glaciers out of granite, the Kings Canyon, and its developed area, Cedar Grove, is the only portion of the main part of the park that is accessible by motor vehicle. Both the Kings Canyon and its Middle Fork twin, Tehipite Valley, are deeply incised, U-shaped glacial gorges with relatively flat floors and towering granite cliffs thousands of feet high.
In addition, the canyon has several systems, one of which is Boyden Cave. To the east of the canyons are the peaks of the Sierra Crest, which attain an elevation of 14,248 feet NAVD88 at the summit of North Palisade. This is classic high Sierra country, barren ridges and glacially scoured lake-filled basins
The Tongva are Native Americans who inhabited the Los Angeles Basin and the Southern Channel Islands, an area covering approximately 4,000 square miles. The Tongva are known as the Gabrieleño and Fernandeño, names derived from the Spanish missions built near their territory, Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, along with the neighboring Chumash, the Tongva were the most powerful indigenous people to inhabit Southern California. At the time of European contact, they may have numbered 5,000 to 10,000, many lines of evidence suggest that the Tongva are descended of Uto-Aztecan-speaking peoples from Nevada who moved southwest into coastal Southern California 3,500 years ago. These migrants either absorbed or pushed out the Hokan-speaking peoples in the region, by 500 AD, the Tongva had come to occupy all the lands now associated with them. A hunter-gatherer society, the Tongva traded widely with neighboring peoples, over time, scattered communities came to speak distinct dialects of the Tongva language, part of the Takic subgroup of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
There may have five or more such dialects. The Tongva language became extinct in the century, but a reconstructed form continues to be spoken today. Initial Spanish exploration of the Los Angeles area occurred in 1542 and this marked the beginning of an era of forced relocation and exposure to Old World diseases, leading to the rapid collapse of the Tongva population. At times the Tongva violently resisted Spanish rule, such as the 1785 rebellion led by the female chief Toypurina, in 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain and the government sold mission lands to ranchers, forcing the Tongva to culturally assimilate. Three decades later, California was ceded to the United States following the Mexican–American War, the US government signed treaties with the Tongva, promising 8.5 million acres of land for reservations, but these treaties were never ratified. By the turn of the 20th century, the Island Tongva had disappeared, the endonym Tongva was recorded by American ethnographer C. Hart Merriam in 1903 and has been widely adopted by scholars and descendants, although some prefer the endonym Kizh.
Two of the groups are the result of a split over the question of building an Indian casino. In 1994, the state of California recognized the Tongva as the tribe of the Los Angeles Basin. In 2008, more than 1,700 people identified as Tongva or claimed partial ancestry, the first record of an endonym for the Tongva people was Kizh, from 1846. Although subsequent authors equated this with the word for house, Hale gives the word for house as kītç in a list where the language was called Kīj, suggesting that the words were distinct. The term Kizh was generally used at that time to designate the language, in 1875, Yarrow indicated that the name Kizh was unknown at Mission San Gabriel. He reported that the natives called themselves Tobikhar, meaning settlers, in 1885, Hoffman referred to the natives as Tobikhar. The word Tongva was recorded by Merriam in 1903 from a single informant and he spelled it Tong-vā, by his orthography, it would be pronounced /ˈtɒŋveɪ/, TONG-vay