Second Triumvirate (Argentina)
The Second Triumvirate was the governing body of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata that followed the First Triumvirate in 1812, shortly after the May Revolution, lasted 2 years. The second triumvirate is the result of the Revolution of October 8, 1812, when the generals José de San Martín and Carlos María de Alvear joined forces with former supporters of Mariano Moreno and deposed the First Triumvirate; when the members of the First Triumvirate were deposed, the Cabildo appointed new ones. Nicolás Rodríguez Peña was appointed by 172 votes against 12, Antonio Álvarez Jonte by 147 against 35, Juan José Paso by 96 against 87; the new triumvirate called the Assembly of Year XIII, a popular request that the First Triumvirate avoided to follow. The Triumvirate started its functions on October 8, 1812; the second triumvirate took measures against the members of the former ones. Pueyrredón was vanished to San Luis, Rivadavia was imprisoned and trialed. Chiclana was trialed, but found innocent, appointed as governor of Salta.
Sarratea, under protection of the British diplomacy, did not face any reprisals. The main actions of the Triumvirate were: Established a commission on December 4, 1812 for the creation of the Constitution of Argentina Called for the Asamblea del Año XIII on January 31, 1813. Disposed the creation of the Province of Cuyo on November 14, 1813; as the 1813 Assembly decided to replace the Triumvirate for a unipersonal Supreme Directorship, it ceased its functions on January 22, 1814, Gervasio Antonio de Posadas assumed as the first Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. One year on January 31, 1815, he was to be replaced in office by his nephew Carlos María de Alvear, who counted on the support of the powerful Logia Lautaro. Segreti, Carlos. La aurora de la Independencia. Memorial de la Patria. Tomo II. Buenos Aires: Editorial La Bastilla. Ternavasio, Marcela. Gobernar la Revolución. Buenos Aires: Editorial Siglo Veintiuno. Galasso, Norberto. Seamos Libres y lo demás no importa nada.
Buenos Aires: Colihue. ISBN 978-950-581-779-5
Córdoba is a city in the geographic center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía River, about 700 km northwest of the Buenos Aires. It is the capital of Córdoba Province and the second most populous city in Argentina after Buenos Aires, with about 1,330,023 inhabitants according to the 2010 census, it was founded on 6 July 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera, who named it after Spain. It was one of the first Spanish colonial capitals of the region, now Argentina; the National University of Córdoba is the oldest university of the country and the seventh to be inaugurated in Spanish America. It was founded in 1613 by the Jesuit Order; because of this, Córdoba earned the nickname La Docta. Córdoba has many historical monuments preserved from Spanish colonial rule buildings of the Roman Catholic Church; the most recognizable is the Jesuit Block, declared in 2000 as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO which consists of a group of buildings dating from the 17th century, including the Colegio Nacional de Monserrat and the colonial university campus.
The campus belongs today to the historical museum of the National University of Córdoba, the second-largest university in the country since the early 20th century, in terms of the number of students and academic programs. Córdoba is known for its historical movements, such as Cordobazo and La Reforma del'18. In 1570, Viceroy Francisco de Toledo entrusted the Spanish settler Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera, with the task of populating and founding a settlement in the Punilla Valley. Cabrera sent an expedition of 48 men to the territory of the Comechingones, he divided the principal column that entered through the north of the provincial territory at Villa María. The one hundred man expedition set foot on what today is Córdoba on 24 June 1573. Cabrera called the nearby river San Juan; the settlement was founded on 6 July of the same year and named Córdoba de la Nueva Andalucía in honour of ancestors of the founder's wife from Córdoba, Spain. The foundation of the city took place on the left bank of the river on Francisco de Torres' advice.
The settlement was inhabited by aboriginal people called Comechingones, who lived in communities called Ayllus. After four years, having repelled attacks by the aborigines, the settlement's authorities moved it to the opposite bank of the Suquía River in 1577; the Lieutenant Governor at the time, Don Lorenzo Suárez de Figueroa, planned the first layout of the city as a grid of seventy blocks. Once the city core had been moved to its current location, it acquired a stable population, its economy blossomed due to trade with the cities in the north. In 1599, the religious order of the Jesuits arrived in the settlement, they established a Novitiate in 1608 and, in 1610, the Colegio Maximo, which became the University of Córdoba in 1613, the fourth-oldest in the Americas. The local Jesuit Church remains one of the oldest buildings in South America and contains the Monserrat Secondary School, a church, residential buildings. To maintain such a project, the Jesuits operated five Reducciones in the surrounding fertile valleys, including Caroya, Jesús María, Santa Catalina, Alta Gracia and Candelaria.
The farm and the complex, started in 1615, had to be vacated by the Jesuits following the 1767 decree by King Charles III of Spain that expelled them from the continent. They were run by the Franciscans until 1853, when the Jesuits returned to the Americas; the university and the high-school were nationalized a year later. Each Estancia has its own church and set of buildings, around which towns grew, such as Alta Gracia, the closest to the Block. In 1776, King Carlos III created the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, in which Córdoba stays in 1785 as the Government Intendency of Córdoba, including the current territories of the provinces of Córdoba, La Rioja and the region of Cuyo. According to the 1760 census, the population of the city was 22,000 inhabitants. During the May Revolution in 1810, the widespread opinion of the most notable citizens was of continuing respecting the orders of Fernando VII, attitude assumed by the local authorities, which led to the Liniers Counter-revolution; this position was not shared by the Dean Gregorio Funes, adhering to the revolutionary ideas, beside supporting contact with Manuel Belgrano and Juan José Castelli.
In March 1816, the Argentine Congress met in Tucumán for an independence resolution. Córdoba sent Eduardo Pérez Bulnes, Jerónimo Salguero de Cabrera, José Antonio Cabrera, to the Canon of the cathedral Michael Calixto of the Circle, all of them of autonomous position; the 1820s belonged to caudillos. Until 1820 a central government taken root in Buenos Aires existed, but the remaining thirteen provinces felt that after 9 July 1816 what had happened it was a change of commander; the Battle of Cepeda pitted the commanders of the Littoral against the inland forces. The Federales obtained the victory, for what the country remained since integrated by 13 autonomous provinces, on the national government having been dissolved. From this way the period known like about the Provincial Autonomies began. From this moment the provinces tried to create a federal system, integrating them without coming to good port, this for the regional differences of every province. Two Córdoba figures stood out in this period: Governor Juan Bautista Bustos, an official of the Army o
President of Argentina
The President of Argentina known as the President of the Argentine Republic, is both head of state and head of government of Argentina. Under the national Constitution, the President is the chief executive of the federal government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Through Argentine history, the office of the Head of State has undergone many changes, both in its title as in its features and powers. Current President Mauricio Macri was sworn into office on December 10, 2015; the Constitution of Argentina, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements and responsibilities of the president and term of office and the method of election. The origins of Argentina as a nation can be traced to 1776, when it was separated by the Spanish King from the existing Viceroyalty of Peru, creating the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata; the Head of State continued to be the King. These Viceroys were natives of the country. By the May Revolution of May 25, 1810, the first Argentine autonomous government, known as the Primera Junta, was formed in Buenos Aires.
It was known as the Junta Grande when representatives from the provinces joined. These early attempts at self-government were succeeded by two Triumvirates and, although the first juntas had presidents, the King of Spain was still regarded as Head of State, the executive power was still not in the hands of a single person; this power was vested in one man when the position of Supreme Director was created by the 1813 National Assembly. The Supreme Directors became Heads of State after Independence was declared on 9 July 1816, but there was not yet a presidential system. In 1816, Congress composed a Constitution; this established an executive figure, named Supreme Director, vested with presidential powers. This constitution gave the Supreme Director the power of appointing Governors of the provinces. Due to political circumstances, this constitution never came into force, the central power was dissolved, leaving the country as a federation of provinces. A new constitution was drafted in 1826; this constitution was the first to create a President, although this office retained the powers described in the 1816 constitution.
This constitution did come into force, resulting in the election of the first President, Bernardino Rivadavia. Because of the Cisplatine War, Rivadavia resigned after a short time, the office was dissolved shortly after. A civil war between unitarios and federalists ensued in the following decades. In this time, there was no central authority, the closest to, the Chairman of Foreign Relations the Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires; the last to bear this title was Juan Manuel de Rosas, who in the last years of his governorship was elected Supreme Chief of the Confederation, gaining effective rule of the rest of the country. In 1852, Rosas was deposed, a constitutional convention was summoned; this constitution, still in force, established a national federal government, with the office of the President. The term was fixed with no possibility of reelection; the first elected President under the constitution was Justo José de Urquiza, but Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires.
Bartolomé Mitre was the first president of the unified country, when Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation. Thus, Rivadavia and Mitre are considered the first presidents of Argentina by different historians: Rivadavia for being the first one to use the title, Urquiza for being the first one to rule under the 1853 constitution, Mitre for being the first president of Argentina under its current national limits. In 1930, 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966, 1976, military coups deposed elected Presidents. In 1966 and 1976, the federal government was undertaken by a military junta, where power was shared by the chiefs of the armed forces. In 1962, the President of the Senate ruled, but in the other cases, a military chief assumed the title of President, it is debatable whether these military presidents can properly be called Presidents, as there are issues with the legitimacy of their governments. The position of the current Argentine government is that military Presidents Jorge Rafael Videla and Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri were explicitly not legitimate presidents.
They and their immediate successors were denied the right to a presidential pension after the conclusion of their terms. The status of earlier military presidents, remains more uncertain; the President of the Nation has the following powers: Is the supreme head of the Nation, head of government and is politically responsible for the general administration of the country. Issues the instructions and regulations necessary for the execution of the laws of the nation, without altering their spirit with regulatory exceptions. Participates in the making of laws under the Constitution, has them published; the Executive Power shall in no case under penalty, void, issue legislative provisions. Only when exceptional circumstances make it impossible to follow the ordinary procedures foreseen by this Constitution for the enactment of laws, not try to rules governing criminal matters, electoral or political party regime, may issue decrees on grounds of necessity and urgency, which will be decided by a general agreement of ministers who shall countersign them together with the head of cabinet of ministers.
The head of and within ten days submit the decision to the consideration of the Joint Standing Committee, whose compos
National University of Córdoba
The National University of Córdoba, founded in 1613, is the oldest university in Argentina, the fourth oldest in South America and the sixth oldest in Latin America. It is located in the capital of Córdoba Province. Since the early 20th century it has been the second largest university in the country in terms of the number of students and academic programs; as the location of the first university founded in the land, now Argentina, Córdoba has earned the nickname La Docta. In 1610 the Society of Jesus founded the Collegium Maximum in Córdoba, attended by students of the order. An institution of the highest intellectual caliber for the time, this was the precursor of the university. While still under the control of the Jesuits, during the administration of the Bishop of Tucumán, Juan Fernando de Trejo y Sanabria, advanced studies began to be offered at what was now known as the Colegio Maximo de Córdoba; the school did not yet have authority to confer degrees. This milestone would be soon reached.
With this authorization, with the approval of the church hierarchy and the provincial head of the Jesuits, Pedro de Oñate, the university began its official existence. This marks the beginning of the history of higher education in Argentina; the Jesuits remained in control of the university until 1767, when they were expelled by order of King Carlos III. Leadership passed to the Franciscan order. For the first 150 years after its founding, the university maintained an exclusive focus on philosophy and theology; the first secondary school in Cordoba was Our Lady of Monserrat, founded by a Jesuit priest, Father Ignacio Duarte y Quirós, in 1687 and incorporated into the university's aegis in 1907. The College of Montesrrat, as well as the original physical plant of the university and the Jesuit church, are part of the Jesuit Block, were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2000. At the end of the 18th century, law studies were added, from this time forward studies at the university were no longer theological.
Following a conflict between the Franciscans and the secular clergy over the direction of the university, the house of study was renamed to Royal University of Saint Charles and Our Lady of Monserrat. With this new name the university acquired the double title of Royal and Pontifical, Monsignor Gregorio Funes was appointed president. With these changes, the Franciscans were replaced by the secular clergy as leaders of the university. Monsignor Funes introduced new subjects. On May 25, 1810 the May Revolution began, the new regime took control of the University of Córdoba, although Monsignor Funes remained in his post. In 1820 the university was relocated in other parts of the province of Córdoba, due to a situation of disorganization and chaos across the nation. Around the middle of the 19th century, a new national constitution was ratified, which outlined the new framework for the political organization of Argentina. At this time there were two provincial universities in the country: one in Córdoba and one in Buenos Aires.
The former was nationalized in 1856, the latter in 1881, leaving both under control of the national government. Between 1860 and 1880, many academic reforms were instituted, similar to those occurring at other universities around the world. In 1864 theological studies were eliminated. During the presidency of Faustino Sarmiento the sciences gained momentum through the recruitment of foreign lecturers specializing in Mathematical-Physical Science, leading to the opening of the School of Exact and Natural Sciences; this period saw the birth of the Academy of Exact Sciences and the Astronomical Observatory. In 1877 the School of Medicine was opened. In 1885 the Law of Avellaneda, the first law pertaining to universities, was passed, laying out the ways in which the bylaws of the national universities could be amended, their administrative framework, leaving other matters under the control of the universities themselves. In 1886 the bylaws of the university in Córdoba were modified to conform to the new law.
In June 1918 the student body at the university of Córdoba launched a movement, to which others all around the continent soon lent their voices, to fight for genuine democratization of the nation's academic activities. Hitherto controlled by interests related to the Catholic Church and the conservative lawmakers tied to the landed gentry, universities in Argentina gained unprecedented autonomy following these reforms. In May 1969 a series of socio-economic events connected to the French May, with participation by students of the university as well as by workers of the middle and lower classes, led to changes in the educational and political strategies of the university. During the 20th century a number of new schools were created within the university, most of which began as institutes or departments within existing schools: the School of Philosophy and the Humanities, the School of Economics, the School of Architecture and Urban Studies, the School of Dentistry, the School of Chemistry, the School of Agriculture, the School of Mathematics and Physics.
Created were the College of Languages and the Manuel Belgrano College of Business. In 2005 tensions erupted among the teaching staff, involving forceful tactics such as strikes and large-scale
Bartolomé Mitre Martínez was an Argentine statesman, military figure, author. He was the President of Argentina from 1862 to 1868. Mitre was born in Buenos Aires to a Greek family named Mitropoulos; as a liberal, he was an opponent of Juan Manuel de Rosas, he was forced into exile. He worked as a soldier and journalist in Uruguay as a supporter of General Fructuoso Rivera, who named Mitre Lieutenant Colonel of the Uruguayan Army in 1846. Mitre lived in Bolivia and Chile, in the latter country, he collaborated with legal scholar and fellow Argentine exile Juan Bautista Alberdi in the latter's periodical, El Comercio of Valparaíso. Mitre returned to Argentina after the defeat of Rosas at the 1852 Battle of Caseros, he was a leader of the revolt of Buenos Aires Province against Justo José de Urquiza's federal system in the Revolution of 11 September 1852, was appointed to important posts in the provincial government after the Province seceded from the Confederation. The civil war of 1859, after the revolt of Buenos Aires against Justo José de Urquiza's federal system, resulted in Mitre's defeat by Urquiza at the Battle of Cepeda, in 1860.
Issues of customs revenue sharing were settled, Buenos Aires reentered the Argentine Confederation. Victorious at the 1861 Battle of Pavón, Mitre obtained important concessions from the national army, notably the amendment of the Constitution to provide for indirect elections through an electoral college. In October 1862, Mitre was elected president of the republic, national political unity was achieved. During the Paraguayan War, Mitre was named the head of the allied forces. Mitre was the founder of La Nación, one of South America's leading newspapers, in 1870, his opposition to Autonomist Party nominee Adolfo Alsina, whom he viewed as a veiled Buenos Aires separatist, led Mitre to run for the presidency again, though the seasoned Alsina outmaneuvered him by fielding Nicolás Avellaneda, a moderate lawyer from remote Tucuman Province where the independence of Argentina had been declared in 1816. The electoral college met on 12 April 1874, awarded Mitre only three provinces, including Buenos Aires.
Mitre took up arms again. Hoping to prevent Avellaneda's 12 October inaugural, he mutineered a gunboat. Following the 1890 Revolution of the Park, he broke with the conservative National Autonomist Party and co-founded the Civic Union with reformist Leandro Alem. Mitre's desire to maintain an understanding with the ruling PAN led to the Civic Union's schism in 1891, upon which Mitre founded the National Civic Union, Alem, the Radical Civic Union, he dedicated much of his time in years to writing. According to some of his critics, as a historian Mitre took several questionable actions ignoring key documents and events on purpose in his writings; this caused his student Adolfo Saldías to distance himself from him, for future revisionist historians such as José María Rosa to question the validity of his work altogether. He wrote poetry and fiction, translated Dante's La divina commedia into Spanish, he was an active freemason, the grandfather of poet, Margarita Abella Caprile. On his death in 1906, he was interred in La Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires.
19 January 2006 marked the centenary of Mitre's death. Mitre ranks as an important South-American historiographer, he wrote the best accounts of South America's wars of independence and published many works, amongst which are: Historia de Belgrano y de la independencia argentina Historia de San Martín y de la emancipación sudamericana Rimas Ulrich Schmidl, primer historiador del Rio de la Plata There is an abridged translation of the Historia de San Martín, entitled The Emancipation of South America by W. Pilling. Mitre's speeches were collected as Arengas. J. J. Biedma, El Teniente General Bartolomé Mitre, in Bartolomé Mitre, volume iii. William H. Katra, The Argentine Generation of 1837: Echeverría, Sarmiento, Mitre. Works by Bartolomé Mitre at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Bartolomé Mitre at Internet Archive Works by Bartolomé Mitre at LibriVox
Ignacio Álvarez Thomas
José Ignacio Álvarez Thomas was a South American military commander and politician of the early 19th century. Álvarez Thomas was born in Arequipa and his family lived for some time in Lima. When his father, in Spanish service, was called back to Madrid in 1797, they travelled via Buenos Aires; the family stayed there while his father continued the voyage alone, Álvarez joined the army in 1799. Subsequently, he got involved in the independence war in Argentina. In the war against the British in 1806/07, he was wounded and captured, released only after the withdrawal of the British troops. Under Carlos María de Alvear, he fought as a Colonel at Montevideo. However, soon after he opposed the politics of de Alvear's government, his insurrection caused the resignation of the latter and resulted in a new election of a Supreme Director in the Constituting General Assembly, where he was designated interim Supreme Director from April 20, 1815 to April 16, 1816 in place of the elected José Rondeau, absent on a military campaign in Peru.
Álvarez was sworn in on May 6 but had to resign a year after some military failures. When the Constituting General Assembly was dissolved in 1820, he was, as a still-influential member of the former leadership, sent to prison, but released after 19 days. Subsequently, his political influence was diminished. In 1825, he was named ambassador in Peru, in October named ambassador to Chile. After his return to Buenos Aires, he was exiled and spent some time in prison for his opposition against the government of Juan Manuel de Rosas, he emigrated to Rio de Janeiro, from where he tried to mount an insurrection against Rosas in 1840. In 1846, he fled first the Chile and Peru, before returning to Buenos Aires after the fall of Rosas government in 1852, he died of tuberculosis on July 20, 1857 in Buenos Aires in Argentina at the age of 70. Ignacio Álvarez Thomas at Find a Grave
Argentine War of Independence
The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli and José de San Martín against royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown. On July 9, 1816, an assembly met in San Miguel de Tucumán, declared full independence with provisions for a national constitution; the territory of modern Argentina was part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, with its capital city in Buenos Aires, seat of government of the Spanish viceroy. Modern Uruguay and Bolivia were part of the viceroyalty, began their push for autonomy during the conflict, becoming independent states afterwards; the vast area of the territory and slow communications led most populated areas to become isolated from each other. The wealthiest regions of the viceroyalty were in Upper Peru. Salta and Córdoba had closer ties with Upper Peru than with Buenos Aires. Mendoza in the west had closer ties with the Captaincy General of Chile, although the Andes mountain range was a natural barrier.
Buenos Aires and Montevideo, who had a local rivalry, located in the La Plata Basin, had naval communications allowing them to be more in contact with European ideas and economic advances than the inland populations. Paraguay was isolated from all other regions. In the political structure most authoritative positions were filled by people designated by the Spanish monarchy, most of them Spanish people from Europe known as peninsulares, without strong compromises for American problems or interests; this created a growing rivalry between the Criollos, white people born in Latin America, the peninsulares, Spanish people who arrived from Europe. Despite the fact that all of them were considered Spanish, that there was no legal distinction between Criollos and Peninsulares, most Criollos thought that Peninsulares had undue weight in political matters; the ideas of the American and French Revolutions, the Age of Enlightenment, promoted desires of social change among the criollos. The full prohibition imposed by Spain to trade with other nations was seen as damaging to the viceroyalty's economy.
The population of Buenos Aires was militarized during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata, part of the Anglo-Spanish War. Buenos Aires was captured in 1806, liberated by Santiago de Liniers with forces from Montevideo. Fearing a counter-attack, all the population of Buenos Aires capable of bearing arms was arranged in military bodies, including slaves. A new British attack in 1807 captured Montevideo, but was defeated in Buenos Aires, forced to leave the viceroyalty; the viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte was deposed by the criollos during the conflict, the Regiment of Patricians became a influential force in local politics after the end of the British threat. The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil generated military concern, it was feared that the British would launch a third attack, this time allied with Portugal. However, no military conflict took place, as when the Peninsular War started Britain and Portugal became allies of Spain against France; when the Spanish king Ferdinand VII was captured, his sister Carlota Joaquina sought to rule in the Americas as regent, but nothing came out of it because of the lack of support from both the Spanish Americans and the British.
Javier de Elío created a Junta in Montevideo and Martín de Álzaga sought to make a similar move by organizing a mutiny in Buenos Aires, but the local military forces intervened and thwarted it. Spain appointed a new viceroy, Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, Liniers handed the government to him without resistance, despite the proposals of the military to reject him; the military conflict in Spain worsened by 1810. The city of Seville had been invaded by French armies, which were dominating most of the Iberian Peninsula; the Junta of Seville was disestablished, several members fled to Cádiz, the last portion of Spain still resisting. They established a Council of Regency, with political tendencies closer to absolutism than the former Junta; this began the May Revolution in Buenos Aires, as soon. Several citizens thought that Cisneros, appointed by the disestablished Junta, did not have the right to rule anymore, requested the convening of an open cabildo to discuss the fate of the local government.
The military gave their support to the request. The discussion ruled the removal of viceroy Cisneros and his replacement with a government junta, but the cabildo attempted to keep Cisneros in power by appointing him president of such junta. Further demonstrations ensued, the Junta was forced to resign immediately, it was replaced by the Primera Junta. Buenos Aires requested the other cities in the viceroyalty to acknowledge the new Junta and send deputies; the precise purpose of these deputies, join the Junta or create a congress, was unclear at the time and generated political disputes later. The Junta was resisted by all the main locations around Buenos Aires: Córdoba, Montevideo and the Upper Peru. Santiago de Liniers came out of his retirement in Córdoba and organized an army to capture Buenos Aires, Montevideo had naval supremacy over the city, Vicente Nieto organized the actions at the Upper Peru. Nieto proposed to José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, viceroy of the Viceroyalty of Peru at the North, to annex the Upper Peru to it.
He thought that the revolution could be contained in Buenos Aires, before launching a definitive attack. Buenos Aires was declared a rogue city by the Council of Regency, which appointed Montevideo as capital of the viceroyalty