Nalini Malani is a contemporary Indian artist. In her early career, she worked in the realms of painting and drawing. Since the 1990s her work expanded to other forms of media like video and projected animation, her works are characterised by the expansion of the pictorial surface into surrounding space culminating in a layered visual narrative that takes the form of ephemeral wall drawings, shadow play, multi projection works and theatre. She adheres to the vision of the artist as a social activist, her artworks are politically motivated and focus on themes of displacement, transnational politics, critical examination of gender roles and the ramifications of globalisation and consumerism. Throughout the course of her artistic career, she has strived to give voice to the stories of those marginalised by history with a focus on human and universal aspects of conflict and the relationship between the exploiter and the exploited. Literature has been a recurrent source of reference for Malani, her work has been featured in several international museums including Stedelijk Museum and the MoMA Museum of Modern Art.
She works in Mumbai. Born in Karachi in 1946, Malani's family sought refuge in India during the Partition of India, they moved to Kolkata, shortly before partition and relocated to Mumbai in 1958. Her family's experience of leaving behind their home and becoming refugees informs Malani's artworks. Malani studied Fine Arts in Mumbai and obtained a Diploma in Fine Arts from Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art in 1969. During this period, she had a studio in the Bhulabhai Memorial Institute, where artists, musicians and theater persons worked individually and collectively, it was here that she had the opportunity to meet and collaborate with artists from allied forms of artistic practice like theatre. She received a scholarship from the French Government to study fine arts in Paris from 1970-72, she was a recipient of the Art Fellowship from the Government of India from 1984-89. After her graduation, she spent a few years working with film; the themes she explored during this period dealt with the turbulent time that India was experiencing politically and as well the deepening literacy of moving image by its population.
In the initial part of her career, Malani focussed on paintings - acrylic on canvas & watercolour on paper. She produced a realistic based portrayal of Contemporary India, she continued to explore techniques such as the reverse painting method, which she would recurrently use in her future work. She was disappointed with the lack of acknowledgement that women artists had to face in India and resolved to bring them together for a group show to promote the sense of solidarity. In 1985, she curated the first exhibition of Indian female artists, in Delhi; this led to a series of travelling exhibitions that were taken to public spaces as an attempt to go beyond the elitist atmosphere of the art gallery. The sectarian violence that hit India in the early 1990s after the demolition of Babri Masjid triggered a sudden shift in her artwork; the renewed religious conflict that had proven to be recurring pushed her artistic endeavours past the boundaries of the surface and into space. Her earlier foray into performance art and her keen interest in Literature brought new dimensions to her art.
She is counted amongst the earliest to transition from traditional painting to new media work. Multimedia served as the perfect platform for staging her multilayered narratives on conflicts, gender issues and feminism, her career, which has spanned more than five decades shows a gradual movement towards new media and international collaboration. In 2013, she became the first Asian woman to receive the Arts & Culture Fukuoka Prize for her "consistent focus on such daring contemporary and universal themes as religious conflict, oppression of women and environmental destruction." Malani is represented by Galerie Lelong and New York. Besides this, she has served various artist residencies in India, the US, Japan and Italy; as an artist Malani has always sought to provoke dialogue by going beyond legitimised boundaries and exceeding the conventional narratives. For two-dimensional works, she watercolors, her other inspirations are her visions from the realm of memory and desire. The rapid brush style evokes fantasies.
Malani's video and installation work allowed her to shift from real space to a combination of real space and virtual space, moving away from object-based work. Her video work references divisions and cyborgs. Malani roots her identity as female and as Indian, her work might be understood as a way for her identity to confront the rest of the world, she references Greek and Hindu mythology in her work. The characters of'destroyed women' like Medea and Sita feature in her narrative, her multifaceted oeuvre can be broadly classified under two categories. Although her work talks of violence and conflict, her main intent is collective catharsis. For her 1992 path-breaking installation “City of Desires,” at the Chemould Gallery in Mumbai, she drew directly on the walls; the resulting work was ephemeral and site-specific, speaking against Hindu Fundamentalism, on the rise. Malani's video installation Remembering Toba T
Nasreddin or Nasreddin Hodja or Molla Nasreddin Hooja was a Seljuq satirist, born in Hortu Village in Sivrihisar, Eskişehir Province, present-day Turkey and died in 13th century in Akşehir, near Konya, a capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, in today's Turkey. He is considered a populist philosopher and wise man, remembered for his funny stories and anecdotes, he appears in thousands of stories, sometimes witty, sometimes wise, but too, a fool or the butt of a joke. A Nasreddin story has a subtle humour and a pedagogic nature; the International Nasreddin Hodja festival is celebrated between the 5th and 10th of July in his hometown every year. Claims about his origin are made by many ethnic groups. Many sources give the birthplace of Nasreddin as Hortu Village in Sivrihisar, Eskişehir Province, present-day Turkey, in the 13th century, after which he settled in Akşehir, in Konya under the Seljuq rule, where he died in 1275/6 or 1285/6 CE; the alleged tomb of Nasreddin is in Akşehir and the "International Nasreddin Hodja Festival" is held annually in Akşehir between 5–10 July.
According to Prof. Mikail Bayram who made an extensive research on Nasreddin, his full name is Nasir ud-din Mahmood al-Khoyi, his title Ahi Evran. According to him, Nasreddin was born in the city of Khoy in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran, had his education in Khorasan and became the pupil of famous Quran mufassir Fakhr al-Din al-Razi in Herat, he was sent to Anatolia by the Khalif in Baghdad to organize resistance and uprising against the Mongol invasion. He served as a kadı in Kayseri; this explains. During the turmoil of the Mongol invasion he became a political opponent of Persian Rumi, he was addressed in Masnavi by juha anecdotes for this reason. He became the vazir at the court of Kaykaus II. Having lived in numerous cities in vast area and being steadfastly against the Mongol invasion as well as having his witty character, he was embraced by various nations and cultures from Turkey to Arabia, from Persia to Afghanistan, from Russia to China, most of which suffered from those invasions.
As generations have gone by, new stories have been added to the Nasreddin corpus, others have been modified, he and his tales have spread to many regions. The themes in the tales have become part of the folklore of a number of nations and express the national imaginations of a variety of cultures. Although most of them depict Nasreddin in an early small-village setting, the tales deal with concepts that have a certain timelessness, they purvey a pithy folk wisdom that triumphs over all tribulations. The oldest manuscript of Nasreddin dates to 1571. Today, Nasreddin stories are told in a wide variety of regions across the Muslim world and have been translated into many languages; some regions independently developed a character similar to Nasreddin, the stories have become part of a larger whole. In many regions, Nasreddin is a major part of the culture, is quoted or alluded to in daily life. Since there are thousands of different Nasreddin stories, one can be found to fit any occasion. Nasreddin appears as a whimsical character of a large Turkish, Albanian, Azerbaijani, Bosnian, Chinese, Gujarati, Judeo-Spanish, Romanian, Serbian and Urdu folk tradition of vignettes, not different from zen koans.
1996–1997 was declared International Nasreddin Year by UNESCO. Some people say that, whilst uttering what seemed madness, he was, in reality, divinely inspired, that it was not madness but wisdom that he uttered. Many peoples of the Near, Middle East, South Asia and Central Asia claim Nasreddin as their own, his name is spelt in a wide variety of ways: Nasrudeen, Nasruddin, Nasr ud-Din, Nasiruddin, Nasr Eddin, Nasreddine, Nusrettin, Nostradin and Nazaruddin. It is sometime preceded or followed by a title or honorific used in the corresponding cultures: "Hoxha", "Khwaje", "Hodja", "Hoja", "Hojja", "Hodscha", "Hodža", "Hoca", "Hocca","Hooka", "Hogea", "Mullah", "Mulla", "Mula", "Molla", "Efendi", "Afandi", "Ependi", "Hajji". In several cultures he is named by the title alone. In Arabic-speaking countries this character is known as "Juha", "Djoha", "Djuha", "Dschuha", "Chotzas", "Goha". Juha was a separate folk character found in Arabic literature as early as the 9th century, was popular by the 11th century.
Lore of the two characters became amalgamated in the 19th century when collections were translated from Arabic into Turkish and Persian. In Sicily and Southern Italy he is known as "Giufà". In the Swahili and Indonesian culture, many of his stories are being told under the name of "Abunuwasi" or "Abunawas", though this confuses Nasreddin with an different man – the poet Abu Nuwas, known for homoerotic verse. In China, where stories of him are well known, he is known by the various transliterations from his Uyghur name, 阿凡提 and 阿方提; the Uyghurs believe while the Uzbeks believe he was from Bukhara. Shanghai Animation Film Studio produced a 13-episode Nasreddin related animation called'The Story of Afanti'/ 阿凡提 in 1979, which became one of the most influential animations in China's history; the musical Nasirdin Apandim features the legend of Nasreddin effendi sourced from Uighur folklore. In Central Asia, he is known as "Afandi"; the Central Asian peoples claim his local origin, as do Uyghurs. The Nasreddin stories are k
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Kali Puja known as Shyama Puja or Mahanisha Puja, is a festival, originating from the Indian subcontinent, dedicated to the Hindu goddess Kali, celebrated on the new moon day of the Hindu month Kartik in the Indian states of West Bengal, Odisha and titwala and the modern-day nation of Bangladesh. It coincides with the rest-of-Indian Lakshmi Puja day of Diwali. While the Bengalis, Odias and Maithils adore goddess Kali on this day the rest of India worships goddess Lakshmi on Diwali. Mahanisha puja is performed by the Maithili people of Mithila region in Nepal; the festival of Kali Puja is not an ancient one. Kali Puja was unknown before the 18th century, it was introduced in Bengal by King Krishnachandra of Navadvipa. Kali Puja gained popularity in the 19th century, with Krishanachandra's grandson Ishvarchandra and the Bengali elite. Along with Durga Puja, Kali Puja is the biggest festival in Assam. Kali Puja worshippers honour the goddess Kali in their homes in the form of clay sculptures and in pandals.
She is worshipped at night with Tantric mantras. She is prescribed offerings of red hibiscus flowers, animal blood in a skull, sweets and lentils, fish and meat, it is prescribed. Homes and pandals may practice rites in the Brahmanical tradition with ritual dressing of Kali in her form as Adya Shakti Kali and no animals are sacrificed, she is offered food and sweets made of rice and fruits. However, in Tantric tradition, Animals are ritually sacrificed on Kali Puja day and offered to the goddess. A celebration of Kali Puja in Kolkata, Bhubaneswar and in Guwahati is held in a large cremation ground where she is believed to dwell; the pandals house images of god Shiva - the consort of Kali and Bamakhepa- two famous Bengali Kali devotees along with scenes from mythology of Kali and her various forms along with Mahavidyas, sometimes considered as the "ten Kalis." The Mahavidyas is a group of ten Tantric goddesses headed by Kali. People visit these pandals throughout the night. Kali Puja is the time for magic shows and theatre, fireworks.
Recent custom has incorporated wine consumption. In the Kalighat Temple in Kolkata, Kalikhetra Temple in Bhubaneswar and in Kamakhya Temple in Guwahati, Kali is worshipped as Lakshmi on this day so as to reflect an essence of Vaishnava Haldars on Kali worship. Goddess Lakshmi is worshipped in her three forms, Maha Lakshmi, Maha Kali and Maha Saraswati on this day; the temple is visited by thousands of devotees. Another famous temple dedicated to Kali in Kolkata is Dakshineswar Kali Temple; the famous Kali devotee Ramakrishna was a priest at this temple. The celebrations have changed little from his time. Although the popular annual Kali Puja celebration known as the Dipanwita Kali Puja, is celebrated on the new moon day of the month of Kartika, Kali is worshipped in other new moon days too. Two other major Kali Puja observations are Phalaharini Kali Puja. Ratanti puja is celebrated on Magha Krishna Chaturdashi and Phalaharini puja is celebrated on Jyeshta Amavashya of Bengali calendar; the Phalaharini Kali Puja is specially important in the life of the saint Ramakrishna and his wife Sarada Devi, since on this day in 1872, Ramakrishna worshipped Sarada Devi as the goddess Shodashi.
In many Bengali and Assamese households, Kali is worshipped daily. Fuller, Christopher John; the camphor flame: popular Hinduism and society in India. Harding, Elizabeth U. Kali: the black goddess of Dakshineswar. Kinsley, David R. Tantric visions of the divine feminine: the ten mahāvidyās. McDaniel, June. Offering flowers, feeding skulls: popular goddess worship in West Bengal. McDermott, Rachel Fell. Mother of my heart, daughter of my dreams. McDermott, Rachel Fell. Encountering Kālī: at the center, in the West. McDermott, Rachel Fell. Revelry and Longing for the Goddesses of Bengal: The Fortunes of Hindu Festivals. Narasimhananda, Prabuddha Bharata, January 2016, The Phalaharini Kali. Kali Puja celebrated in India and Bangladesh
National Gallery of Modern Art
The National Gallery of Modern Art is the premier art gallery under Ministry of Culture, Government of India. The main museum at Jaipur House in New Delhi was established on 29 March 1954 by the Government of India, with subsequent branches at Mumbai and Bangalore, its collection of more than 14,100 works includes works by artists such as Thomas Daniell, Raja Ravi Verma, Abanindranath Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore, Gaganendranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Jamini Roy, Amrita Sher-Gil as well as foreign artists, apart from sculptures by various artists. Some of the oldest works preserved here date back to 1857. With 12,000 square meters of exhibition space, the Delhi branch is one of the world's largest modern art museums. Situated at the end of Rajpath, in the Central Hexagon around the India Gate, the building was a former residential palace of the Maharaja of Jaipur, hence known as Jaipur House; the butterfly-shaped building with a central dome and built in 1936, designed by Sir Arthur Blomfield, after the construction of Lutyens' Delhi.
The Central Hexagon around the India Gate, where the buildings of leading princely states were situated, was itself designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens. Though the idea of the National Gallery was floated in 1949, it was formally inaugurated by Vice-president Dr S. Radhakrishnan in 1954, in the presence of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Hermann Goetz, a noted German art historian became its first curator and in time it added new facilities such as Art restoration services, an Art reference Library and a Documentation Centre. In 2009, a new wing of the National Gallery of Modern Art was inaugurated adding six times the space to the existing gallery, plus it has a new auditorium, a preview theatre, conservation laboratory and academic section as well as a cafeteria and museum shop; the gallery has works by artists including Thomas Daniell, Raja Ravi Verma, Abanindranath Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore, Gaganendranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Jamini Roy, Amrita Sher-Gil and various other artists. The NGMA has a collection of modern sculptures by famous sculptors like D. P. Roy Choudhury, Chintamoni Kar and Ramkinkar Baij.
The NGMA has a large collection of photographs by Lala Deen Dayal, one of the pioneers of photography in India. National Gallery of Modern Art, Mumbai National Gallery of Modern Art, Bangalore The Last Harvest: Paintings of Rabindranath Tagore Kolkata Museum of Modern Art National Gallery of Modern Art, official website alternate
History of Bengal
The history of Bengal is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions of South Asia and Southeast Asia. It includes modern-day Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam's Barak Valley, located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, at the apex of the Bay of Bengal and dominated by the fertile Ganges delta; the advancement of civilisation in Bengal dates back four millennia. The region was known to Romans as Gangaridai; the Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers act as a geographic marker of the region, but connects the region to the broader Indian subcontinent. Bengal, at times, has played an important role in the history of the Indian subcontinent; the area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas, while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period. A thalassocracy and an entrepôt of the historic Silk Road, Ancient Bengal established colonies on Indian Ocean islands and in Southeast Asia.
The region was part including the Mauryans and Guptas. It was a bastion of regional kingdoms; the citadel of Gauda served as capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire and Hindu Sena Empire. This era saw the development of Bengali language, literature, music and architecture; the Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent absorbed Bengal into the medieval Islamic and Persianate worlds. Between the 1204 and 1352, Bengal was a province of the Delhi Sultanate; this era saw the introduction of the taka as monetary currency, which has endured into the modern era. An independent Bengal Sultanate was formed in 1352 and ruled the region for two centuries, during which a distinct form of Islam based on Sufism and the Bengali language emerged; the ruling elite turned Bengal into the easternmost haven of Indo-Persian culture. The Sultans exerted influence in the Arakan region of Southeast Asia, where Buddhist kings copied the sultanate's governance and fashion. A relationship with Ming China flourished under the sultanate.
The Bengal Sultanate was notable for its Hindu aristocracy, including the rise of Raja Ganesha and his son Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah as usurpers. Hindus served in the royal administration as prime poets. Under the patronage of Sultans like Alauddin Hussain Shah, Bengali literature began replacing the strong influence of Sanskrit in the region. Hindu principalities included the Koch Kingdom, Kingdom of Mallabhum, Kingdom of Bhurshut and Kingdom of Tripura. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Isa Khan, a Muslim Rajput chief, who led the Baro Bhuiyans, dominated the Bengal delta. Following the decline of the sultanate, Bengal came under the suzerainty of the Mughal Empire, as its wealthiest province. Under the Mughals, Bengal Subah generated 50% of the empire's gross domestic product and 12% of the world's GDP, According to economic historian Indrajit Ray, it was globally prominent in industries such as textile manufacturing and shipbuilding, with the capital Dhaka having a population exceeding a million people and being more wealthy than all European empires.
The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire led to quasi-independent states under the Nawabs of Bengal, subsequent Maratha expeditions in Bengal, the conquest by the British East India Company. The British took control of the region from the late 18th century; the company consolidated their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and Battle of Buxar in 1764 and by 1793 took complete control of the region. The plunder of Bengal directly contributed to the Industrial Revolution in Britain, with the capital amassed from Bengal used to invest in British industries such as textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution and increase British wealth, while at the same time leading to deindustrialisation in Bengal. Kolkata served for many years as the capital of British controlled territories in India; the early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in the expansion of Western education, culminating in development of science, institutional education, social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali renaissance.
A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal—a state of India—and East Bengal—a part of the newly created Dominion of Pakistan that became the independent nation of Bangladesh in 1971. The exact origin of the word Bangla is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang/Banga that settled in the area around the year 1000 BCE. Other accounts speculate that the name is derived from Venga, which came from the Austric word "Bonga" meaning the Sun-god. According to the Mahabharata, the Puranas and the Harivamsha, Vanga was one of the adopted sons of King Vali who founded the Vanga Kingdom, it was either under Kalinga Rules except few years under Pals. The earliest reference to "Vangala" has been traced in the Nesari plates of Rashtrakuta Govinda III which speak of Dharmapala as the king of Vangala; the records of Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty, who invaded Bengal in the 11th century, use the term Vangaladesa.
The term Bangalah is one of the precursors to the modern terms Bengal an
Chand Sadagar, was a rich and powerful merchant of Champak Nagar, Mahasthangarh/ Kasba in ancient. Narayan Dev gave an account in his Manasamangal about the merchant ship of the trader Chand Saudagar proceeding to the sea, passing through Saptagram and Tribeni, the tri junction of the Ganges and Yamuna. According to Hindu mythology, Chand Sadagar was an ardent devotee of Shiva but Manasa had set her mind on making him a devotee, she tried all the tricks to force Chand Sadagar to change his mind but he was determined and protected himself with the mantras or mystic words he had received from Shiva. However, when Manasa appeared to him as a beautiful woman, he let. Thereafter, he lost his supernatural powers, he took the help of Sankara, whose capabilities were more than his when he had full powers, but Manasa killed him and made Chand Sadagar helpless again. When Chand Sadagar still refused to be intimidated into worshipping Manasa, she started sending serpents that killed all his six sons, his trading interests collapsed.
In the midst of such adversity his determination revived and he set out on a sea voyage to rebuild his business. After a successful business tour he set sail for home, his ship laden with treasure. Manasa launched a storm, although Chand Sadagar survived with support from Durga, she was asked to withdraw by Shiva on a request from Manasa. Once that happened Chand Sadagar's ship was wrecked, but Manasa swept him ashore at a place where an old friend Chadraketu lived. Chandraketu tried his best to bring him round to the goddess Manasa but Chand Sadagar steadfastly refused, he became a beggar and lost everything but still worshipped only Shiva and Durga, refusing to bow to Manasa, who felt that she could never win over Chand Sadagar on her own and took the help of two friends in heaven – two Apsaras. They agreed to be born on earth, one as Chand Sadagar's son and the other as daughter of Saha, a business associate of Chand Sadagar. Having returned to Champak Nagar, Chand Sadagar managed to rebuild his life.
A son was born to him. They named the boy Lakshmindara. At around the same time Saha's wife gave birth to a daughter. Both the children grew up together and were a perfect made-for-each-other, but when their horoscopes were tallied, it was predicted that Lakshmindara would die of snake-bite on the wedding night. However, as both the children were devotees of Manasa and were so well matched that the marriage went ahead. In spite of all the precautions, Manasa had her way, one of the snakes, sent by her, killed Lakshmindara. To get back her husband's life from the Gods in the heavens, Behula sailed with her dead husband in a raft towards Heaven, she faced many dangers during her long and difficult journey. After she pleaded with the goddess, Manasa said, “You deserve to have him back, but this can only be done if you promise to convert your father-in-law to my worship". Chand Sadagar reluctantly agree. Chand Sadagar worshipped Manasa on the eleventh day of the waning moon every month, he could not forgive the goddess for all the suffering.
He turned his face away from her image. Manasa did not hold anything against him for that. From on Chand Sadagar and his family lived in peace and prosperity. Chand Sadagar's status and prestige ensured that the worship of Manasa became accepted and respectable. Champak Nagar is placed in Chaygaon, about 30 km from Guwahati and few in Anga; the ruins unearthed in the village Gokul, 3 km to the south of the Mahasthangarh citadel, 9 km north of Bogra, off the Bogra-Rangpur road, connected by a narrow motorable road about 1 km, is known as Gokul Medh, but is locally called Behular Basar Ghar or Lakshmindaraer Medh. Excavations in 1934-36 revealed a terraced podium with 172 rectangular blind cells, it is dated 6th-7th century. Local mythology associates it with legendary Lakshmindara-Behula. In the Mahasthangarh area in village Chenghispur, 700 m west of the north-west corner of the citadel has revealed remains of a temple; the mound is named after wife of Chand Sadagar. The Karatoya once now a small stream flows nearby.
Champaknagari is believed to be located near Kasba. There are two mounds there – locals believe one to be Behula’s basarghar and the other to be Santali pahar. Both the mounds are believed to have association with Chand Sadagar. Sundarban Tiger Reserve, is associated as the place where Neta, foster mother of Manasa and worked as a washerwoman. A temple at Howrah, a Kolkata neighborhood, is believed to have been built by Chand Sadagar. Between the citadel and the eastern embankment at Gaur, a ruined structure, is claimed to be the house of Chand Sadagar. In 1927, Manmatha Roy wrote the mythological play Chand Saudagar. In 1934, Prafulla Roy directed a film Chand Saudagar in which Dhiraj Bhattacharya played the role of Lakshmindara, Ahindra Choudhury that of Chand Sadagar, Devbala of Manasa, Sefalika Devi of Behula, Jahar Ganguli of Kalu Sardar, Indubala of a singer, Niharbala of Neta Dhobani, Padmabati of Sanaka and Usharani of Amala, it was written by Manmatha Roy. Film editing was by Akhil Neogi.
In 2010, Star Jalsha create a serial "Behula"