A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Italica was an elaborate Roman city in the province of Hispania Baetica. It was the birthplace of Roman Emperor Trajan, most that of Hadrian and that of Theodosius; the modern town of Santiponce overlies the pre-Roman Iberian settlement and part of the well-preserved Roman city. The nearby native and Roman city of Hispalis was and would remain a larger city, but Italica was founded in 206 BC by the great Roman general Publius Cornelius Scipio to settle his victorious veterans from the Second Punic Wars against Hannibal and the Carthaginians, close enough to the Guadalquivir to control the area; the city was built upon a native Iberian town of the Turdetani dating back at least to the 4th c. BC; the name Italica reflected the veterans' Italian origins, i.e from auxiliary Italic units. The vetus urbs developed into a prosperous city and was built on a Hippodamian street plan with public buildings and a forum at the centre, linked to a busy river port. At some point members of the Roman tribes Gens Ulpia and Aelia had moved to Italica, as these tribes were the respective families of the Roman emperors Trajan and Hadrian who were born here.
Italica thrived under the patronage of Hadrian, like many other cities in the empire under his influence at this time, but it was favoured as his birthplace. He expanded the city northwards as the nova urbs and, upon its request, elevated it to the status of colonia as Colonia Aelia Augusta Italica though Hadrian expressed his surprise as it enjoyed the rights of "Municipium", he added temples, including the enormous and unique Trajaneum in the centre of the city to venerate his predecessor and adopted father, rebuilt public buildings. The city started to dwindle as early as the 3rd century; the city may have been the birthplace of the emperor Theodosius I. Italica was important enough in late Antiquity to have a bishop of its own, had a garrison during the Visigothic age; the walls were restored by Leovigildo in 583 AD during his struggles against Hermenegildo. In recent centuries, the ruins became the subject of visits and despair by many foreign travellers who wrote about and sometimes illustrated their impressions.
Italica's prestige and fame were not enough, however, to save it from being the subject of continued looting, a permanent quarry for materials from Ancient times to modern ones. In 1740 the city of Seville ordered demolition of the walls of the amphitheatre to build a dam on the Guadalquivir, in 1796 the urbs vetus was used to build the new Camino Real of Extremadura; the first law of protection for the site took effect in 1810 under the Napoleonic occupation, reinstating its old name of Italica, allocating an annual budget for regular excavation. One of the first excavators was the British textile merchant and Seville resident Nathan Wetherell, who uncovered nearly 20 Roman inscriptions in the vicinity of Italica in the 1820s that were donated to the British Museum. Regular excavation, did not materialise until 1839-1840. By Royal Order of 1912 Italica was declared a National Monument, but it was not until 2001 that the archaeological site of Italica and the areas of protection were defined.
As no modern city covered many of Italica's buildings, the result is an unusually well-preserved Roman city with cobbled Roman streets and mosaic floors still in situ. Many rich finds can be seen in the Seville Archaeological Museum, with its famous marble colossus of Trajan; the archaeological site of Italica encompasses the urbs nova with its many fine buildings from the Hadrianic period. The original urbs vetus lies under the present town of Santiponce. Extensive excavation and renovation of the site has been done and is continuing; the small baths and the Theatre are some of the oldest visible remains. Italica’s amphitheatre was the third largest in the Roman Empire at the time, being larger than the Tours Amphitheatre in France, it seated about half as many as the Colosseum in Rome. The size is surprising given that the city's population at the time is estimated to have been only 8,000, shows that the local elite demonstrated status that extended far beyond Italica itself through the games and theatrical performances they funded as magistrates and public officials.
From the same period is the elite quarter with several beautiful houses decorated with splendid mosaics visible today the: House of the Exedra House of the Neptune Mosaic House of the Birds Mosaic House of the Planetarium Mosaic House of Hylas House of the Rhodian Patio. The Traianeum was a large, imposing temple in honour of the Emperor Trajan, built by his adopted son and successor, Hadrian, it occupies a central double insula at the highest point of nova urbs. It measures 108 x 80 m and is surrounded by a large porticoed square with alternating rectangular and semicircular exedra around its exterior housing sculptures; the temple precinct was decorated with over a hundred columns of expensive Cipollino marble from Euboea, various fountains. The aqueduct of 37 km total length was first built in the 1st c. AD and extended under Hadrian to add a more distant source for supplying the expanded city, it fed a huge cistern at the edge of the city. Some of the piers of the arches are still visible near the city.
Caños de Carmona Italica ho
Coria del Río
Coria del Río is a small town near Seville, on the shores of Guadalquivir river. Early in the 17th Century, daimyō Date Masamune of Sendai sent a delegation led by Hasekura Tsunenaga to Europe. An embassy was set up and six samurai stayed on. 700 of Coria's 25,000 residents use the surname Japón, identifying them as the descendants of the first Japanese official envoy to Spain. The name first appeared on an official document in 1646; some babies born within the town are known to display the mongolian spot, common in Asians. A statue of Hasekura Tsunenaga was donated to the city by Japan in 1992 and stands watch over the river; the football club Coria CF hails from Coria del Río. "Coria del Río"
Dos Hermanas is a Spanish city 15 km south of Seville in Andalusia, with a population of 131,317 as of 2015. The city's name, which means "two sisters", dates from its founding in 1248 by King Ferdinand III of Castile and honours Elvira and Estefanía Nazareno, the two sisters of Gonzalo Nazareno, one of the king's principal military commanders. For this reason natives of Dos Hermanas are called nazarenos/as. In Tirso de Molina's play El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra, Dos Hermanas is mentioned as the place where Don Juan Tenorio manages to interpose himself in the marriage of two plebeians and Batricio, whom he cleverly deceives; the Trickster of Seville and Stone Guest is the play from which the myth of "Don Juan" derives the name. The main economic activities of the city today are the production and distribution of olive oil and "Spanish olives", together with a significant number of service industries. At Dos Hermanas, south of Los Palacios, there is a powerful broadcasting mediumwave facility with a 232 metre tall guyed mast, used for the transmission of the first program of RNE with 300 kW on 684 kHz.
The transmitter, most designated as "RNE-1 Sevilla" can be received at night throughout Europe and northern Africa. The members of Spanish lounge music duo Los del Río are natives of Dos Hermanas and still reside in the city. Spanish popstar Melody comes from Dos Hermanas. In 2014 a controversy was sparked when an interviewer for Cuatro TV asked her how come she spoke so well'in spite of coming from Dos Hermanas'; this sparked a large debate on Madrid-centric snobbery. Its football club, Dos Hermanas CF, was founded in 1971, it plays in the highest league in the region. It has had four spells playing in national leagues, including the third tier, the Segunda B, between 1999 and 2002, it returned to regional football in 2010. Media related to Dos Hermanas at Wikimedia Commons Official city council site
Constantina is a Spanish municipality located in the province of Seville, in Andalusia. It has a population of 6757 and an area of 483 km², it is 87 km from Seville. Sierra Norte de Sevilla Ayuntamiento de Constantina Constantina at the Instituto de Estadística de Andalucía
Comarcas of Spain
In Spain traditionally and some autonomous communities are divided into comarcas. Some comarcas have a defined status, are regulated by law and their comarcal councils have some power. In some other cases their legal status is not formal for they correspond to natural areas, like valleys, river basins and mountainous areas, or to historical regions overlapping different provinces and ancient kingdoms. In such comarcas or natural regions municipalities have resorted to organizing themselves in mancomunidad, like the Taula del Sénia, the only legal formula that has allowed those comarcas to manage their public municipal resources meaningfully. There is a comarca, the Cerdanya, divided between two states, the southwestern half being counted as a comarca of Spain, while the northeastern half is part of France. In English, a comarca is equivalent to a district, area or zone. Alto Almanzora Poniente Almeriense Níjar Los Vélez Levante Almería Bahía de Cádiz Bajo Guadalquivir called Costa Noroeste Campo de Gibraltar La Janda Campiña de Jerez called Marco de Jerez Sierra de Cádiz Alto Guadalquivir Campiña de Baena Campiña Este - Guadajoz Campiña Sur Los Pedroches Subbetica Valle del Guadiato Valle Medio del Guadalquivir Granadin Alpujarra Comarca de Alhama Comarca de Baza Comarca de Guadix Comarca de Huéscar Comarca de Loja Granadin Coast Los Montes Lecrin Valley Vega de Granada Andévalo Condado de Huelva Cuenca Minera de Huelva Costa Occidental de Huelva Huelva Sierra de Huelva Alto Guadalquivir - Cazorla La Campiña El Condado Área Metropolitana de Jaén La Loma Las Villas Norte Sierra Mágina Sierra de Segura Sierra Sur de Jaén Antequera Axarquía Costa del Sol Occidental Málaga Serranía de Ronda Valle del Guadalhorce Aljarafe Bajo Guadalquivir Campiña Estepa Marisma Sierra Norte Sierra Sur La Vega Alto Gállego Bajo Cinca called Baix Cinca Cinca Medio Hoya de Huesca called Plana de Uesca Jacetania La Litera called La Llitera Monegros Ribagorza Sobrarbe Somontano de Barbastro Bajo Martín Jiloca Cuencas Mineras Andorra-Sierra de Arcos Bajo Aragón Comunidad de Teruel Maestrazgo Sierra de Albarracín Comarca, named after the Sierra de Albarracín mountain range Gúdar-Javalambre Matarraña called Matarranya Aranda Bajo Aragón-Caspe called Baix Aragó-Casp Campo de Belchite Campo de Borja Campo de Cariñena Campo de Daroca Cinco Villas Comunidad de Calatayud Ribera Alta del Ebro Ribera Baja del Ebro Tarazona y el Moncayo Valdejalón Zaragoza Avilés Caudal Eo-Navia Gijón / Xixón Nalón Narcea Oriente Oviedo / Uviéu Serra de Tramuntana Es Raiguer Es Pla Migjorn Llevant Menorca Eivissa Formentera Añana Aiara / Ayala Agurain / Salvatierra Vitoria-Gasteiz Zuia Arabako Mendialdea / Montaña Alavesa Arabako Errioxa / Rioja Alavesa Arratia-Nerbioi Busturialdea Durangaldea Enkarterri Greater Bilbao Lea-Artibai Uribe Bidasoa-Txingudi Debabarrena Debagoiena Goierri Donostialdea Tolosaldea Urola Kosta Fuerteventura Lanzarote Las Palmas El Hierro La Gomera La Palma Tenerife Valle de Güímar Valle de la Orotava Icod Daute Isla Baja Isora-Teno Tenerife Sur Tenerife Sur Acentejo Metropolitana-Anaga Comarca de Santander Besaya Saja-Nansa Costa occidental Costa oriental Trasmiera Pas-Miera Asón-Agüera Liébana Campoo-Los Valles Alt Penedès Anoia Bages Baix Llobregat Barcelonès Berguedà Garraf Maresme Moianès Osona Vallès Occidental Vallès Oriental Alt Empordà Baix Empordà Baixa Cerdanya Garrotxa Gironès Osona Pla de l'Estany Ripollès Selva Alt Urgell Alta Ribagorça Baixa Cerdanya Garrigues Noguera Pallars Jussà Pallars Sobirà Pla d'Urgell Segarra Segrià Solsonès Urgell Val d'Aran Alt Camp Baix Camp Baix Ebre Baix Penedès Conca de Barberà Montsià Priorat Ribera d'Ebre Tarragonès Terra Alta Llanos de Albacete Campos de Hellín La Mancha del Júcar-Centro La Manchuela Monte Ibérico–Corredor de Almansa Sierra de Alcaraz y Campo de Montiel Sierra del Segura Campo de Montiel.
Alcarria conquense. La Mancha de Cuenca. Manchuela conquense. Serranía Alta. Serranía Baja. Serranía Media-Campichuelo. Campiña de Guadalajara Campiña del Henares La Alcarria La Serranía Señorío de Molina-Alto Tajo Campo de San Juan La Jara La Campana de Oropesa Mancha Alta de Toledo Mesa de Ocaña Montes de Toledo La Sagra Sierra de San Vicente Tierras de Talavera Torrijos La Moraña Comarca de Ávila Comarca de El Barco de Ávila - Piedrahíta Comarca de Burgohondo - El Tiemblo - Cebreros Comarca de Arenas de San Pedro Merindades Páramos La Bureba Ebro Odra-Pisuerga Alfoz de Burgos Montes de Oca Arlanza Sierra de la Demanda Ribera del Duero La Montaña de Luna La Montaña de Riaño La Cabrera Astorga El Bierzo Tierras de León La Bañeza El Páramo Esla-Campos Sahagún Cerrato Palentino Montaña Palentina Páramos Valles Tierra de Campos Comarca de Vitigudino Comarca de Ciudad Rodrigo La Armuña Las Villas Tierra de Peñaranda Tierra de Cantalapiedra Tierra de Ledesma Comarca de Guijuelo Tierra de Alba Sierra de Béjar Sierra de Francia Campo de Salamanca An official classification establishes three comarcas: Segovia.
Cuéllar. Sepúlveda.or sometimes four: Tierra de Pinares. Segovia. Sepúlveda. Tierra de Ayllón. However, historic approaches establish six comarcas: Tierra de Pinares. Tierra de Ayllón. Tierras de Cantalejo y
Alcalá de Guadaíra
Alcalá de Guadaíra is a town located 17 km southeast of Seville, Spain. Alcalá used to be known as Alcalá de los Panaderos; the town is located on the banks of the Guadaíra River, watermills built during the Moorish period of Spain can still be found in the area. Irippo, the main Turdetan city in the Guadaíra basin, was located in Mesa de Gandul, minted its own coin in Roman times; the site of Alcalá was taken by Muslim forces in the 8th century and their name has held to modern times. Alcalá de Guadaíra was under the domination of multiple Muslim kingdoms from the Umayyad Caliphate in 756 to the fall of the Almohads in 1244, it was the Almohads. These fortifications continue to dominate the south-west side of the town. In 1244, Alcalá de Guadaíra was captured by Ferdinand III of Castile, responsible for the refurbishing of the castle and town fortifications, which were subsequently used as a royal prison with a military presence. Following Ferdinand's death it ceased to be a prison or military barracks.
Alcalá was home to a important Jewish community. In December, 1390, Archdeacon Ferand Martinez led a mob; the members of the Jewish community were soon after put to the sword. This town was the birthplace of Leandro José de Flores and historian; the current walls date to the 14th century. In the castle precincts is The Hermitage of Our Lady of the Eagle, this building dates from the mid-13th century when it was the principal church of the town. Over subsequent centuries, as the town expanded, more churches were constructed and the church of Santiago became the principal parish. Many of the valuable artifacts were taken from the hermitage to Santiago but the image of "La Virgin del Águila" remains there; the image of the virgin is a replica of the original, destroyed in 1936. The nearby Marchenilla Castle was built on the ruins of a Roman estate. Without doubt Alcalá de Guadaíra is an industrial town, its industrial heritage started in the watermills constructed by the Moors on the banks of the River Guadaíra.
These mills were used to grind grain to make flour. This led over the centuries to Alcalá's reputation as the "bread basket" of Seville; the other industry of historical times was the processing of olives. There were up to 12 olive processing factories in Alcalá in the early 20th century employing many thousands of workers, predominantly women, to prepare the olives for sale after they had been cured. Both of these industries have fallen into decline but have been replaced by a wide range of modern light and heavy industries on the numerous industrial estates in the north and west of the municipality; the town provides employment not only for residents of local towns. Situated in southern Spain, Alcalá enjoys a mediterranean climate characterised by mild wet winters and hot dry summers; the town is on elevated terrain in relation to Seville, this area is known as Los Alcores, Alcalá is the largest urban development in this area. The River Guadaíra runs through the town and has in places formed a steep sided valley with low cliffs.
The upper river watershed is from the land to the east and south-east of the town, it proceeds through the town and joins the Guadalquivir to the south of Seville. The river has for many years been contaminated with the by-products of olive processing and other waste being dumped directly into the river. Large amounts of foam and an unpleasant smell are not uncommon features of the river in the winter. In spite of this the river provides a haven for much wildlife as its banks are well covered with trees and vegetation; until the beginning of the 20th century, in 1930 the dam was built in the Guadalquivir river as it passes Alcala del Rio, the Guadaira river was a major spawning river basin for the European Sturgeon sustaining a successful fishery and a caviar industry in the area. On the southern side of the river is a large area of stone pine woodland, Oromana; the A-92 motorway runs east–west through the north part of the town and the A-392 road runs from NE to SW through the town