The Golden Gate (MacLean novel)
The Golden Gate is a novel written by the Scottish author Alistair MacLean. It was first released in the United Kingdom by Collins in 1976 and in the same year by Doubleday in the United States. A team of criminals led by mastermind Peter Branson kidnaps the President of the United States and his two guests from the Middle East, a prince and a king, on San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge, in a masterfully conceived and clockwork-timed operation. Branson and his men block off both ends of the bridge, wire it with explosives, demand half a billion dollars and a full pardon for themselves. Any rescue attempts will result in the detonation of the explosives, which will kill the President and destroy the Golden Gate Bridge. However, Branson is an egomaniac, he cannot resist attention from the media. So he invites the press to cover the story. Aware that the FBI will have placed agents among them, he takes the precaution of searching them and removing the armed ones. However, Hagenbach has an ace in the hole: a hand-picked special agent, Paul Revson, equipped with only a camera.
Allowed to remain on the bridge, Revson sets out to rescue the President. With the help of a doctor and a female journalist, Revson gets a message to his superiors, suggesting various courses of action: supplying drugged food to the terrorists, placing a submarine under the bridge, trying to neutralize the terrorists' equipment with a laser beam, he arranges for several disguised weapons and gadgets to be smuggled to him. Working on both ends, Revson and those working with them unleash their own conceived plans; the book was the first of three. The book was a best seller; the Los Angeles Times thought Maclean was "going through the motions". The New York Times thought it was "nonsense, but agreeable nonsense... fun." Film rights were bought by Lew Grade's ITC, who announced the film version would be part of a slate of films worthr $97 million. Filming was to directed by Jerry Jameson; however filming did not take place. In October 1978 ITC announced the film was one of their "contemplated productions."
The film was never made. Book review at AlistairMacLean.com
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Bear Island (novel)
Bear Island is a thriller novel by Scottish author Alistair MacLean. Published in 1971 with a cover by Norman Weaver, it was the last of MacLean's novels to be written in first-person narrative; this novel is a murder mystery with the added twist that the scene of the crimes is Bear Island, an island in the Svalbard archipelago of the Norwegian Arctic. A converted fishing trawler, Morning Rose carries a movie-making crew across the Barents Sea to isolated Bear Island, well above the Arctic Circle, for some on-location filming, but the script is a secret known only to the producer and screenwriter. En route, members of the movie crew and ship's company begin to die under mysterious circumstances; the crew's doctor, finds himself enmeshed in a violent, multi-layered plot in which few of the persons aboard are whom they claim to be. Marlowe's efforts to unravel the plot become more complicated once the movie crew is deposited ashore on Bear Island, beyond the reach of the law or outside help; the murders continue ashore, Marlowe, not what he seems to be either, discovers they may be related to some forgotten events of the Second World War.
The novel sold over 8 million copies. Bear Island was adapted to film in the 1980 movie directed by Don Sharp and starred Donald Sutherland, Richard Widmark, Vanessa Redgrave, Christopher Lee; the film was shot in Canada and Alaska, the scenery bears little resemblance to Bear Island. Furthermore, the plot and characterization of the novel were altered by the scriptwriters, to the point of changing the name of the protagonist from “Marlowe” to “Lansing”. Book review at AlistairMacLean.com Internet Movie Database
The Guns of Navarone (novel)
The Guns of Navarone is a 1957 novel about the Second World War by Scottish writer Alistair MacLean, made into the film The Guns of Navarone in 1961. The Greek island of Navarone does not exist and the plot is fictitious; the story is based on the Battle of Leros, Leros island's coastal artillery guns – among the largest naval artillery guns used during World War II – that were built and used by the Italians until Italy capitulated in 1943 and subsequently used by the Germans until their defeat. The story concerns the efforts of an Allied commando team to destroy a impregnable German fortress that threatens Allied naval ships in the Aegean Sea, prevents over 1,200 isolated British soldiers from being rescued; the story is based on the real events surrounding the Battle of Leros in World War II. The Guns of Navarone brings together elements that would characterise much of MacLean's subsequent works: tough, worldly men as main characters, its three principal characters — New Zealand mountaineer-turned-commando Keith Mallory, American demolitions expert "Dusty" Miller, Greek resistance fighter Andrea – are among the most drawn in all of MacLean's work.
The island of Navarone, off the Turkish coast, has been fortified as the Germans attempt to stifle British naval activity in the Aegean. A force of twelve hundred British soldiers is now marooned on the nearby island of Kheros and the Royal Navy is planning to send ships to rescue them; the heavy radar-controlled guns command the only deepwater channel that ships can use and must be silenced at all costs. Commando attacks have failed and after a bombardment by B-24 Liberator bombers fails to destroy the guns, Captain James Jensen RN, Chief of Operations for SOE in Cairo, decides to launch a desperate last-ditch attempt which he has planned in case the bombing is unsuccessful, he has drawn together a team of specialist saboteurs to infiltrate the island via the "unclimbable" south cliff and get into the fortress to destroy the guns. They have less than one week; the team meet for the first time in Alexandria. They comprise: Captain Keith Mallory – a New Zealand officer with the Long Range Desert Group.
Mallory was a pre-war mountain climber, nicknamed "The Human Fly". He has been operating in the mountains of German-held Crete. Andrea – a former Lt. Colonel in the Greek army, a ruthless fighter and close friend and confidante of Mallory. Corporal Dusty Miller – an American explosives expert who transferred from the R. A. F. to the LRDG. Miller is described as a cynical man who doubts their chances of success. Petty Officer Telegraphist Casey Brown – a Royal Navy engineer and veteran of the Special Boat Service, he worked as a testing and installation engineer pre-war. Lt Andrew Stevens R. N. V. R. – Stevens is a young naval officer chosen as navigator. Like Mallory, he speaks fluent Greek and is an experienced mountaineer but considers himself an abject coward; the team travel via plane to Castelrosso, a British-held island. Here, they discover an eavesdropper, Nikolai the base laundry boy, who speaks no English but is spying on them anyway, they demand that he be arrested and held incommunicado, but the story implies that this does not happen.
In an ancient caïque they sail towards Navarone. They carry papers identifying themselves as collaborators with, couriers for, the German commandant of the island, they are intercepted by a German patrol boat. They kill all the crew, they manage to land on the island, having lost much of their equipment. They climb the'unclimbable' south cliff. Evading German guards, they travel through heavy snow and rough terrain and are met by Louki, the steward of the exiled owner of the island, Panayis, his enigmatic friend, they bring much needed food. By radio, Jensen tells the team; the ships are coming through that night. But whilst resting in a cave, they are captured by a troop of German specialist mountain soldiers led by Oberleutnant Turzig, who recognises Mallory as a famous climber, they are taken to the town of Margaritha. Thanks to Andrea's diversionary behaviour, they turn the tables on them and Skoda is shot. With Turzig and the others securely tied up, they make their way to the town of Navarone.
They are harassed by troops and planes who are apparently expecting them. With no medical facilities available, Stevens is dying and beyond help, he feels curiously at peace. Miller discovers. Suspicion falls on Panayis, suspected of being a double agent, he admits nothing. Miller shoots him. Mallory and Miller manage to enter the fortress housing the guns, whilst the others create a diversion, they set the explosives and get out to meet the others. They steal a boat and rendezvous with the destroyer HMS Sirdar, leading two others through the deepwater channel. Just in time, the explosives do their work, the guns are destroyed and the ships continue on their way to rescue the soldiers. In 1990 the British Crime Writers' Association placed The Guns of Navarone 89th on its list The Top 100 Crime Nove
Puppet on a Chain
Puppet on a Chain is a novel by Scottish author Alistair MacLean. Published in 1969 with a cover by Norman Weaver, it is set in the late 1960s narcotics underworld of Amsterdam and other locations in the Netherlands. Paul Sherman is a veteran Interpol Narcotics Bureau agent, used to independent action and blunt force tactics, he is assisted by one an experienced operative, the other a rookie. Sherman is in the Netherlands after receiving word about a vicious heroin smuggling ring from a friend. However, the narco-criminals will kill ruthlessly to protect its operation and before Sherman can leave Schiphol Airport he has witnessed the gunning down of his key contact, been knocked half-unconscious by an assassin, tangled with local authorities. "Puppet on a Chain" has the standard twisting plot, local atmospherics, sardonic dialogue that were Maclean's trademarks as a story-teller. Maclean allows his protagonist to have a bantering sarcastic relationship with his assistants that provides a streak of humor as the plot unfolds.
Sherman's relationship with his assistants is used against him. As his investigation is undermined by betrayal, leaving him a half-step behind his adversaries, Sherman must resort to violent action to turn the tables; the story culminates in a violent struggle above the streets of Amsterdam to save the life of his surviving female operative, not knowing whether anyone they meet can be trusted. The New York Times called the book "one of the best in the Greene-Ambler-MacInnes tradition... the writing is as crisp as a sunny winter morning". The book became a best seller. Puppet on a Chain appeared in film as a 1972 movie directed by Geoffrey Reeve; the 1976 super hit Bollywood movie Charas, starring Dharmendra and Hema Malini was an adaptation of this story. Book review at AlistairMacLean.com Internet Movie Database
Nuclear winter is the severe and prolonged global climatic cooling effect hypothesized to occur after widespread firestorms following a nuclear war. The hypothesis is based on the fact that such fires can inject soot into the stratosphere, where it can block some direct sunlight from reaching the surface of the Earth, it is speculated that the resulting cooling would lead to famine. When developing computer models of nuclear-winter scenarios, researchers use the conventional bombing of Hamburg, the Hiroshima firestorm in World War II as example cases where soot might have been injected into the stratosphere, alongside modern observations of natural, large-area wildfire-firestorms. "Nuclear winter," or as it was termed, "nuclear twilight," began to be considered as a scientific concept in the 1980s, after it became clear that an earlier hypothesis, that fireball generated NOx emissions would devastate the ozone layer, was losing credibility. It was within this context that the climatic effects of soot from fires became the new focus of the climatic effects of nuclear war.
In these model scenarios, various soot clouds containing uncertain quantities of soot were assumed to form over cities, oil refineries, more rural missile silos. Once the quantity of soot is decided upon by the researchers, the climate effects of these soot clouds are modeled; the term "nuclear winter" was a neologism coined in 1983 by Richard P. Turco in reference to a 1-dimensional computer model created to examine the "nuclear twilight" idea, this 1-D model output the finding that massive quantities of soot and smoke would remain aloft in the air for on the order of years, causing a severe planet-wide drop in temperature. Turco would distance himself from these extreme 1-D conclusions. After the failure of the predictions on the effects of the 1991 Kuwait oil fires, that were made by the primary team of climatologists that advocate the hypothesis, over a decade passed without any new published papers on the topic. More the same team of prominent modellers from the 1980s have begun again to publish the outputs of computer models, these newer models produce the same general findings as their old ones, that the ignition of 100 firestorms, each comparable in intensity to that observed in Hiroshima in 1945, could produce a "small" nuclear winter.
These firestorms would result in the injection of soot into the Earth's stratosphere, producing an anti-greenhouse effect that would lower the Earth's surface temperature. The severity of this cooling in Alan Robock's model suggests that the cumulative products of 100 of these firestorms could cool the global climate by 1 °C eliminating the magnitude of anthropogenic global warming for two to three years. Robock has not modeled this, but has speculated that it would have global agricultural losses as a consequence; as nuclear devices need not be detonated to ignite a firestorm, the term "nuclear winter" is something of a misnomer. The majority of papers published on the subject state that without qualitative justification, nuclear explosions are the cause of the modeled firestorm effects; the only phenomenon, modeled by computer in the nuclear winter papers is the climate forcing agent of firestorm-soot, a product which can be ignited and formed by a myriad of means. Although discussed, the proponents of the hypothesis state that the same "nuclear winter" effect would occur if 100 conventional firestorms were ignited.
A much larger number of firestorms, in the thousands, was the initial assumption of the computer modelers who coined the term in the 1980s. These were speculated to be a possible result of any large scale employment of counter-value airbursting nuclear weapon use during an American-Soviet total war; this larger number of firestorms, which are not in themselves modeled, are presented as causing nuclear winter conditions as a result of the smoke inputted into various climate models, with the depths of severe cooling lasting for as long as a decade. During this period, summer drops in average temperature could be up to 20 °C in core agricultural regions of the US, China, as much as 35 °C in Russia; this cooling would be produced due to a 99% reduction in the natural solar radiation reaching the surface of the planet in the first few years clearing over the course of several decades. On the fundamental level, since the advent of photographic evidence of tall clouds were captured, it was known that firestorms could inject soot smoke/aerosols into the stratosphere but the longevity of this slew of aerosols was a major unknown.
Independent of the team that continue to publish theoretical models on nuclear winter, in 2006, Mike Fromm of the Naval Research Laboratory, experimentally found that each natural occurrence of a massive wildfire firestorm, much larger than that observed at Hiroshima, can produce minor "nuclear winter" effects, with short-lived one month of a nearly immeasurable drop in surface temperatures, confined to the hemisphere that they burned in. This is somewhat analogous to the frequent volcanic eruptions that inject sulfates into the stratosphere and thereby produce minor negligible, volcanic winter effects. A suite of satellite and aircraft-based firestorm-soot-monitoring instruments are at the forefront of attempts to determine the lifespan, injection height, optical properties of this smoke. Information regarding all of these properties is necessary to ascertain the length and severity of the cooling effect of firestorms, independent of the nuclear winter computer model projections. Presently, from satellite tracking data, stratospheric smoke aerosols dissipate in a time span under two months.
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The Last Frontier (novel)
The Last Frontier is a novel written by Scottish author Alistair MacLean, was first published in 1959. It was released in the United States under the title The Secret Ways; this novel marks MacLean's first foray into the espionage thriller genre, was inspired by the events surrounding the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Writing in the third person narrative, MacLean described the physical and political surroundings with more attention than he has in previous novels, there are moments when MacLean purposely slows the action down to build character development. Michael Reynolds, MacLean's protagonist, is a British secret agent on a wintertime mission inside Hungary at the height of the Cold War. Reynolds must rescue Professor Jennings, an elderly British scientist, held by the communist government against his will. Reynolds is no James Bond and does not have any fancy gadgets but he is resourceful, his biggest advantages against the sometimes cruel and efficient Hungarian Secret Police are an ability to make commonsense on-the-spot decisions and the heroic help of friends in the Hungarian underground.
Reynolds hooks up with the mysterious Jansci and his friend “the Count” and they strive to transport the professor over the border and back to England. The plot has the twists and betrayals in which MacLean specialized, Reynolds realizes that he has only one chance to escape with Jennings before he is captured and killed by the Hungarian secret police; the Last Frontier appeared in film under its alternative title of The Secret Ways in an April 1961 release directed by Phil Karlson. Reynolds was played by Richard Widmark; the movie was filmed in Vienna. It was the first of MacLean's works to appear as a movie, as The Guns of Navarone was not released until June 1961. According to an interview with Euan Lloyd in Cinema Retro magazine and star Widmark had disagreements with Karlson, who felt he should use a tongue-in-cheek approach for the story; because one of the screenwriters was Widmark's wife, Jean Hazelwood, Widmark took over directing the film. Book review at AlistairMacLean.com