Louis Bertrand (saint)
St. Louis Bertrand, O. P. was a Spanish Dominican friar who preached in South America during the 16th century, is known as the "Apostle to the Americas". He is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church. Bertrand was born in Valencia to Juana Angela Exarch. Through his father he was related to a thaumaturgus of the Dominican Order. At an early age he conceived the idea of becoming a Dominican Friar, despite the efforts of his father to dissuade him, was clothed with the Dominican habit in the Convent of St. Dominic, Valencia, on 26 August 1539. After the usual period of probation, he pronounced, he was grave In demeanour and without any sense of humour, yet had a gentle and sweet disposition that endeared him to those with whom he came in contact. While he could lay no claim to great intellectual gifts, he applied. In 1547 he was ordained to the priesthood by the archbishop of St. Thomas of Villanova, he was appointed to the office of master of novices in the convent at Valencia, the duties of which he discharged at different intervals for an aggregate of thirty years.
When the plague broke out in Valencia in 1557 he devoted himself to the sick and dying. When the plague had subsided, the zeal of the holy novice master sought to extend the scope of his large ministry into the apostolate of preaching. Although it is said that "his voice was raucous, his memory treacherous, his carriage without grace", he became a fervent preacher; the cathedral and the most spacious churches were placed at his disposal, but they proved wholly inadequate to accommodate the multitude that desired to hear him. It became necessary for him to resort to the public squares of the city, it was the fame of his preaching that brought him to the attention of St. Teresa, who at this time sought his counsel in the matter of reforming her order. Louis had long cherished the desire to enter the mission fields of the New World. Receiving permission he sailed for America in 1562 and landed at Cartagena, where he entered upon the career of a missionary; the bull of canonization asserts that he was favored with the gift of miracles, while preaching in his native Spanish, was understood in various languages.
With the encouragement of Bartolomé de las Casas, he defended the natives' rights against the Spanish conquerors. From Cartagena, the scene of his first labours, St. Louis was sent to Panama, where in a comparatively short time he converted some 6,000 people, his next mission was at Tubará, situated near the seacoast and midway between the city of Cartagena and the Magdalena River. The success of his efforts at this place is witnessed by the entries of the baptismal registers, in the saint's own handwriting, which show that all the inhabitants of the place were received into the Church. Turon places the number of converts in Tubará at 10,000. From Tubará, Louis went to Paluato, his success at the former place was nearly equal to that at Tubará. At Paluato the results of his zealous efforts were somewhat disheartening. From this unfruitful soil the saint withdrew to the province of Santa Marta, where his former successes were repeated, yielding 15,000 souls. While labouring at Santa Marta, a tribe of 1,500 natives came to him from Paluato to receive baptism, which before they had rejected.
The work at Santa Marta finished, the tireless missionary undertook the work of converting the warlike Caribs inhabitants of the Leeward Islands. His efforts among the tribesmen seem not to have been attended with any great success. Louis used the occasion again to make manifest the protection which overshadowed his ministry. According to legend, a deadly draught was administered to him by one of the native priests. Through Divine interposition, the poison failed to accomplish its purpose. Tenerife in the Canary Islands became the next field of the saint's apostolic labours. There are no records extant to indicate the result of his preaching there. At Mompax, 37 leagues south-east of Cartagena, we are told, rather indefinitely, that many thousands were converted to the faith. Several of the West Indies islands, notably those of St. Vincent and St. Thomas, were visited by Louis. After seven years as a missionary in South America, Bertrand returned to Spain in 1569, to plead the cause of the oppressed Indians, but he was not permitted to return and labour among them.
He used his own growing reputation for sanctity, as well as family and other contacts, to lobby on behalf of the native peoples he had encountered, as well as serving in his native diocese of Valencia. There he became a spiritual counselor to many, including St. Teresa of Ávila. In 1580, Louis was carried down from the pulpit of the Valencia cathedral, he died on 9 October 1582. Louis Bertrand is sometimes called the "Apostle of South America", he was canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. His feast day, as reported in the 2004 Martyrologium Romanum, is observed on October 9. There is a statue of Louis Bertrand on the north colonnade of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; the festival known as La Tomatina is held in Buñol, Valencia, in honor of the town's patron saints, Louis Bertrand and the Mare de Déu dels Desemparats, a title of the Virgin Mary. List of Colombian saints Wilberforce, The Life of St. Louis Bertrand Touron, Histoire des Hommes Illustres de l'Ordre de Saint Dominique, IV 485-526 Roze, Les Dominicains in Amérique (Par
Moriscos were former Muslims and their descendants who were pressured by the Catholic church and the Spanish Crown under the threat of death to convert to Christianity after Spain outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Muslim population in the early 16th century. The government distrusted the Moriscos and began systematic expulsions from Spain's various kingdoms between 1609 and 1614; the most severe expulsions occurred in the eastern Kingdom of Valencia. The exact number of Moriscos present in Spain prior to expulsion is unknown and can only be guessed on the basis of official records of the edict of expulsion. Furthermore, the overall success of the expulsion is subject to academic debate, with estimates on the proportion of those who avoided expulsion or returned to Spain ranging from 5% to 60%; the large majority of those permanently expelled settled on the western fringe of the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Morocco. The last mass prosecution against Moriscos for crypto-Islamic practices occurred in Granada in 1727, with most of those convicted receiving light sentences.
The label morisco for Muslims who were converted to Christianity began to appear in texts from the first half of the sixteenth century, however at this time the term's use was limited. It became widespread in Christian sources during the second half of the century, but it was unclear whether the Moriscos themselves adopted the term. In their texts, it was more common for them to speak of themselves as muslimes, but in periods they might have begun to accept the label. In modern times, the label is in widespread use in Spanish literature and adopted to other languages, including in Modern Standard Arabic which adopts it as al-muriskiyyun; the word morisco itself began to be used in twelfth-century Castilian text as an adjective for the noun moro. These two words are comparable to the English adjective noun Moor; these terms were used by the Castilians in two general senses: "North African" or "Muslim". The terms moro and morisco in this older meaning continued to be used in Spanish after the more specific meaning of morisco became widespread.
According to L. P. Harvey, the two different meanings of the word morisco have resulted in mistakes where modern scholars misread historical text containing morisco in the older meaning as having the newer meaning. In the early years after the forced conversions, the Christians used the terms "New Christians", "New converts", or the longer "New Christians, converted from being Moors" to refer to this group. In 1517, the word morisco became a "category" added to the array of cultural and religious identities that existed at the time, as it was used to denominate the Muslim converts to Christianity in Granada and Castille; the term was a pejorative adaptation of the adjective morisco, that would soon became the standard reference to all Spain's former Muslims". There is no universally agreed figure of Morisco population. Estimates vary because of the lack of precise census, the Moriscos' tendencies to avoid registration and authorities, to pass off as the majority; the population figure might have fluctuated depending on the period, due to factors such as birth rates, forced conversions and/or relocations, emigration.
There is a general agreement among historians that, based on expulsion records, around 275,000 Moriscos were expelled in the early 17th century. Historian L. P. Harvey in 2005 gave a range of 300,000 to 330,000 for the early 16th century. However, Christiane Stallaert put the number at around one million Moriscos at the beginning of the 16th century. Recent studies by Trevor Dadson on the expulsion of the Moriscos propose the figure of 500,000 just before the expulsion, consistent with figures given by other historians. Dadson concludes that, assuming the 275,000 figure from the official expulsion records is correct, around 40% of Spain's Moriscos managed to avoid expulsions altogether and up to a further 20% managed to return to Spain in the years following their expulsion; the Emirate of Granada was the last Muslim Kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula, which surrendered in 1492 to the Catholic forces after a decade-long campaign. Granada was annexed to Castile as the Kingdom of Granada, had a majority Muslim population of between 250,000 and 300,000.
The Treaty of Granada guaranteed their rights to be Muslim but Cardinal Cisneros's effort to convert the population led to the a series of rebellions. The rebellions were suppressed, afterwards the Muslims in Granada were given the choice to remain and accept baptism, reject baptism and be enslaved or killed, or to be exiled; the option of exile was not feasible in practice, hindered by the authorities. Shortly after the rebellions' defeat, the entire Muslim population of Granada had nominally become Christian. Although they converted to Christianity, they maintained their existing customs, including their language, distinct names, food and some ceremonies. Many secretly practiced Islam as they publicly professed and practiced Christianity; this led the Catholic rulers to adopt intolerant and harsh policies to eradicate these characteristics. This culminated in Philip II's Pragmatica of 1 January 1567 which ordered the Moriscos to abandon their customs and language; the pragmatica triggered the Morisco r
Juan de Ribera
Saint Juan de Ribera, was one of the most influential figures of his times, holding appointments as Archbishop and Viceroy of Valencia, patriarch of Antioch, Commander in Chief, president of the Audiencia, Chancellor of the University of Valencia. He was beatified in 1796 and canonized by Pope John XXIII in 1960, his father was Viceroy of Naples and Duke of Alcala. He became an orphan from mother's side at a young age. Juan de Ribera studied at the University of Salamanca. Ordained as priest in 1557, Pope Pius IV appointed him Bishop of Badajoz on 27 May 1562 at the age of 30. There he dedicated himself to teaching the catechism to Roman Catholics and counteracting Protestantism, he was appointed as the Archbishop of Valencia on 3 December 1568. In 1599 he ordained Alfonso Coloma as Bishop of Barcelona. King Philip III of Spain appointed him Viceroy of Valencia in 1602, thus he became both the religious and the civil authority. In this role he founded the Museum of the Patriarch, known among Valencians as College of Saint John, entrusted to the formation of priests according to the spirit and the dispositions of the Council of Trent.
As Archbishop, Ribera dealt with the issue of Valencia's large morisco population, descendants of Muslims who converted to Christianity at threat of exile. The moriscos had been kept separate from the main population by a variety of decrees that prohibited them from holding public office, entering the priesthood, or taking certain other positions; some of them did, in fact. Ribera despised the moriscos as heretics and traitors, a dislike he shared with much of Valencia's Christian populace. With the Duke of Lerma, Ribera helped convince Philip III to at least expel the moriscos instead. Ribera helped sell the plan by noting that all the property of the moriscos could be impounded to provide money for the treasury. In 1609, the expulsion of the moriscos from Spain was decreed. Ribera's original proposal was in fact more extreme: he favored enslaving the entire morisco population for work in galleys and abroad. Ribera said that Philip III could do so "without any scruples of conscience," but this proposal was rejected.
If the moriscos were to be expelled, Ribera favored enslaving and Christianizing at least the children of the moriscos "for the good of their souls" and exiling the parents. This was rejected, though children under 16 years of age who wished to remain in Spain were allowed, an offer few took. Efforts to canonize Ribera, who himself had been active in attempting to canonize Ignatius of Loyola, began shortly after his death. Two concerns were raised about his possible sainthood: his failure to hold a provincial council as mandated by the Council of Trent, his role in the expulsion of the Moriscos, his supporters played up Ribera's adherence to other parts of the Council of Trent, tried to present the Moriscos as unconvertible. Still, efforts proceeded apace, with various admiring biographies of Ribera being published. Ribera was beatified in 1796. In 1960, his canonization was completed under the auspices of Pope John XXIII. Patron Saint's index Lynch, John. Spain under the Habsburgs.. Oxford, England: Alden Mowbray Ltd. pp. 42–51
John the Evangelist
John the Evangelist is the name traditionally given to the author of the Gospel of John. Christians have traditionally identified him with John the Apostle, John of Patmos, or John the Presbyter, although this has been disputed by modern scholars; the Gospel of John refers to an otherwise unnamed "disciple whom Jesus loved", who "bore witness to and wrote" the Gospel's message. The author of the Gospel of John seemed interested in maintaining the internal anonymity of the author's identity, although interpreting the Gospel in the light of the Synoptic Gospels and considering that the author names Peter, that James was martyred as early as 44 AD it has been believed that the author was the Apostle John Christian tradition says that John the Evangelist was John the Apostle; the Apostle John was a historical figure, one of the "pillars" of the Jerusalem church after Jesus' death. He was one of the original twelve apostles and is thought to be the only one to have lived into old age and not be killed for his faith.
It is believed that he was exiled to the Aegean island of Patmos, where he wrote the Book of Revelation. However, some attribute the authorship of Revelation to another man, called John of Patmos or to John the Presbyter. Orthodox Roman Catholic scholarship, most Protestant churches, the entire Eastern Orthodox Church attribute all of the Johannine literature to the same individual, the "Holy Apostle and Evangelist, John the Theologian", whom it identifies with the "Beloved Disciple" in the Gospel of John; the authorship of the Johannine works has been debated by scholars since at least the 2nd century AD. The main debate centers on who authored the writings, which of the writings, if any, can be ascribed to a common author. Orthodox tradition attributes all the books to John the Apostle. In the 6th century, the Decretum Gelasianum argued that Second and Third John have a separate author known as "John, a priest". Historical criticssometimes reject the view. Most modern scholars believe that the apostle John wrote none of these works, although some, such as J.
A. T. Robinson, F. F. Bruce, Leon Morris, Martin Hengel, hold the apostle to be behind at least some, in particular the gospel. There may have been a single author for the three epistles; some scholars conclude the author of the epistles was different from that of the gospel, although all four works originated from the same community. The gospel and epistles traditionally and plausibly came from Ephesus, c. 90–110, although some scholars argue for an origin in Syria. In the case of Revelation, most modern scholars agree that it was written by a separate author, John of Patmos, c. 95 with some parts dating to Nero's reign in the early 60s. The feast day of Saint John in the Catholic Church, which calls him "Saint John and Evangelist", in the Anglican Communion and Lutheran Calendars, which call him "John and Evangelist", is on 27 December, the third day of Christmastide. In the Tridentine Calendar he was commemorated on each of the following days up to and including 3 January, the Octave of the 27 December feast.
This Octave was abolished by Pope Pius XII in 1955. The traditional liturgical color is white. John is traditionally depicted in one of two distinct ways: either as an aged man with a white or gray beard, or alternatively as a beardless youth; the first way of depicting him was more common in Byzantine art, where it was influenced by antique depictions of Socrates. In Medieval works of painting and literature, Saint John is presented in an androgynous or femininized manner. Historians have related such portrayals to the circumstances of the believers for whom they were intended. For instance, John's feminine features are argued to have helped to make him more relatable to women. Sarah McNamer argues that because of John's androgynous status, he could function as an'image of a third or mixed gender' and'a crucial figure with whom to identify' for male believers who sought to cultivate an attitude of affective piety, a emotional style of devotion that, in late-medieval culture, was thought to be poorly compatible with masculinity.
Legends from the Acts of John contributed much to Medieval iconography. One of John's familiar attributes is the chalice with a snake emerging from it. According to one legend from the Acts of John, John was challenged to drink a cup of poison to demonstrate the power of his faith; the chalice can be interpreted with reference to the Last Supper, or to the words of Christ to John and James: "My chalice indeed you shall drink". According to the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia, some authorities believe that this symbol was not adopted until the 13th century. Another common attribute is a scroll, in reference to his writings. In France the saint is symbolically represented by an eagle, one of the creatures envisioned by Ezekiel and in the Book of Revelation. John the Evangelist Churches dedicated to St. John the Evangelist Eagle of St. John Luke the Evangelist Mark the Evangelist Matthew the Evangelist "Saint John the Apostle." Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Answers.com St. John the Evangelist at the Christian Iconography web site Caxton's translations of the Golden Legend's two chapters on St. John: Of St. John the Evangelist and The History of St. John Port Latin
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil War took place from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with the Anarchists and Communists, fought against the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists and Catholics, led by General Francisco Franco. Due to the international political climate at the time, the war had many facets, different views saw it as class struggle, a war of religion, a struggle between dictatorship and republican democracy, between revolution and counterrevolution, between fascism and communism; the Nationalists won the war in early 1939 and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975. The war began after a pronunciamiento against the Republican government by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces under the leadership of José Sanjurjo; the government at the time was a moderate, liberal coalition of Republicans, supported in the Cortes by communist and socialist parties, under the leadership of centre-left President Manuel Azaña.
The Nationalist group was supported by a number of conservative groups, including the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups, including both the opposing sides of Alfonsists and the religious conservative Carlists, the Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista, a fascist political party. Sanjurjo was killed in an aircraft accident while attempting to return from exile in Portugal, whereupon Franco emerged as the leader of the Nationalists; the coup was supported by military units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Burgos, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba, Seville. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Valencia, Málaga—did not gain control, those cities remained under the control of the government. Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided; the Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country. The Nationalist forces received munitions and air support from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican side received support from the Soviet Union and Mexico.
Other countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, continued to recognise the Republican government, but followed an official policy of non-intervention. Notwithstanding this policy, tens of thousands of citizens from non-interventionist countries directly participated in the conflict, they fought in the pro-Republican International Brigades, which included several thousand exiles from pro-Nationalist regimes. The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west, capturing most of Spain's northern coastline in 1937, they besieged Madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war. After much of Catalonia was captured in 1938 and 1939, Madrid cut off from Barcelona, the Republican military position became hopeless. Madrid and Barcelona were occupied without resistance, Franco declared victory and his regime received diplomatic recognition from all non-interventionist governments. Thousands of leftist Spaniards fled to refugee camps in southern France.
Those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists. With the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime; the war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides. Organised purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces so they could consolidate their future regime. A significant number of killings took place in areas controlled by the Republicans; the extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied. The 19th century was a turbulent time for Spain; those in favour of reforming Spain's government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place. Some liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish Constitution of 1812, sought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain and to establish a liberal state.
The reforms of 1812 did not last after King Ferdinand VII dissolved the Constitution and ended the Trienio Liberal government. Twelve successful coups were carried out between 1814 and 1874; until the 1850s, the economy of Spain was based on agriculture. There was little development of a bourgeois commercial class; the land-based oligarchy remained powerful. In 1868 popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon. Two distinct factors led to the uprisings: a series of urban riots and a liberal movement within the middle classes and the military concerned with the ultra-conservatism of the monarchy. In 1873 Isabella's replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicated owing to increasing political pressure, the short-lived First Spanish Republic was proclaimed. After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874, Carlists and Anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy. Alejandro Lerroux, Spanish politician and leader of the Radical Republican Party, helped bring republicanism to the fore in Catalonia, where poverty was acute.
Growing resentment of conscription and of the military culminated in the Tragic Week in Barcelona in 1909. Spain was neutral in World War I. Following the war, the working class, industrial class, military united in hopes of removing the corrupt central government, but were unsuc
Gothic architecture is a style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages. It was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France, it was used for cathedrals and churches, until the 16th century, its most prominent features included the use of the rib vault and the flying buttress, which allowed the weight of the roof to be counterbalanced by buttresses outside the building, giving greater height and more space for windows. Another important feature was the extensive use of stained glass, the rose window, to bring light and color to the interior. Another feature was the use of realistic statuary on the exterior over the portals, to illustrate biblical stories for the illiterate parishioners; these technologies had all existed in Romanesque architecture, but they were used in more innovative ways and more extensively in Gothic architecture to make buildings taller and stronger. The first notable example is considered to be the Abbey of Saint-Denis, near Paris, whose choir and facade were reconstructed with Gothic features.
The choir was completed in 1144. The style appeared in some civic architecture in northern Europe, notably in town halls and university buildings. A Gothic revival began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th century Europe and continued for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century. Gothic architecture was known during the period as opus francigenum, The term "Gothic architecture" originated in the 16th century, was very negative, suggesting barbaric. Giorgio Vasari used the term "barbarous German style" in his 1550 Lives of the Artists to describe what is now considered the Gothic style, in the introduction to the Lives he attributed various architectural features to "the Goths" whom he held responsible for destroying the ancient buildings after they conquered Rome, erecting new ones in this style; the Gothic style originated in the Ile-de-France region of northern France in the first half of the 12th century. A new dynasty of French Kings, the Capetians, had subdued the feudal lords, had become the most powerful rulers in France, with their capital in Paris.
They allied themselves with the bishops of the major cities of northern France, reduced the power of the feudal abbots and monasteries. Their rise coincided with an enormous growth of the population and prosperity of the cities of northern France; the Capetian Kings and their bishops wished to build new cathedrals as monuments of their power and religious faith. The church which served as the primary model for the style was the Abbey of St-Denis, which underwent reconstruction by the Abbot Suger, first in the choir and the facade, Suger was a close ally and biographer of the French King, Louis VII, a fervent Catholic and builder, the founder of the University of Paris. Suger remodeled the ambulatory of the Abbey, removed the enclosures that separated the chapels, replaced the existing structure with imposing pillars and rib vaults; this created higher and wider bays, into which he installed larger windows, which filled the end of the church with light. Soon afterwards he rebuilt the facade, adding three deep portals, each with a tympanum, an arch filled with sculpture illustrating biblical stories.
The new facade was flanked by two towers. He installed a small circular rose window over the central portal; this design became the prototype for a series of new French cathedrals. Sens Cathedral was the first Cathedral to be built in the new style. Other versions of the new style soon appeared in Noyon Cathedral; the Gothic style was adapted by some French monastic orders, notably the Cistercian order under Saint Bernard of Clairvaux It was used in an austere form without ornament at the new Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay and the church of Clairvaux Abbey, whose site is now occupied by a French prison. The new style was copied outside the Kingdom of France in the Duchy of Normandy. Early examples of Norman Gothic included Coutances Cathedral. Through the rule of the Angevin dynasty, the new style was introduced to England and spread from there to Low Countries, Spain, northern Italy and Sicily; the Gothic style did not replace the Romanesque everywhere in Europe. The Late Romanesque continued to flourish in the Holy Roman Empire under the Hohenstaufens and Rhineland.
From the end of the 12th century until the middle of the 13th century, the gothic style spread from the Île-de-France to appear in other cities of northern France. New structures in the style included Chartres Cathedral; the early type of rib vault used of Saint Denis and Notre Dame, with six parts, was modified to four parts, making it simpler and stronger. Amiens and Chartres were among the first to use the flying buttress. At Reims, the buttresses were given greater weight and strength by the addition of heavy stone pinnacles on top; these were decorated with statues of ange
Acislo Antonio Palomino de Castro y Velasco was a Spanish painter of the Baroque period, a writer on art, author of El Museo pictórico y escala óptica, which contains a large amount of important biographical material on Spanish artists. Antonio Palomino was born to a respectable family at Bujalance, near Córdoba in 1653, he studied philosophy and law at Córdoba, had lessons in painting from Juan de Valdés Leal, who visited there in 1672, afterwards from Juan de Alfaro y Gamez in 1675. After taking minor orders Palomino moved to Madrid in 1678, where he associated with Alfaro, Claudio Coello, Juan Carreño de Miranda, executed some indifferent frescoes, he soon afterwards married a lady of rank, having been appointed alcalde of the mesta, was himself ennobled. The artist visited Valencia in 1697, remained there for three or four years, again devoting himself to fresco painting, including the ceilings of the church of the Santos Juanes. Between 1705 and 1715 he spent considerable amounts of time in Granada and Córdoba.
He painted the ceiling fresco in the dome of the sacristy of the Cartuja de Granada. After the death of his wife in 1725 Palomino took priest's orders, he died on 13 August 1726. Palomino's El Museo pictórico y escala óptica first appeared in 1715–24 in a three-volume folio edition; the first two parts, on the theory and practice of the art of painting, have had little influence. The third, subtitled El Parnaso español pintoresco laureado, contains a large amount of important biographical material relating to Spanish artists, despite its uneven style, has led to the author being called "the Spanish Vasari", it was translated into English in 1739 as An account of the lives and works of the most eminent Spanish painters and architects. A German version was published at Dresden in 1781, a reprint of the entire work at Madrid in 1797. A modern English translation of the abridgment by Nina Ayala Mallory came out in 1987 from Cambridge University Press. Las vidas de los pintores y estatuarios eminentes españoles, que con sus heroycas obras, han ilustrado la nacion An account of the lives and works of the most eminent Spanish painters and architects, tr. from the Musæum pictorium