Pegaso was a Spanish manufacturer of trucks, tractors, armored vehicles, for a while, sports cars. The parent company, was created in 1946 and based in the old Hispano-Suiza factory, under the direction of the renowned automotive engineer Wifredo Ricart. In 1990, Iveco took over Enasa, the Pegaso name disappeared in 1994. Enasa, a state-owned company, had its main business interest in the bus market. Pegaso became one of the leading European industrial vehicle makers, with significant exports to both Europe and Latin America; the main Enasa factories were located in Barcelona and Valladolid. Between 1946 and 1990, Pegaso built more than 350,000 vehicles; the first Enasa produced truck, a modified Hispano-Suiza 66G, was the Pegaso I, of which only a few units were made in 1946 and 1947. An enhanced but still petrol-engined version, the Pegaso II, was launched late in 1947 and reached some hundreds of units while awaiting a much-needed diesel model; this was the 125 hp Pegaso Diesel, nicknamed Mofletes for its bulbous front end, which made its debut in 1949 and established itself as the leader in the still weak Spanish truck market.
Artic tractor, road train, coach or'bus versions soon were available, all together they became El camión español, as Enasa badges and advertisements proudly stated. Pegaso built about a hundred Z-102 sports cars in the 1950s; the cars were, in many ways, advanced for the time, as they had a five-speed rear-mounted transaxle and powerful all-aluminum DOHC engines. They were offered with the choice of Touring, Serra, or Enasa's own luxury bodies; the Z-102 was the fastest production car sold in 1953 and was capable of reaching 155 miles per hour. In 1954, the old Pegaso Diesel engine was uprated to 140 hp while Ricart's other masterpiece, the Pegaso Z-207 truck, was made ready to enter mass production, into which it was placed from 1955 to 1959; the model Z-207 featured a V6 engine and a corrugated-sheet cab, used in other Pegaso truck models in the 1960s and 1970s. The unusual corrugated design became a characteristic sight of the Spanish landscape in the years following; the Z-702 was the tractor for semi-trailers version of the Z-207, while the corresponding motorcoach, model named Z-407, featuring the V-6 engine located in the rear never passed the prototype stage.
Technically advanced was the Pegaso Z-403 Monocasco, a two-level monocoque coach with its 125 hp diesel engine mounted amidships, built between 1951 and 1957. In these years, Pegaso built the more conventional Z-404 coach or urban'bus chassis, with a striking body by Seida of Bilbao, the Z-501 trolleybus, which featured electric equipment by Cenemesa. In the off-road segment, the first Pegaso product was a caterpillar tractor based on technology from Vender, an Italian specialist, launched in 1957. From on, Pegaso original crawler tractors and tractors were badged as EMPRESA locally and these were all produced at their Sagrera factory in Barcelona. In the 1950s, ENASA company started to work with the three local mobilecrane and truckcrane firms known as IASA, IBESA and LUNA. All of them needed a large specialist company that could show interest as their business partners. ENASA was chosen, as it was the longest established manufacturer and they soon built & designed several types of original special cranecarriers and specially built cranechassis most with Pegaso Diesel engines and other parts fitted with necessary modern hydraulics some with 6WD axles others in 8WD form for offroad use and began supplying these 3 Spanish crane specialists with medium to heavy duty 6 wheeled, 8 wheeled and 10 wheeled cranecarriers so that each crane maker would start their own truckcrane and mobilecrane production.
The Huesca-based large LUNA crane company is now the only firm with the largest models available on offer on their range, while the other two only make medium-sized lorry mounted cranes. The now defunct KYNOS-KOEHRING Hispania Crane Group was a short-lived crane company, the result of a successful joint-venture founded between the American KOEHRING a large crane specialist and the local Spanish KYNOS a military engineering firm & construction company that together developed and built large mobilecrane and some giant truckcrane models, all were assembled or made with numerous Pegaso components and running gear. In the 1960s and 1970s, Pegaso kept pace with the impressive economic development of Spain, tens of thousands of Pegaso trucks and buses ran on Spanish roads and through Spanish cities and, more important, crossed borders in TIR sealed-container traffic to link the Spanish economy with the European Economic Community; the Pegaso flagship of the time was the 2011 tractor for semi-trailers.
Pegaso marketed by a full variety of commercial vehicles. Production of Pegaso Monotral buses and coaches, based on an Italian Viberti design, began in 1961 and gave rise to a long line of Pegaso chassisless new models d
Delahaye automobile was an automotive manufacturing company founded by Émile Delahaye in 1894, in Tours, his home town. His first cars were belt-driven, with single- or twin-cylinder engines mounted at the rear, his Type One was an instant success, he urgently needed investment capital and a larger manufacturing facility. Both were provided by a new Delahaye owner and fellow racer, George Morane, his brother-in-law Leon Desmarais, who partnered with Émile in the incorporation of the new automotive company, "Societe Des Automobiles Delahaye", in 1898. All three worked with the foundry workers to assemble the new machines, but middle-aged Émile was not in good health. In January 1901, he found himself unable to capably continue, resigned, selling his shares to his two equal partners. Émile Delahaye died soon after, in 1905. Delahaye had hired two instrumental men, Charles Weiffenbach and Amédée Varlet in 1898, to assist the three partners. Both were graduate mechanical engineers, they remained with Delahaye their entire working careers.
Weiffenbach was appointed Manager of Operations, with the blessing of both George Morane and Leon Desmarais, assumed control over all of Delahaye's operations and much of its decision-making, in 1906. Amédée Varlet was the company's design-engineer, with a number of innovative inventions to his credit, generated between 1905 and 1914, which Delahaye patented; these included the twin-cam multi-valve engine, the V6 configuration. Varlet continued in this role until he took over the Drawing Office, at 76 years of age, when much younger Jean François was hired in 1932 as chief design-engineer. In 1932, Varlet was instructed by Weiffenbach, under direction from majority shareholder Madame Desmarais, Leon Desmarais' widow, to set up the company's Racing Department, assisted by Jean François; those who knew him well at the factory affectionately referred to Charles Weiffenbach as "Monsieur Charles". Delahaye began experimenting with belt-driven cars while manager of the Brethon Foundry and Machine-works in Tours, in 1894.
These experiments encouraged an entry in the 1896 Paris–Marseille–Paris race, held between 24 September-3 October 1896, fielding one car for himself and one for sportsman Ernest Archdeacon. The winning Panhard averaged 15.7 mph. For the 1897 Paris-Dieppe, the 6 hp four-cylinder Delahayes ran in four- and six-seater classes, with a full complement of passengers. Archdeacon was third in the four-seaters behind a De Dion-Bouton and a Panhard, Courtois winning the six-seater class, ahead of the only other car in the class. In March 1898, 6 hp the Delahayes of Georges Morane and Courtois came sixteenth and twenty-eighth at the Marseilles-Nice rally, while at the Course de Perigeux in May, De Solages finished sixth in a field of ten; the July Paris-Amsterdam-Paris earned. Soon after the new company was formed in 1898, the firm moved its manufacturing from Tours to Paris, into its new factory. Charles Weiffenbach was named Operations Manager. Delahaye would produce three models there, until the close of the 19th century: two twins, the 2.2-litre 4.5 hp Type 1 and 6 hp Type 2, the lighter Type 0, with a 1.4-liter single rated between 5 and 7 hp.
All three had bicycle-style steering, water-cooled engines mounted in the rear, automatic valves, surface carburetors, trembler coil ignition. In 1899, Archdeacon piloted an 8 hp racer in the Nice-Castellane-Nice rally, coming eighth, while teammate Buissot's 8 hp was twelfth. Founder Émile Delahaye retired in 1901, leaving Morane in control. Delahaye's racing days were over with Émile Delahaye's death. Charles Weiffenbach had no interest in racing, focused his production on responsible motorized automotive chassis, heavy commercial vehicles, early firetrucks for the French government. Race-cars had become a thing of the past for Delahaye, until 1933, when Madame Desmarais caused her company to change direction 180 degrees, return to racing; the new 10B debuted in 1902. It had a 2,199 cc vertical twin rated 12/14 hp by RAC, mounted in front, with removable cylinder head, steering wheel, chain drive. Delahaye entered the Paris-Vienna rally with a 16 hp four. At the same year's Ardennes event, Perrin's 16 hp four came tenth.
In 1902, the singles and twins ceased to be offered except as light vans. Delahaye's first production four, the Type 13B, with 24/27 hp 4.4-litre, appeared in 1903. The model range expanded in 1904, including the 4.9-litre 28 hp four-cylinder Type 21, the mid-priced Type 16, the two-cylinder Type 15B. These were joined in 1905 by a chain-driven 8-litre luxury model, one of, purchased by King Alfonso XIII of Spain. All 1907 models featured half-elliptic springs at the rear as well as transverse leaf springs, while shaft drive appeared that year, chain drive was retained on luxury models until 1911. In 1908, the Type 32 was the company's first to offer an L-head monoblock engine. Protos began licence production of Delahayes in G
Delahaye 235 is a luxury car built by French manufacturer Delahaye from 1951 until 1954. Presented at the 1951 Paris Auto Salon, the 235 was an attempt at updating the pre-war Type 135 for the 1950s, it competed with the Anjou models, built by Hotchkiss, another French luxury marque. Delahaye needed a boost, as combined production of the Types 135 and 175 had dropped to an abysmal 77 by 1951. Most noticeable was the new modern ponton-style bodywork, with the full width front designed by chief designer Philippe Charbonneaux; the mechanics were credited to Fernand Lacour. The prototypes body was manufactured by Motto in Italy, a total of 84 Types 235 were built; the 235 was sold only in chassis form and received bodywork from various coachbuilders Henri Chapron, but from Figoni, Saoutchik and others. The company's own business premises at the rue de Banquier in Paris were never tooled up to build car bodies for the 235, but in 1953, as a response to sluggish sales, a standardised "factory" bodywork from Chapron became available, at 2,700,000 Francs a saving of nearly thirty percent on the bespoke coach-built versions.
The engine was the well known 3.6 liter inline six from the 135MS, here with three downdraught Solex carburettors and 152 hp at 4,200 rpm. The 235 replaced the larger Type 175 in the marketplace, while the lesser 135M continued to be available until 1954. Top speed was around 170 km/h; the brakes received a lot of criticism. The 235 appeared too late to have much effect on Delahaye's fortunes, still relying on 1930s technology in spite of its stylish and modern appearance. Not only was the 235 expensive, a Chapron-bodied 235 going for 3,800,000 Francs, five times the price of a Citroën 15CV'Big Six' and twice that of the much faster Jaguar XK120 in 1952, but the weak economy and steep taxation on large engined cars in post-war France conspired to finish this fine old manufacturer. After the Delahaye VLR "Jeep" was passed over by the French army in favour of license built Hotchkiss Jeeps, Hotchkiss took over Delahaye in June 1954 and production of Delahaye cars ended shortly thereafter. 235s last appeared at the Paris Salon in 1954, to sell off the remaining stock, another grande marque met its end
Manufacturing is the production of products for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most applied to industrial design, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale; such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances, sports equipment or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who sell them to end users and consumers. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product; the manufacturing process begins with the product design, materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing and Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Siemens, FCA and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Panasonic, LG, Samsung and Tata Motors. In its earliest form, manufacturing was carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world, the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture. Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system.
Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm. Manufacturing Engineering Agile manufacturing American system of manufacturing British factory system of manufacturing Craft or guild system Fabrication Flexible manufacturing Just-in-time manufacturing Lean manufacturing Mass customization – 3D printing, design-your-own web sites for sneakers, fast fashion Mass production Ownership Packaging and labeling Prefabrication Putting-out system Rapid manufacturing Reconfigurable manufacturing system Soviet collectivism in manufacturing History of numerical control Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant environmental costs; the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it.
Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, eliminating harmful chemicals; the negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing; these are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are lower than in "developed-world" economies.
Manufacturing has unique health and safety challenges and has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues. Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as: The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth. In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development, they have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors. On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.
S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand. Further, while U. S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U. S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries. A total of 3.2 million – one in six U. S. manuf
Cadillac Series 62
The Cadillac Series 62 is a series of cars, produced by Cadillac from 1940 through 1964. Designed to replace the entry level Series 65, it became the Cadillac Series 6200 in 1959, remained that until it was renamed to Cadillac Calais for the 1965 model year; the Series 62 was marketed as the Sixty-Two and the Series Sixty-Two. The Fisher-bodied Series 62 replaced the Cadillac Series 61 at the lowest rung in the model line up in 1940; the Series 62 featured a low sleek "torpedo" style C-body with chrome window reveals, more slant in the windshield, a curved rear window. The new C-body that the 1940 Cadillac Series 62 shared with the Buick Roadmaster and Super, the Oldsmobile Series 90 and the Pontiac Torpedo featured shoulder and hip room, over 5" wider, the elimination of running boards and exterior styling, streamlined and 2-3" lower; when combined with a column mounted shift lever the cars offered true six passenger comfort. These changes had been influenced by the Cadillac Sixty Special; the styling feature distinguishing.
Although grilles had the same pointed shape as in 1939, the grille bars were heavier and fewer in number. Two sets of louver bars appeared on each side of the hood. Running boards were a no cost option; the Series 62 was available as a club coupe or a sedan, with 2-door and 4-door convertibles introduced mid-year. Sales totaled 5903 in its inaugural year accounting for about 45% of Cadillac's sales. In 1941, the one piece hood came down lower in the front, included the side panels and extended sideways to the fenders. A single rectangular panel of louver trim was used on each side of the hood; the rectangular grille was wide and bulged forward in the middle. Rectangular parking lights were built into the top outer corners of the grille. Headlights were now built into the nose of the fenders, provision for built in accessory fog lights was provided under the headlights. Three chrome spears appeared on the rear section of all four fenders. Rear fender skirts were standard; the Series 62 offered the only 4-door convertible built by Cadillac in 1941 and it would be the last time this bodystyle was made by the marque.
All Cadillacs shared the same 346 cu in 135 hp L-head V8 that year, with power rising to 150 hp. Sales more than quadrupled to 24,734, accounting for 37% of Cadillac sales in a sales year that well more than doubled the previous Cadillac sales rate record set during the two model years of 1926–27, in part due to the huge popularity of the new Series 61. Evidently the new "torpedo" style with its low streamlined runningboardless bodies and expansive shoulder room had proved a big hit; the following model year, abbreviated as it was by a world war, would set no such sales record. The grille became more massive in 1942, with fewer bars. Parking lights became round and fog light sockets became rectangular and were included in the grille area. A bullet shape appeared on the tops of the bumper guards. Fenders were rounded and longer. Front fenders extended into the front doors. Rear fenders extended forward into the rear doors; the new fenders had heavy moldings along the sides. A new fresh air ventilating system with air ducts leading from the grille replaced cowl ventilators.
Handbrake control was changed from lever to tee-shaped pull handle. Radiator shutter control of engine temperature was replaced by a blocking type thermostat in the water return fitting in the radiator. In 1946, the Series 62 used GM's C-body platform, as did the Cadillac Sixty Special, Buick Super and Buick Roadmaster, Oldsmobile 98. Notchback styling characterized the cars except for the Club Coupe, it was easy to distinguish the Series 62 coupe from the Series 61 because the door skins did not flare out above the rocker panel moldings, the side window openings were lower and the reveal window moldings circled each window individually instead of looping around all the windows. The Series 62 sedan featured venti planes on both the rear windows, it was the first Cadillac to enter production after World War II. Interior styling and technical features were similar to those seen on the Cadillac Series 61 but with richer interior appointments. Little changed in the 1947 model year. Sales however reached a record 39,835.
For 1948, the Series 62 was moved to the same 126 in chassis as the Series 61, making the vehicles identical. The main difference, apart from extra chrome, was the availability of a convertible model. Distinguishing features included grooved bright metal front fender gravel guards, rocker panel brightwork, chevron style chrome slashes below taillights and richer interior trim. In 1948 the first tail fins were added. Sales fell to 34,213 accounting for a record 68% of all Cadillacs sold, its appearance is similar to cross-town rival Chrysler Imperial and the Chrysler New Yorker in 1949, less so with yearly appearance changes. The new Cadillac OHV V8 was the big news for 1949, with minor trim differences otherwise; this 331 cu in engine produced 160 hp. The major difference between Series 61 and Series 62 models of similar body style was minor trim variations; the higher-priced series again had grooved, front fender stone shields and bright rocker panel moldings. Chevrons below the taillights were no longer seen.
The convertible was an exclusive offering. A heater was optional. Sales reached a record 55,643; the Cadillac Series 62 Coupe de Ville was introduced late in the 1949 model year. Along with the Buick Roadmaster Riviera, the Oldsmobile 98 Holiday, it was among the first pillarless hardtop coupes produced. At $3,496 it was only a do
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur
Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the then-German city of Molsheim, Alsace by the Italian-born industrial designer Ettore Bugatti. The cars were known for their many race victories. Famous Bugattis include the Type 35 Grand Prix cars, the Type 41 "Royale", the Type 57 "Atlantic" and the Type 55 sports car; the death of Ettore Bugatti in 1947 proved to be the end for the marque, the death of his son Jean Bugatti in 1939 ensured there was not a successor to lead the factory. No more than about 8,000 cars were made; the company struggled financially, released one last model in the 1950s, before being purchased for its airplane parts business in 1963. In the 1990s, an Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of limited production exclusive sports cars. Today, the name is owned by the Volkswagen Group. Founder Ettore Bugatti was born in Milan and the automobile company that bears his name was founded in 1909 in Molsheim located in the Alsace region, part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1919.
The company was known both for the level of detail of its engineering in its automobiles, for the artistic manner in which the designs were executed, given the artistic nature of Ettore's family. During the war Ettore Bugatti was sent away to Milan and to Paris, but as soon as hostilities had been concluded he returned to his factory at Molsheim. Less than four months after the Versailles Treaty formalised the transfer of Alsace from Germany to France, Bugatti was able to obtain, at the last minute, a stand at the 15th Paris motor show in October 1919, he exhibited three light cars, all of them based on their pre-war equivalents, each fitted with the same overhead camshaft 4-cylinder 1,368cc engine with four valves per cylinder. Smallest of the three was a "Type 13" with a racing body and using a chassis with a 2,000 mm wheelbase; the others were a "Type 22" and a "Type 23" with wheelbases of 2,400 mm respectively. The company enjoyed great success in early Grand Prix motor racing: in 1929 a entered Bugatti won the first Monaco Grand Prix.
Racing success culminated with driver Jean-Pierre Wimille winning the 24 hours of Le Mans twice. Bugatti cars were successful in racing; the little Bugatti Type 10 swept the top four positions at its first race. The 1924 Bugatti Type 35 is one of the most successful racing cars; the Type 35 was developed by Bugatti with master engineer and racing driver Jean Chassagne who drove it in the car’s first Grand Prix in 1924 Lyon. Bugattis swept to victory in the Targa Florio for five years straight from 1925 through 1929. Louis Chiron held the most podiums in Bugatti cars, the modern marque revival Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. named the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car in his honour. But it was the final racing success at Le Mans, most remembered—Jean-Pierre Wimille and Pierre Veyron won the 1939 race with just one car and meagre resources. In the 1930s, Ettore Bugatti got involved in the creation of a racer airplane, hoping to beat the Germans in the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize; this would be the Bugatti 100P.
It was designed by Belgian engineer Louis de Monge who had applied Bugatti Brescia engines in his "Type 7.5" lifting body. Ettore Bugatti designed a successful motorised railcar, the Autorail Bugatti; the death of Ettore Bugatti's son, Jean Bugatti, on 11 August 1939 marked a turning point in the company's fortunes. Jean died. World War II left the Molsheim factory in the company lost control of the property. During the war, Bugatti planned a new factory at a northwestern suburb of Paris. After the war, Bugatti designed and planned to build a series of new cars, including the Type 73 road car and Type 73C single seat racing car, but in all Bugatti built only five Type 73 cars. Development of a 375 cc supercharged car was stopped when Ettore Bugatti died on 21 August 1947. Following Ettore Bugatti's death, the business declined further and made its last appearance as a business in its own right at a Paris Motor Show in October 1952. After a long decline, the original incarnation of Bugatti ceased operations in 1952.
Bugattis are noticeably focused on design. Engine blocks were hand scraped to ensure that the surfaces were so flat that gaskets were not required for sealing, many of the exposed surfaces of the engine compartment featured guilloché finishes on them, safety wires had been threaded through every fastener in intricately laced patterns. Rather than bolt the springs to the axles as most manufacturers did, Bugatti's axles were forged such that the spring passed through a sized opening in the axle, a much more elegant solution requiring fewer parts, he famously described his arch competitor Bentley's cars as "the world's fastest lorries" for focusing on durability. According to Bugatti, "weight was the enemy". Relatives of Harold Carr found a rare 1937 Bugatti Type 57S Atalante when cataloguing the doctor's belongings after his death in 2009. Carr's Type 57S is notable because it was owned by British race car driver Earl Howe; because much of the car's original equipment is intact, it can be restored without relying on replacement parts.
On 10 July 2009, a 1925 Bugatti Brescia Type 22 which had lain at the bottom of Lake Maggiore on the border of Switzerland and Italy for 75 years was recovered from the lake. The Mullin Mu