Fuller's earth is any clay material that has the capability to decolorize oil or other liquids without chemical treatment. Fuller's earth consists of palygorskite or bentonite. Modern uses of fuller's earth include absorbents for oil and animal waste and as a carrier for pesticides and fertilizers. Minor uses include filtering and decolorizing, it has a number of uses in the film industry and on stage. The English name reflects the historic use of the material for cleaning or "fulling" wool by textile workers called "fullers". In past centuries, fullers kneaded fuller's earth and water into woollen cloth to absorb lanolin and other greasy impurities as part of the cloth finishing process. Fuller's Earth is known by the following other names: "Bleaching clay" because fulling whitened the cloth. "Whitening clay" when used to treat facial pigmentation, such as melasma. "Multani mitti", or "mud from Multan" used in Indian subcontinent in cosmetics. Fuller's earth consists of hydrous aluminum silicates of varying composition.
Common components are montmorillonite and attapulgite. Small amounts of other minerals may be present in fuller's earth deposits, including calcite and quartz. In some localities fuller's earth refers to calcium bentonite, altered volcanic ash composed of montmorillonite. In 2005, the United States was the largest producer of fuller's earth with an 70% world share followed at a distance by Japan and Mexico. In the United States fuller's earth is derived from deposits of volcanic ash of Cretaceous age and younger. Fuller's earth deposits have been mined in 24 states; the first discovery of fuller’s earth in the United States was near Quincy, Florida, in 1893. In 1939 mines near Quincy produced half the U. S. production. In the United Kingdom, fuller's earth occurs in England, it has been mined in the Vale of White Horse, Oxfordshire. The Combe Hay Mine was a fuller's earth mine operating to the south of Bath, Somerset until 1979. Other sites south of Bath included Frome, Englishcombe, Tucking Mill and Duncorn Hill.
Although these sites had been used since Roman times, William Smith developed new methods for the identification of deposits of fuller's earth to the south of Bath. Other English sources include a mine near Redhill and Woburn, where production ceased in 2004. Hills and slopes that contain fuller's earth can be unstable, since this material can be thixotropic when saturated by heavy rainfall. Fulling is an important step in the production of woolen garments, can be traced back to ancient times. Cuneiform texts from Mesopotamia mention a raw material, im-bab-bár “white earth”, delivered to fullers for the finishing of cloth. There are several Biblical references to fulling, but the materials used to whiten the fabric are not specified. Pliny the Elder mentions several types of fuller’s earth from a variety of locations, each with different properties and therefore different uses; the first references to fulling mills are from Persia, by the time of the Crusades in the late eleventh century, fulling mills were active throughout the medieval world.
Called'Multani Mitti' in modern-day India and Pakistan, the use of Fuller's earth across the Indian subcontinent dates back to at least 1879. While its household use and transportation by local carts in the Sindh region predates the 1800s, export by rail was first recorded in 1929 in British India. In addition to its original use in the fulling of raw fibers, fuller's earth is now utilized in a number of industries. Most important applications make use of the minerals' natural absorbent properties in products sold as absorbents or filters. Treatment for poisoning. Given the risk of salmonella, the clay content of soil could save the life of a person exposed to paraquat, for example, as paraquat is intended to break down in soil. Decontamination: Fuller's earth is used by military and civil emergency service personnel to decontaminate the clothing and equipment of servicemen and CBRN responders who have been contaminated with chemical agents. Cleaning agent: In the Indian subcontinent, it has been used for centuries to clean marble.
As a good absorbent, it removes dust, dirt and stains from the surface and replenishes the shine of the marble. It has been used numerous times to clean the Taj India with positive results. Litter box: Since the late 1940s, fuller's earth has been used in commercial cat litter. Cosmetology and dermatology: The same properties that make fuller's earth effective at removing oils and impurities from wool are effective on human hair and skin. Fuller's Earth has had extensive uses in the beauty industry, both as a cosmetic and as a treatment for acne and other skin problems. Film industry: Fuller's earth has been used extensively for many years in motion pictures for a variety of applications. In the area of special effects, it is used in pyrotechnics explosions and dust clouds, because it spreads farther and higher than most natural soils, resulting in a blast that looks larger, it is safer than occurring soil, should the blast spray hit actors. The material was used in the tornado sequence in The Wizard of Oz as the artificial twiste
British Transport Police
The British Transport Police is a national special police force that polices railways and light-rail systems in England and Wales, for which it has entered into an agreement to provide such services. Seventy five percent of the force's funding comes from Britain's privatised train companies. British Transport Police officers do not have jurisdiction in Northern Ireland unless working under mutual aid arrangements for the Police Service of Northern Ireland, in which case any duties performed on a railway will be incidental to working as a constable in Northern Ireland; as well as having jurisdiction across the national rail network, the BTP is responsible for policing: Croydon Tramlink Docklands Light Railway Emirates Air Line Glasgow Subway London Underground Midland Metro Sunderland line of the Tyne and Wear Metro This amounts to around 10,000 miles of track and more than 3,000 railway stations and depots. There are more than 1 billion passenger journeys annually on the main lines alone. In addition, British Transport Police in conjunction with the French border police - Police aux Frontières - police the international services operated by Eurostar.
It is not responsible for policing the rest of the Tyne and Wear Metro or the Manchester Metrolink or any other railway with which it does not have a service agreement. A BTP constable can act as a police constable outside of their normal railway jurisdiction as described in the "Powers and status of officers" section; as of September 2017, BTP had a workforce of 3,028 police officers, 1,530 police staff, 230 police community support officers, 30 designated officers and 330 special constables. In terms of officer numbers it is the largest of the three special police forces and the 11th largest police force in the United Kingdom overall. Since March 2014, the Chief Constable has been Paul Crowther OBE. From 1 April 2014, the divisional structure changed from the previous seven division structure to a four division structure - according to BTP this new structure will'deliver a more efficient force, generating savings to reinvest in more police officers across the railway network'. Based in Camden Town, London.
This division retains overall control of the other divisions and houses central functions including forensics, CCTV and major investigations. As of 2015, 393 police officers, 10 special constables and 946 civilian staff are based at FHQ. Divisional Commander: Chief Superintendent Martin FryThis division covers London and the South East and southern areas of England; this division is further divided into the following sub-divisions: North - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Jenny Gilmer Central - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Chris Horton South - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Will Jordan As of 2015, B Division houses the largest number of personnel of any BTP division: 1444 police officers, 101 special constables, 191 PCSOs and 361 civilian staff. Divisional Commander: Chief Superintendent Allan GregoryThis division covers the North East, North West, the Midlands, South West areas of England and Wales; this division is further divided into the following sub-divisions: Pennine - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Eddie Wylie Midland - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Sandra England Wales - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Andy MorganAs of 2015, C Division houses the second largest number of personnel within BTP: 921 police officers, 127 special constables, 132 PCSOs and 180 civilian staff.
Divisional Commander: Chief Superintendent John McBrideThis division covers Scotland. There are no sub-divisions within D Division; as of 2015, D Division is the smallest in terms of personnel housing 214 police officers, 24 special constables and 46 civilian staff. Prior to April 2014, BTP was divided into seven geographical basic command units which it referred to as'Police Areas': Scotland North Eastern North Western London North London Underground London South Wales & Western Prior to 2007, there was an additional Midland Area and Wales and West Area; the first railway employees described as "police" can be traced back to 30 June 1826. A regulation of the Stockton and Darlington Railway refers to the police establishment of "One Superintendent, four officers and numerous gate-keepers"; this is the first mention of Railway Police anywhere and was three years before the Metropolitan Police Act was passed. They were not, described as "constables" and the description may refer to men controlling the trains not enforcing the law.
Specific reference to "constables" rather than mere "policemen" is made by the BTP website article "A History of Policing the Railway" which states "The London and Liverpool Railway Companion of 1838 reports "Each Constable, besides being in the employ of the company, is sworn as a County Constable". Further reference is made by the BTP to "an Act of 1838...which according to J. R. Whitbread in The Railway Policeman was the first legislation to provide for any form of policing of the railway whilst under construction, i.e. to protect the public from the navvies more or less." The modern British Transport Police was formed by the British Transport Commission Act 1949 which combined the already-existing police forces inherited from the pre-nationalisation railways by British Railways, those forces having been formed by powers available under common law to parishes and other bodies to ap
Marc Isambard Brunel
Sir Marc Isambard Brunel was a French-born engineer who settled in England. He was married to Sophia Kingdom in 1799. In 1806 their son Isambard. Marc Isambard himself preferred the name Isambard, but is known to history as Marc to avoid confusion with his more famous son Isambard Kingdom Brunel, his most famous achievement was the construction of the Thames Tunnel. Brunel was the second son of Marie Victoire Lefebvre. Jean Charles was a prosperous farmer in Hacqueville and Marc was born on the family farm, it was customary for the first son to inherit the second son to enter the priesthood. His father therefore started Marc on a classical education, but he showed no liking for Greek or Latin and instead showed himself proficient in drawing and mathematics, he was very musical from an early age. At the age of eleven he was sent to a seminary in Rouen; the superior of the seminary allowed him to learn carpentry, he soon achieved the standards of a cabinetmaker. He sketched ships in the local harbour.
As he showed no desire to become a priest, his father sent him to stay with relatives in Rouen, where a family friend tutored him on naval matters. In 1786, as a result of this tuition, Marc became a naval cadet on a French frigate and during his service visited the West Indies several times, he made an octant for himself of brass and ivory, used it during his service. During Brunel's service abroad, the French Revolution began, in 1789. In January 1792, Brunel's frigate paid off its crew, Brunel returned to live with his relatives in Rouen, he was a Royalist sympathiser. In January 1793, whilst visiting Paris during the trial of Louis XVI, Brunel unwisely publicly predicted the demise of Robespierre, one of the leaders of the Revolution, he was lucky to get out of Paris with his life, returned to Rouen. However it was evident. During his stay in Rouen, Brunel had met Sophia Kingdom, a young English woman, an orphan and was working as a governess, he was forced to leave her behind when he fled to Le Havre and boarded the American ship Liberty, bound for New York.
Brunel arrived in New York on 6 September 1793, he subsequently travelled to Philadelphia and Albany. He got involved in a scheme to link the Hudson River by canal with Lake Champlain, submitted a design for the new Capitol building to be built in Washington; the judges were impressed with the design, but it was not selected. In 1796, after taking American citizenship, Brunel was appointed Chief Engineer of the city of New York, he designed various houses, commercial buildings, an arsenal, a cannon factory. No official records exist of the projects that he carried out in New York, as it seems that the documents were destroyed in the New York Draft Riots of 1863. In 1798, during a dinner conversation, Brunel learnt of the difficulties that the Royal Navy had in obtaining the 100,000 pulley blocks that it required each year to fit out its ships; each of these was being made by hand. Brunel produced an outline design of a machine that would automate the production of pulley blocks, he decided to put his invention before the Admiralty.
He sailed for England on 7 February 1799 with a letter of introduction to the Navy Minister, on 7 March his ship, Halifax landed at Falmouth. Whilst Brunel had been in the United States, Sophia Kingdom had remained in Rouen and during the Reign of Terror, she was arrested as an English spy and daily expected to be executed, she was only saved by the fall of Robespierre in June 1794. In April 1795 Sophia was able to travel to London; when Brunel arrived from the United States, he travelled to London and made contact with Sophia. They were married on 1 November 1799 at Holborn. In 1802 Sophia gave birth to their first child, Sophie. Isambard Kingdom grew up in Lindsey House. During the summer of 1799 Brunel was introduced to Henry Maudslay, a talented engineer who had worked for Joseph Bramah, had started his own business. Maudslay made working models of the machines for making pulley blocks, Brunel approached Samuel Bentham, the Inspector General of Naval Works. In April 1802 Bentham recommended the installation of Brunel's block-making machinery at Portsmouth Block Mills.
Brunel's machine could be operated by unskilled workers, at ten times the previous rate of production. Altogether 45 machines were installed at Portsmouth, by 1808 the plant was producing 130,000 blocks per year. For Brunel, the Admiralty vacillated over payment, despite the fact that Brunel had spent more than £2,000 of his own money on the project. In August 1808 they agreed to pay £1,000 on account, two years they consented to a payment of just over £17,000. Brunel was a talented mechanical engineer, did much to develop sawmill machinery, undertaking contracts for the British Government at Chatham and Woolwich dockyards, building on his experience at the Portsmouth Block Mills, he built a sawmill at Battersea, designed to produce veneers, he designed sawmills for entrepreneurs. He developed machinery for mass-producing soldiers' boots, but before this could reach full production, demand ceased due to the end of the Napoleonic Wars. Brunel was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1814. In 1828, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Brunel was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in
The grade of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal. It is a special case of the slope. A larger number indicates higher or steeper degree of "tilt". Slope is calculated as a ratio of "rise" to "run", or as a fraction in which run is the horizontal distance and rise is the vertical distance; the grades or slopes of existing physical features such as canyons and hillsides and river banks and beds are described. Grades are specified for new linear constructions; the grade may refer to the perpendicular cross slope. There are several ways to express slope: as an angle of inclination to the horizontal; as a percentage, the formula for, 100 rise run which could be expressed as the tangent of the angle of inclination times 100. In the U. S. this percentage "grade" is the most used unit for communicating slopes in transportation, surveying and civil engineering. As a per mille figure, the formula for, 1000 rise run which could be expressed as the tangent of the angle of inclination times 1000.
This is used in Europe to denote the incline of a railway. As a ratio of one part rise to so many parts run. For example, a slope that has a rise of 5 feet for every 100 feet of run would have a slope ratio of 1 in 20.. This is the method used to describe railway grades in Australia and the UK, it is used for roads in Hong Kong, was used for roads in the UK until the 1970s. As a ratio of many parts run to one part rise, the inverse of the previous expression. For example, "slopes are expressed as ratios such as 4:1; this means that for every 4 units of horizontal distance there is a 1-unit vertical change either up or down."Any of these may be used. Grade is expressed as a percentage, but this is converted to the angle α from horizontal or the other expressions. Slope may still be expressed when the horizontal run is not known: the rise can be divided by the hypotenuse; this is not the usual way to specify slope. But in practice the usual way to calculate slope is to measure the distance along the slope and the vertical rise, calculate the horizontal run from that.
When the angle of inclination is small, using the slope length rather than the horizontal displacement makes only an insignificant difference. Railway gradients are expressed in terms of the rise in relation to the distance along the track as a practical measure. In cases where the difference between sin and tan is significant, the tangent is used. In any case, the following identity holds for all inclinations up to 90 degrees: tan α = sin α 1 − sin 2 α. In Europe, road gradients are signed as a percentage. Grades are related using the following equations with symbols from the figure at top. Tan α = Δ h d This ratio can be expressed as a percentage by multiplying by 100. Α = arctan Δ h d If the tangent is expressed as a percentage, the angle can be determined as: α = arctan % slope 100 If the angle is expressed as a ratio then: α = arctan 1 n In vehicular engineering, various land-based designs are rated for their ability to ascend terrain. Trains rate much lower than automobiles.
The highest grade a vehicle can ascend while maintaining a particular speed is sometimes termed that vehicle's "gradeability". The lateral slopes of a highway geometry are sometimes called fills or cuts where these techniques have been used to create them. In the United States, maximum grade for Federally funded highways is specified in a design table based on terrain and design speeds, with up to 6% allowed in mountainous areas and hilly urban areas with exceptions for up to 7% grades on mountainous roads with speed limits below 60 mph; the steepest roads in the world are Baldwin Street in Dunedin, New Zealand, Ffordd Pen Llech in Harlech and Canton Avenue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Guinness World R
Robert Pearson Brereton
Robert Pearson Brereton was an English railway engineer. He worked under Isambard Kingdom Brunel for more than twenty years and, following Brunel's death, completed many of his projects. Robert Pearson Brereton came from a Norfolk family that produced other notable Victorian engineers Cuthbert A. Brereton and Robert Maitland Brereton. Brereton was recruited by Brunel staff in 1836 to be one of seven resident engineers supervising the construction of the Great Western Railway, he is depicted in a portrait with an eye patch. After the Great Western railway was completed, he carried out similar tasks on other railways that Brunel was building. For example, in 1845 he was one of Brunel's resident engineers on the Cheltenham and Great Western Union Railway and was sent to Italy to sort out problems with the construction of the Turin–Genoa railway, he became Brunel's chief assistant in 1847 and remained in this post until Brunel's death in 1859. His signature appears on drawings for the Chepstow Bridge which were prepared in Brunel's London office around 1850.
One of Brunel's major and long-running projects was the construction of the Royal Albert Bridge across the River Tamar for the Cornwall Railway. In 1854 Brereton was sent as Brunel's assistant to help William Glennie, the resident engineer on the bridge, in poor health. Much of his time in the next five years was spent on this project, he was instrumental in developing ways to excavate underwater to prepare for the construction of the central pier. In 1857 he assisted Brunel when the first span was floated into position, he supervised the lengthy process to raise it 100 feet to the top of its piers. Brunel's poor health prevented him from attending work in Cornwall, so Brereton supervised the floating out of the second span in 1858 without Brunel's help, he saw through the raising of this span, the completion of the bridge and opening of the line in May 1859. After Brunel's death in September 1859 Brereton took over his role as chief engineer for many railway companies, designing new works and alterations.
He ran his business from Brunel's old office in Duke Street, while Brunel's widow Mary continued to reside in the rooms above. Some of Brunel's railways were still under construction, including the Bristol and South Wales Union Railway Cornwall Railway Dartmouth and Torbay Railway West Somerset Railway Brunel described Brereton in 1845 as "a peculiarly energetic persevering young man"; the Chairman of the Cornwall Railway, speaking in 1859 following the opening of the Royal Albert Bridge, described him as "always ready, always able, always full of energy."He has a memorial brass in the church in Blakeney. Sources Binding, John. Brunel's Royal Albert Bridge. Truro: Twelveheads Press. ISBN 0-906294-39-8. Brindle, Stephen. Brunel: the man who built the world. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84408-3. Buchanan, R. A.. Pugsley, Sir Alfred, ed; the Works of Isambard Kingdom Brunel. London and Bristol: Institution of Civil Engineers and University of Bristol. ISBN 0-7277-0030-8. MacDermot, E. T.. "V". History of the Great Western Railway.
1. London: Great Western Railway. MacDermot, E. T.. History of the Great Western Railway. 2. London: Great Western Railway. Shirley-Smith, Hubert. Pugsley, Sir Alfred, ed; the Works of Isambard Kingdom Brunel. London and Bristol: Institution of Civil Engineers and University of Bristol. ISBN 0-7277-0030-8
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Isambard Kingdom Brunel, was an English mechanical and civil engineer, considered "one of the most ingenious and prolific figures in engineering history", "one of the 19th-century engineering giants", "one of the greatest figures of the Industrial Revolution, changed the face of the English landscape with his groundbreaking designs and ingenious constructions". Brunel built dockyards, the Great Western Railway, a series of steamships including the first propeller-driven transatlantic steamship, numerous important bridges and tunnels, his designs revolutionised modern engineering. Though Brunel's projects were not always successful, they contained innovative solutions to long-standing engineering problems. During his career, Brunel achieved many engineering firsts, including assisting in the building of the first tunnel under a navigable river and development of SS Great Britain, the first propeller-driven, ocean-going, iron ship, when built in 1843, was the largest ship built. Brunel set the standard for a well-built railway, using careful surveys to minimise gradients and curves.
This necessitated expensive construction techniques, new bridges, new viaducts, the two-mile long Box Tunnel. One controversial feature was the wide gauge, a "broad gauge" of 7 ft 1⁄4 in, instead of what was to be known as "standard gauge" of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in, he astonished Britain by proposing to extend the Great Western Railway westward to North America by building steam-powered, iron-hulled ships. He designed and built three ships that revolutionised naval engineering: the SS Great Western, the SS Great Britain, the SS Great Eastern. In 2002, Brunel was placed second in a BBC public poll to determine the "100 Greatest Britons". In 2006, the bicentenary of his birth, a major programme of events celebrated his life and work under the name Brunel 200. Brunel's given names come from his parents; the first name Isambard was his French-born father's middle name, his father's preferred given name. Isambard is a Norman name of Germanic origin, meaning either "iron-bright" or "iron-axe"; the first element comes from isarn meaning iron.
The second element comes from barđa. His middle name Kingdom was his mother's maiden name; the son of French civil engineer Sir Marc Isambard Brunel and an English mother Sophia Kingdom, Isambard Kingdom Brunel was born on 9 April 1806 in Britain Street, Portsmouth, where his father was working on block-making machinery. He had two older sisters and Emma, the whole family moved to London in 1808 for his father's work. Brunel had a happy childhood, despite the family's constant money worries, with his father acting as his teacher during his early years, his father taught him drawing and observational techniques from the age of four and Brunel had learned Euclidean geometry by eight. During this time he learned fluent French and the basic principles of engineering, he was encouraged to identify any faults in their structure. When Brunel was eight he was sent to Dr Morrell's boarding school in Hove, where he learned the classics, his father, a Frenchman by birth, was determined that Brunel should have access to the high-quality education he had enjoyed in his youth in France.
When Brunel was 15, his father Marc, who had accumulated debts of over £5,000, was sent to a debtors' prison. After three months went by with no prospect of release, Marc let it be known that he was considering an offer from the Tsar of Russia. In August 1821, facing the prospect of losing a prominent engineer, the government relented and issued Marc £5,000 to clear his debts in exchange for his promise to remain in Britain; when Brunel completed his studies at Henri-IV in 1822, his father had him presented as a candidate at the renowned engineering school École Polytechnique, but as a foreigner he was deemed ineligible for entry. Brunel subsequently studied under the prominent master clockmaker and horologist Abraham-Louis Breguet, who praised Brunel's potential in letters to his father. In late 1822, having completed his apprenticeship, Brunel returned to England. Brunel worked for several years as an assistant engineer on the project to create a tunnel under London's River Thames between Rotherhithe and Wapping, with tunnellers driving a horizontal shaft from one side of the river to the other under the most difficult and dangerous conditions.
The project was funded by the Thames Tunnel Company and Brunel's father, was the chief engineer. The American Naturalist said "It is stated that the operations of the Teredo suggested to Mr. Brunel his method of tunneling the Thames."The composition of the riverbed at Rotherhithe was little more than waterlogged sediment and loose gravel. An ingenious tunnelling shield designed by Marc Brunel helped protect workers from cave-ins, but two incidents of severe flooding halted work for long periods, killing several workers and badly injuring the younger Brunel; the latter incident, in 1828, killed the two most senior miners, Brunel himself narrowly escaped death. He was injured, spent six months recuperating; the event stopped work on the tunnel for several years. Though the Thames Tunnel was completed during Marc Brunel's lifetime, his son had no further involvement with the tunnel proper, only using the abandoned works at Rotherhithe to further his abortive Gaz experiments; this was based on an idea of his father's, was intended to develop into an engine that ran
Oolite or oölite is a sedimentary rock formed from ooids, spherical grains composed of concentric layers. The name derives from the Ancient Greek word ᾠόν for egg. Oolites consist of ooids of 0.25–2 millimetres' diameter. The term oolith can refer to individual ooids. Ooids are most composed of calcium carbonate, but can be composed of phosphate, chert, dolomite or iron minerals, including hematite. Dolomitic and chert ooids are most the result of the replacement of the original texture in limestone. Oolitic hematite occurs at Red Mountain near Birmingham, along with oolitic limestone, they are formed in warm, shallow agitated marine water intertidal environments, though some are formed in inland lakes. The mechanism of formation starts with a small fragment of sediment acting as a'seed', e.g. a piece of a shell. Strong intertidal currents wash the'seeds' around on the seabed, where they accumulate layers of chemically precipitated calcite from the supersaturated water; the oolites are found in large current bedding structures that resemble sand dunes.
The size of the oolite reflects the time they have had exposed to the water before they were covered with sediment. Oolites are used in the home aquarium industry because their small grain size is ideal for shallow static beds and bottom covering of up to 1" in depth. Known as "oolitic" sand, the sugar-sized round grains of this sand pass through the gills of gobies and other sand-sifting organisms; this unusually smooth sand promotes the growth of bacteria, which are important biofilters in home aquaria. Because of its small grain size, oolitic sand has a lot of surface area, which promotes high bacterial growth; some exemplar oolitic limestone was formed in England during the Jurassic period, forms the Cotswold Hills, the Isle of Portland with its famous Portland Stone, part of the North York Moors. A particular type, Bath Stone, gives the buildings of the World Heritage City of Bath their distinctive appearance. Carboniferous Hunts Bay Oolite lies under much of south Wales; the islands of the Lower Keys in the Florida Keys, as well as some barrier islands east of Miami bordering Biscayne Bay, are oolitic limestone, formed by deposition when shallow seas covered the area between periods of glaciation.
The material consolidated and eroded during exposure above the ocean surface. One of the world's largest freshwater lakebed oolites is the Shoofly Oolit, a section of the Glenns Ferry Formation on southwestern Idaho's Snake River Plain. 10 million years ago, the Plain formed the bed of Lake Idaho. Wave action in the lake washed sediments back and forth in the shallows on the southwestern shore, forming ooids and depositing them on steeper benches near the shore in 2- to 40-foot thicknesses; when the lake drained, the oolite was left behind, along with siltstone, volcanic tuffs and alluvium from adjacent mountain slopes. The other sediments eroded away, while the more resistant oolite weathered into hummocks, small arches and other intriguing natural "sculptures." The Shoofly Oolite lies on public land west of Bruneau, Idaho managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The physical and chemical properties of the Shoofly Oolite are the setting for a suite of rare plants, which the BLM protects through land use management and on-site interpretation.
This type of limestone is found in Indiana in the United States. The town of Oolitic, was founded for the trade of limestone and bears its name. Quarries in Oolitic and Bloomington contributed the materials for such iconic U. S. landmarks as the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. Many of the buildings on the Indiana University campus in Bloomington are built with native oolitic limestone material, the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument in downtown Indianapolis, Indiana, is built of grey oolitic limestone. Oolites appear in the Conococheague limestone, of Cambrian age, in the Great Appalachian Valley in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia. Rogenstein is a term describing a specific type of oolite in which the cementing matter is argillaceous. Geologic time scale – A system of chronological dating that relates geological strata to time Geology of Great Britain Pearl – formed from concentric layers of calcium carbonate Oolitic aragonite sand Media related to Oolite at Wikimedia Commons Ooids and oolite at Wikibooks