Native American recognition in the United States
American Indian tribal recognition in the United States most refers to the process of a tribe being recognized by the United States federal government, or to a person being granted membership to a federally recognized tribe. There are 573 federally recognized tribal governments in the United States. Non-Acknowledged Tribes are tribes; this is not to be confused with recognition of Native Americans in the US which are defined by the BIA as any descendant of the Indigenous peoples of the Americas, a US citizen. Federally Non-Recognized tribes refers to a subgroup of non-acknowledged tribes which had some sort of recognition by the British prior to the formation of the United States or by the United States but which were determined by the government to no longer exist as an Indian tribe or no longer meet the criteria for a nation to nation status; the United States recognizes the right of these tribes to self-government and supports their tribal sovereignty and self-determination. These tribes possess the right to establish the legal requirements for membership.
They may form their own government, enforce laws, tax and regulate activities and exclude people from tribal territories. Limitations on tribal powers of self-government include the same limitations applicable to states. Legal definitions of Indian abound; the number of definitions increased. U. S. Government agencies may have varied definitions of "Indian." For example, the National Center for Health Statistics assigns the mother's race to a child born to parents of different "races". When people give multiracial responses to questions of heritage, only the first race is entered; the 1978 American Indian Religious Freedom Act uses a two-part definition, influential. It defines an Indian as a person who belongs to an Indian Tribe, which in turn is a group that "is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians." Federal courts have not universally required membership in federally recognized tribes for a person to be classified as Indian.
At times a person's membership in a federally recognized tribe was not sufficient for classification as Indian in the eyes of the courts. The Major Crimes Act of 1885 placed seven major crimes under federal jurisdiction if committed by a Native American in Native American Territory; the Department of Justice required that a defendant be an enrolled member of a tribe to be covered by the Major Crimes Act. In his 1935 Memorandum to John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, the Assistant Solicitor, Felix S. Cohen, discussed the rights of a group of non-tribal Indians under the Indian Reorganization Act; this Act defined a person as Indian based on three criteria, tribal membership, ancestral descent, or blood quantum. In the 1930s when it was more involved in determining classification of American Indians, the federal government used five factors to certify individuals who claimed to be more than half-blood Indian: tribal rolls, testimony of the applicant, affidavits from people familiar with the applicant, findings of an anthropologist, testimony of the applicant that he has retained "a considerable measure of Indian culture and habits of living."
The attempt to use physical characteristics to define Indians created some paradoxical situations. In 1939, for example, the BIA sent Harvard anthropologist Carl Selzer to Robeson County, North Carolina to review the claims of the Lumbee, who were of mixed-race descent. Using methods of assessment used in physical anthropology, but since discounted, "He measured their features and put a pencil in each Indian's hair, noting'Indian' blood if the pencil slipped through and'Negroid' if it did not; the results of his study were absurd, listing children as Indian while omitting their parents, placing brothers and sisters on opposite sides of the half-blood line." In the 1950s and 1960s, the federal government saw certain tribes as sufficiently capable of self-government, thus "no longer in need of federal supervision." The government terminated its relationship with numerous tribes under this policy, including the Menominees of Wisconsin, the Klamath of Oregon. Many tribes opposed this, have sought restoration of recognition.
Not all have received restoration and Brownell reports that the policy has "devastated" many of the groups. In particular, the tribes in California have been affected by the termination era. For example, the Taylorsville Rancheria was established and participated in the IRA, but during the termination era the tribe's land was sold to Plumas county to be used for a park and roping club; the government failed to terminate the tribe through an act of congress, but the tribe was not included on the Federally Recognized tribes list. The Taylorsville Rancheria has been in limbo since that time and continues to struggle for their restored status as a recognized tribe; because continuing to determine Indian membership by racial criteria, such as blood quantum or Indian descent, would leave the government in a constitutionally indefensible position, it has attempted to change how its statutes and regulations provide for the distribution of benefits to India
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
The Roanoke River is a river in southern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina in the United States, 410 miles long. A major river of the southeastern United States, it drains a rural area of the coastal plain from the eastern edge of the Appalachian Mountains southeast across the Piedmont to Albemarle Sound. An important river throughout the history of the United States, it was the site of early settlement in the Virginia Colony and the Carolina Colony. An 81-mile section of its lower course in Virginia between the Leesville Lake and Kerr Lake is known as the Staunton River, pronounced, as is the Shenandoah Valley city of that name, it is impounded along much of its middle course to form a chain of reservoirs. The river has its headwaters in the Blue Ridge Mountains in southwestern Virginia at Lafayette in Montgomery County where the North Fork and South Fork of the river merge; the North Fork 30 miles long, rises between two mountain ridges and flows southwest loops back to the northeast.
The South Fork 20 miles long, rises in several streams in the mountains on the border of Floyd and Montgomery counties and flows north, joining the North Fork from the south. The combined stream flows northeast between mountain ridges through the Roanoke Valley 10 miles to Salem east through the city of Roanoke, emerging from a gorge in the Blue Ridge Mountains southeast of Roanoke and forming the boundary between Franklin and Bedford counties; the river flows east-southeast across the Piedmont of southern Virginia and enters northeastern North Carolina, passing north of Roanoke Rapids at the fall line. The river flows southeast in a zigzag course across the coastal plain through the Roanoke River National Wildlife Refuge and briefly turns north as it enters Batchelor Bay on the western end Albemarle Sound; the river is impounded in six locations. The first is the Niagara Dam just south of the City of Roanoke in Roanoke County adjacent to the town of Vinton, it was constructed in 1906 to supply power for the Roanoke Electric Car streetcar system, is owned and operated by Appalachian Power.
It is impounded twice in succession in the Piedmont of southwestern Virginia downstream from Roanoke to form the Smith Mountain Lake and Leesville Lake reservoirs. Farther downstream in southern along the North Carolina border, the river is impounded by the John H. Kerr Dam to form the expansive Kerr Lake. In northeastern North Carolina, three miles west of Roanoke Rapids, the river is impounded to form the Lake Gaston reservoir, is impounded a final time to form Roanoke Rapids Lake; the Roanoke River valley was the homeland of various Native Americans Virginia Siouan, such as the Occaneechi and the Tutelo. The name Roanoke is derived from an Algonquian word for wampum; the deadly spring floods earned it the name "River of Death". The river's lower course began to be settled by Virginians about the middle of the 17th century, in what was known as the Albemarle Settlements; the upper reaches of the Roanoke River were explored by fur trading parties sent by Abraham Wood in the late 17th century, but these were not settled by English until the early 18th century.
In 1883, the small town of Big Lick on the river was selected as a major shops and terminal point for the new Norfolk and Western Railway to meet the Shenandoah Valley Railroad. Big Lick was renamed Roanoke for the river that bisected it, as the surrounding Roanoke County had been in 1838; the Roanoke River was prone to serious flooding prior to the completion of the John H. Kerr Dam in 1953. Construction of the dam was precipitated by the 1940 South Carolina hurricane, which caused record flooding in the Roanoke River basin and led to calls for better flood control mechanisms. List of North Carolina rivers List of Virginia rivers South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region Roanoke River Basin Association
The Tutelo were Native American people living above the Fall Line in present-day Virginia and West Virginia. They spoke a Siouan dialect of the Tutelo language thought to be similar to that of their neighbors, the Monacan and Manahoac nations. Under pressure from English settlers and Seneca Iroquois, they joined with other Virginia Siouan tribes in the late 17th century and became collectively known as the Tutelo-Saponi. By 1740, they had left Virginia and migrated north to seek protection from their former Iroquois opponents, they were adopted by the Cayuga tribe of New York in 1753. The English name Tutelo comes from the Algonquian variant of the name that the Iroquois used for all the Virginia Siouan tribes: Toderochrone; the Tutelo autonym was Yesah or Yesang. This is connected with the name Nahyssan, as well as earlier colonial era spellings, such as Monahassanough and Oniasont; the Tutelo historic homeland was said to include the area of the Big Sandy River on the West Virginia-Kentucky border, which they called the "Totteroy River."
The Iroquois drove them from this region during the Beaver Wars, after which the Iroquois established the Ohio Valley as their hunting ground by right of conquest. Although known to the Virginia colonists by their other names, a form of Tutelo first appeared in Virginia records in 1671, when the Batts and Fallam expedition noted their visit to "Totero Town" near what is now Salem, Virginia. A few years the Tutelo / Nahyssan joined the Saponi to live on islands located where the Dan and Staunton rivers join to become the Roanoke River, it was just above the territory of the Occaneechi. For a time, the Tutelo had a settlement in what is now Floyd County, VA on the banks of the New River. Many of the sherds collected there and the small triangular points, suggest a mid- to late 16th-century or an early 17th-century date. In 1701, they were noted as living at the headwaters of the Yadkin River in North Carolina. After 1714, collectively known as the Saponi-Tutelo, they resided at Junkatapurse around Fort Christanna in Brunswick County, near the border with North Carolina.
Over the 1730s, remnants of the Saponi and Occaneechi Indians moved north to Shamokin and sought the protection of the Oneida viceroy, Shickellamy. They moved further north into present-day western New York; these Siouan remnants were formally adopted by the Cayuga nation of New York in 1753. Their village of "Coreorgonel" was located near present-day Ithaca, New York and Buttermilk Falls State Park. There they lived under the protection of the Cayuga until Coreorgonel, along with many other Iroquois towns, was destroyed during the American Revolutionary War by the Sullivan Expedition of 1779, it was retaliating for British-Iroquois raids against the American rebels. The Tutelo went with the Iroquois to Canada, where the British offered land for resettlement at what became known as the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation, they continued to live among the Cayuga and were absorbed by them through intermarriage. The last known full-blooded Tutelo speaker, Nikonha or Waskiteng died in 1870 at the age of 105.
He had given extensive linguistic material to the scholar Horatio Hale, who confirmed the Tutelo language as Siouan. Akenatsi Catawba Cheraw Moneton Mosopes Sewee Waccamaw The Indian Tribes of North America, John Reed Swanton, p. 74
Horatio Emmons Hale was an American-Canadian ethnologist and businessman who studied language as a key for classifying ancient peoples and being able to trace their migrations. He was the first to discover that the Tutelo language of Virginia belonged to the Siouan family, to identify the Cherokee language as a member of the Iroquoian family of languages. In addition, he published a work Iroquois Book of Rites, based on interpreting the Iroquois wampum belts, as well as his studies with tribal leaders. After his marriage to a Canadian woman in 1855, Hale moved to Ontario, he continued to publish articles in American scholarly journals, while living in Canada for the rest of his life. Horatio was born on 3 May 1817, at Newport, New Hampshire, in the United States, was the son of David Hale, a lawyer, of Sarah Josepha, after the death of her husband, turned to writing and became a prominent magazine editor. Entering Harvard College in 1833, Hale showed a marked faculty for languages, his first essay in original work appeared the next year, attracted the attention of the college authorities.
It consisted of an Algonkin vocabulary, which he gathered from a band of Indians who had camped on the college grounds. Three years when the United States Exploring Expedition to little-known portions of the globe was organised under Charles Wilkes, Hale was recommended, while yet an undergraduate, for the post of ethnologist and philologist, obtained the appointment. From 1838 to 1842, he was employed in the work of the expedition, visiting South America, Australasia and North-western America known as Oregon. From this point he returned overland; the Hale Passages of Puget Sound were named in recognition of his service to the expedition. The expedition went on to Polynesia. Of the reports of that expedition, Hale prepared the sixth volume and Philology, said to have laid the foundations of the ethnography of Polynesia, he continued to study abroad. Having taken his degree of M. A. Hale made a short tour of Europe, he was admitted to the Chicago bar in 1855. In 1856, the Hales moved to Clinton, Canada, where he administered the estate of his father-in-law.
He began to involve himself locally in real estate development and other business and educational endeavours. He continued to reside in Clinton till his death, devoting much attention to the development of the Ontario school system, he was influential in introducing co-education of the sexes in high schools and collegiate institutes, in increasing the grants to these institutions, in establishing the normal school system, in improving the methods of examination. The vicinity of the Canadian reserves on the banks of the Thames and Grand River gave Hale ample opportunity for further investigation into American-Indian questions, he discovered, in 1883 published, under the title, The Iroquois Book of Rites, two Indian manuscripts, dating between 1714 and 1735, the only literary American-Indian work extant. His judicious introductions, careful translation and editing add much to the value of the work. In 1884, at its Montreal meeting, he reorganised the section of anthropology as an independent department of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
He had done a like service for the American Association. At the request of the British committee, he undertook the supervision of the anthropological section's work in the Canadian North-west and British Columbia; the reports, which are elaborate, appeared in the published'Proceedings' from 1885 to 1897. Continuing a member of the committee, he was asked to accept the position of vice-president at the association's meeting in Toronto, but declined on the ground of ill-health. Among other learned bodies Hale was an honorary fellow of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain, to which he contributed his latest papers, he died on 29 December 1896 at Ontario. In 1854, at Jersey city in the state of New Jersey, he married Margaret, daughter of William Pugh justice of the peace for the township of Goderich in the county of Huron, Canada West. Hale returned to his study of Native Americans, he was mentored by the Iroquois chiefs George Henry Martin Johnson and John Fraser, whom he met while visiting the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation.
In addition he traveled to the United States to consult with other native informants. Hale documented rituals of the Iroquois Confederacy, he was assisted in interpreting the group's wampum belts. His work resulted in his publishing Iroquois Book of Rites, he studied the Iroquois languages, determining that Mohawk was the oldest and that the Laurentian languages were Iroquoian. Hale made many valuable contributions to the science of ethnology, attracting attention by his theory of the origin of the diversities of human languages and dialects—a theory suggested by his study of child-languages, or the languages invented by little children, he emphasized the importance of languages as tests of mental capacity, demonstrating that Native American languages were complex and had a high capacity for classification. He used language as a criterion for the classification of human groups, he was the first to discover that the Tutelo language of Virginia belonged to the Siouan family, as well as the first to identify the Cherokee language as a member of the Iroquoian family of languages.
Besides writing numerous magazine articles, Hale read a number of valuable papers before learned societies. These include: Hiawatha and the Iroquois Confederacy Indian Migrations as Evid
Shamokin is a city in Northumberland County, surrounded by Coal Township at the western edge of the Anthracite Coal Region in central Pennsylvania. It was named after Schahamokink. At the 2010 decennial United States Census, the population was 7,374 half what it was in 1950; the first human settlement of Shamokin was Shawnee natives migrants. A large population of Delaware Indians were forcibly resettled there in the early 18th century after they lost rights to their land in the "Walking Purchase" along the eastern border of the colonial Province of Pennsylvania in the upper northern reaches of the Delaware River in 1737. Canasatego of the Six Nations, enforcing the Walking Purchase on behalf of George Thomas, Deputy Governor of Pennsylvania, ordered the Delaware Indians to go to two places on the Susquehanna River; the city of present-day Shamokin was founded as a village by colonists in 1773, but did not develop much until the following 19th century. The discovery of anthracite coal resources in the region, known as "hard coal," became the basis of much industry.
Railroad companies, such as Reading Railroad, bought interests in coal and became major employers of the area, building railroads to ship coal to markets and controlling most jobs. Workers organized into unions to develop means of bargaining with these powerful companies. During the nationwide Great Railroad Strike of July 1877, workers in the 1877 Shamokin Uprising at that time marched and demonstrated during the summer period of labor unrest. Shamokin was incorporated earlier as a borough under the Commonwealth constitution on November 9, 1864, subsequently as a city 85 years on February 21, 1949. In addition to anthracite coal-mining, it became an industrial center in the 19th century, with silk and knitting mills and shirt factories, wagon shops and brickyards; the dominant Eagle Silk Mill became the largest textile manufacturing building under one roof in the United States. Famous inventor and entrepreneur Thomas A. Edison a resident of nearby Sunbury, established the Edison Illuminating Company of Shamokin in the fall of 1882.
When the Shamokin power generating station on Independence Street started on September 22, 1883, St. Edward's Roman Catholic Church, connected, became the first church in the world to be lit by electricity; until 2017, Jones Hardware Company was located at the Independence Street site of the former 1882 Edison electrical station in Shamokin.) In the 1877 Shamokin Uprising, railroad workers and miners angered by unexpected cuts in wages begun by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad joined what developed across the East with the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, which began with strikes in neighboring Martinsburg, West Virginia others in Maryland including the headquarters of the B. & O. at its Camden Street Station in downtown Baltimore spread north and west into Pennsylvania and to Pittsburgh and other sites conducted in several major industrial cities in Pennsylvania, as well as more cities in the Northeast and as far west through to St. Louis and Missouri. Mayor William Douty commissioned, they shot into a group of strikers, wounding 12 and killing two bystanders who were not involved in the protest.
Five strikers were convicted of rioting and jailed for up to eight months for their part in the actions. At the turn of the 20th century, resident William A. Conway wrote Murder at Hickory Ridge as a "dime novel", hoping to cash in on their popularity, it was a fictionalized account of an unsolved murder in the Shamokin area. His two brothers, Alphonsus E. and John J. printed the book on a press in their garage. They continued their business. With the profits from the sale of the novel, the Conway brothers started the Black Diamond Publishing Company in 1905 and founded Black Diamond Magazine to disseminate news of the anthracite coal region; the brothers developed a way to print a roll of tickets, planning to market them to the new movie theaters being built in the area. To meet a request by the nearby Hazleton Baseball Club, they partnered with merchant Nicholas R. Ludes to make a big purchase of colored paper. Together the Conway brothers and Ludes founded what became the National Ticket Company, located in Shamokin since 1907.
At one time it was the largest ticket manufacturing company in the United States. Their first production facility was built in 1911 at the corner of Webster Streets. A 1942 fire gutted the plant; the replacement building at Pearl Street and Ticket Avenue was completed in 1950 and has since served as company headquarters. The business is still owned by descendants of the Ludes families. In the 21st century National Ticket has developed international customers as well to grow its business. Edgewood Park known as Indian Park, was operated in Shamokin as an increasing popular amusement park from 1905 through the late 1950s, featuring a roller coaster and other rides and entertainments, attracting regional crowds, its 97 acres included a large pond. Faced with different needs in the 1950s, the Shamokin area school district developed this property for new elementary and high schools; the Victoria Theatre in town was listed on the National Register of Historic Places maintained by the U. S. Department of the Interior in 1985.
It was demolished in 2004 and delisted. From the post-World War II period, there has been massive restructuring in the railro
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t