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Circuit bending

Circuit bending is the creative, chance-based customization of the circuits within electronic devices such as low-voltage, battery-powered guitar effects, children's toys and digital synthesizers to create new musical or visual instruments and sound generators. Emphasizing spontaneity and randomness, the techniques of circuit bending have been associated with noise music, though many more conventional contemporary musicians and musical groups have been known to experiment with "bent" instruments. Circuit bending involves dismantling the machine and adding components such as switches and potentiometers that alter the circuit; the process of circuit bending involves experimenting with inexpensive second-hand electronics that produce sounds, such as keyboards, drum machines, electronic learning products. According to Electronic Musician on 30 June 2014, innovators should only experiment with battery-powered devices, because there is a danger of fire or death from experimenting with mains-powered devices.

Aesthetic value, immediate usability and randomized results are factors in the process of "bending" electronics. Although the history of electronic music is associated with unconventional sonic results, innovators like Robert Moog and Léon Theremin were electrical engineers, were more concerned with the consistency of their instruments. In contrast, circuit bending is typified by inconsistencies in instruments built in an unscientific manner. While many pre-fitted circuit bent machines are sold on auction sites such as eBay, this somewhat contravenes the intention of most practitioners. Machines bent to a repeated configuration are more analogous to the well known practice of "mods", such as the Devilfish mod for the Roland TB-303, the famous Speak & Spell toys or various Analogman or Pedaldoc guitar pedal circuit modifications. Circuit bending an audio device involves removing the rear panel of the device and connecting any two circuit locations with a "jumper" wire, sending current from one part of the circuit into another.

Results are monitored through either the device's internal speaker or by connecting an amplifier to the speaker output. If an interesting effect is achieved, this connection would be marked for future reference or kept active by either soldering a new connection or bridging it with crocodile clips. Other components are inserted at these points such as pushbuttons or switches, to turn the effect on or off; this is repeated on a trial and error basis. Other components added into the circuit can give the performer more expressiveness, such as potentiometers and pressure sensors; the simplest input, the one most identified with circuit bending, is the body contact, where the performer's touch causes the circuit to change the sound. Metal knobs, screws or studs are wired to these circuit points to give easier access to these points from the outside the case of the device. Since creative experimentation is a key element to the practice of circuit bending, there is always a possibility that short circuiting may yield undesirable results, including component failure.

In particular, connecting the power supply or a capacitor directly to a computer chip lead can destroy the chip and make the device inoperable. Before beginning to do circuit bending, a person should learn the basic risk factors about working with electrical and electronic products, including how to identify capacitors, how to avoid risks with AC power. For safety reasons, a circuit bender should have a few basic electronics tools, such as a multimeter, it is advised that beginner circuit benders should never "bend" any device that gets its power from mains electricity, as this would carry a serious risk of electrocution. Circuit bending can be carried out in interactive electronic audio games. People modify their electronic games to enhance the quality of recordings used for fan-made projects or to change the speed of the game which results in a pitch change; this makes the gameplay easier if the game gets impossibly fast. Adding a knob or a switch to change the pitch of the game can lead to some disadvantages which include the game can change its pitch when its lights are turned on, it can cause the batteries to drain out on high speeds.

Examples from german female circuit bender "BendoverBarbie" of the noise artist group "WikipediaCircuitBendingArticle" a Song by BendoverBarbie composed on a "Circuit bend Speak'n'Spell" with the "Circuit bending" article as Songtext and Controller "Noise" - Bendover Barbie Although similar methods were used by other musicians and engineers, this method of music creation is believed to have been pioneered by Reed Ghazala in the 1960s. Ghazala's experience with circuit-bending began in 1966 when a toy transistor amplifier, by chance, shorted-out against a metal object in his desk drawer, resulting in a stream of unusual sounds. While Ghazala says that he was not the first circuit bender, he coined the term Circuit Bending and whole-heartedly promoted the proliferation of the concept and practice through his writings and internet site, earning him the title "Father of Circuit Bending". Serge Tcherepnin, designer of the Serge modular synthesizers, discussed his early experiments in the 1950s with the transistor radio, in which he found sensitive circuit points in those simple electronic devices and brought them out to "bod

The Shot

The Shot was a basketball play that occurred during a 1989 playoff game between the Chicago Bulls and Cleveland Cavaliers of the National Basketball Association. It took place during the deciding Game 5 of the Eastern Conference First Round series on May 7, 1989, at Richfield Coliseum in Richfield Township, Ohio. With the best-of-five series tied at two games apiece and the Cavaliers leading the game by one point with three seconds left, Bulls player Michael Jordan received an inbound pass and made a buzzer-beater shot to give the Bulls a 101–100 win and clinch a series victory; the play capped off a final minute. Jordan finished the game with 44 points; the Shot is considered to be one of his greatest clutch moments, the game itself is regarded as a classic. The Cavaliers swept the regular season games against the Bulls 6–0, including a 90–84 victory in the final regular season game, in which they rested their four best players. Cleveland was the 3rd seed in the Eastern Conference and Chicago was the 6th.

Cleveland had a 57–25 regular season record, tied with the Los Angeles Lakers for the second-best record in the league behind the Detroit Pistons. Chicago's regular season record that year was 47–35, which although it placed them fifth in their division, was good enough for the sixth playoff seed in the conference. Given both these factors, the Bulls' playoff victory was considered a major upset. In retrospect, it symbolized the beginning of a dynasty of Jordan's Bulls, it was the first of many game-winning shots. In Game 4 of the 1993 Eastern Conference Semifinals, Jordan made another series-winning buzzer-beater on the same end of the court in the same building, to give the Bulls their 4th playoff series win over the Cavaliers, that time a 4-game sweep; the Shot is one of many dramatic sports moments to come at a Cleveland team's expense—Red Right 88, The Catch, Off Nagy's Glove, The Drive, The Fumble, The Decision, The Move, the Curse of Rocky Colavito. Michael Jordan made a jump shot with 6 seconds left to give the Bulls a 99–98 lead.

After Cleveland called a timeout, Craig Ehlo inbounded the ball to Larry Nance, who gave the ball back to Ehlo, who scored on a driving layup to give Cleveland a 100–99 lead with 3 seconds left. Chicago called timeout. Jordan was double-teamed by Nance on the inbounds. Jordan first moved to his right, pushing Nance away cut left to get open and receive the inbound pass from Brad Sellers. Drifting to his left, Jordan made a jump shot at the foul line over the defending Ehlo as time expired, giving the Bulls a 101–100 victory. Jim Durham and Johnny Kerr were calling the game on the Bulls' Radio Network and narrated the play: The lasting image of the moment is Jordan's wild, emphatic celebration: a leap into the air as Ehlo fell to the ground in despair a short distance away; this scene has become part of many fans' recollection of The Shot, but it was not shown to viewers of the televised game. CBS never aired this replay during the game telecast, nor was Jordan's celebration caught by the sideline pressbox camera used for most game action.

Instead, fans saw the celebration of Bulls head coach Doug Collins, who ran around Bulls assistant coach Phil Jackson and into the arms of his team. Jordan's leap was recreated for the 2006 television commercial "Second Generation". Cleveland sports curse The Shot at "Michael Jordan's'The Shot' demands a deep rewind". SB Nation. November 6, 2018 – via YouTube

Gillian Revie

Gillian Revie Macleod is a British ballerina. She was a first soloist and principal guest artist at the Royal Ballet, Covent Garden, now heads the ballet school Classical Ballet 121 in Sydney. Revie was born in either 1970 in Bangor, County Down, Northern Ireland, she began dancing at the age of three. Revie trained at the Royal Ballet School and joined the Royal Ballet company in 1987, where she worked for over two decades, undertaking roles such as Sugar Plum Fairy in The Nutcracker, Mary in Mayerling and Manon. In 2000, she became the first recipient of the Award for Outstanding Achievement in Dance Performance at Dance Northern Ireland's black-tie Gala Night Celebration


Museumsufer is the name of a landscape of museums in Frankfurt, Germany, lined up on both banks of the river Main or in close vicinity. The centre is the historic art museum Städel; the other museums were added by transforming historic villas by building new museums, in the 1980s by cultural politician Hilmar Hoffmann. The idea for a group of different museums in Frankfurt was proposed in 1977 by Hilmar Hoffmann, as Kulturdezernent responsible for culture in the city. Before, architect Till Behrens had proposed a concept Frankfurter Grüngürtel to the forum for development. Between 1980 and 1990, existing museums were expanded and many new ones built including historic villas. Architects included internationally known Richard Meier, Oswald Mathias Ungers, Josef Paul Kleihues, Günter Behnisch and Hans Hollein. Beginning in 2008, Frankfurt has expanded some of its museums; the Städel was expanded by an annex, the Fil Museum was renovated. Icon Museum, housing one of the largest collections of Russian, Bulgarian and other icons in Germany Museum Angewandte Kunst, housing furniture and design from the 10th to 21st century with a notable collection of East Asian applied arts Museum der Weltkulturen, displaying a small part of an ethnological collection in changing exhibitions.

Deutsches Filmmuseum, explaining the development of movie-making from the beginnings in the 19th century up until today, includes an art house cinema German Architecture Museum, apart from a small permanent collection, changing exhibitions showcase current architectural projects and trends from around the globe. Museum für Kommunikation; the large permanent collection displays various relics from the postal and telephone services, including one of the world's largest stamp collections and a collection of communication related art. Städel, one of Germany's prominent fine art museums with a focus on old masters and classical modern art Liebieghaus, a sculpture collection, focusing on sculpture from ancient Greece until the renaissance days Museum Giersch, showcasing a small permanent collection of local 19th-century artists and houses temporary exhibition on artists that have a connection to the Frankfurt region Portikus, a small free exhibition space showing temporary exhibitions of contemporary art Jewish Museum Frankfurt.

The permanent collection gives an overview of the varied fate of Frankfurt's Jewish community through the centuries. Temporary exhibitions focus on art. Historical Museum, displaying artefacts off the city's history from Roman times until today, some prominent old master paintings and sculptures and various temporary exhibitionsFour museums are located in the Old Town but not right on the river bank: Schirn Museum für Moderne Kunst Part of the Jewish museum in the Frankfurter Judengasse Archeological Museum Frankfurt in the KarmeliterklosterThe exhibition hall Portikus was opened on an island at the Alte Brücke in 2006; the street on the south is called Schaumainkai and is partially closed to traffic for Frankfurt's largest flea market each Saturday. Two festivals focus on the Museumsufer, the "Nacht der Museen" when several museums open at night, the "Museumsuferfest" in August. Official website


AQUAL is a theory of gravity based on Modified Newtonian Dynamics, but using a Lagrangian. It was developed by Jacob Bekenstein and Mordehai Milgrom in their 1984 paper, "Does the missing mass problem signal the breakdown of Newtonian gravity?". "AQUAL" stands for "A QUAdratic Lagrangian". The gravitational force law obtained from MOND, m μ a = G M m r 2, has a serious defect: it violates Newton's third law of motion, therefore fails to conserve momentum and energy. To see this, consider two objects with m ≠ M; this problem can be rectified by deriving the force law from a Lagrangian, at the cost of modifying the general form of the force law. Conservation laws could be derived from the Lagrangian by the usual means; the AQUAL Lagrangian is: ρ Φ + 1 8 π G a 0 2 F. These equations reduce to the MOND equations in the spherically symmetric case, although they differ somewhat in the disc case needed for modelling spiral or lenticular galaxies. However, the difference is only 10–15%, so does not impact the results.

According to Sanders and McGaugh, one problem with AQUAL is AQUAL's failure to predict the amount of gravitational lensing observed in rich clusters of galaxies. Jacob Bekenstein & M. Milgrom. "Does the missing mass problem signal the breakdown of Newtonian gravity?". Astrophys. J. 286: 7–14. Bibcode:1984ApJ...286....7B. Doi:10.1086/162570. Milgrom, M. "Solutions for the modified Newtonian dynamics field equation". Astrophys. J. 302: 617–625. Bibcode:1986ApJ...302..617M. Doi:10.1086/164021. Bekenstein, Jacob D. "Relativistic MOND as an alternative to the dark matter paradigm". Nuclear Physics A. 827: 555c–560c. ArXiv:0901.1524. Bibcode:2009NuPhA.827..555B. Doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.05.122