Bromsgrove is a town in Worcestershire, England about 16 miles north-east of Worcester and 13 miles south-west of Birmingham city centre. It had a population of 29,237 in 2001. Bromsgrove is the main town in the larger Bromsgrove District. In the middle ages, it was a small market town producing cloth in the early modern period. Bromsgrove is first documented in the early 9th century as Bremesgraf. In an Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for 909 AD mentions a Bremesburh Bromsgrove; the Domesday Book references Bremesgrave. The name means Bremi’s grove; the grove element may refer to the supply of wood to Droitwich for the salt pans. In the Anglo-Saxon times, the Bromsgrove area had a woodland economy consisting of hunting, maintenance of haies and pig farming. At the time of Edward the Confessor, the manor of Bromsgrove is known to have been held by Earl Edwin. After the conquest, the manor which held the town of Bromsgrove was held by the King; the royal manor of Bromsgrove and King's Norton covered 23,000 acres from Woodcote to Deritend.
Among the manor's possessions were 13 salt pans at Droitwich, with three workers, producing 300 mits. The King had the right to sell the salt from his pans before any other salt in the town, it was at the centre of a large parish, with the St John the Baptist standing at a prominent point in the landscape. Bromsgrove, along with all the towns in north Worcestershire, was committed to defending the city of Worcester and is recorded to have contributed burgesses to Droitwich in 1086. There may have been Anglo-Saxon or Norman fortifications in Bromsgrove, but other than in literature no physical archaeological evidence remains. Bromsgrove and the surrounding area was put under forest law when the boundaries of Feckenham Forest were extended hugely by Henry II. Forest law was removed from the Bromsgrove area in 1301 in the reign of Edward I, when the boundaries were moved back. Bromsgrove was one of the smallest urban settlements in the county, had no formal status as a borough. A market day was first granted in 1200, however at this time there is little record of an urban settlement.
In the 1230s, Henry III arranged that the rectory manor of St John was transferred to Worcester Priory, to support the remembrance of his father King John, buried there. This meant that the town which grew up around this period was divided between two jurisdictions and landlords, the royal manor in the east, the rectory manor controlled by Worcester Priory in the west; the division ran along the High Street. Records show no sign of an urban settlement in 1240-1250. New initiatives to establish a market took place in 1250, Bromsgrove residents appear in the tax records by 1275; the town appears to have been founded as a series of plots of sizes between two and four perches, marked out along the current High Street. These plots can still be discerned today, in the sizes of the frontages of the buildings; the road entering Bromsgrove from the west appears to have been diverted to ensure that it met Bromsgrove at the furthest point north, forcing travellers to pass south through the whole high street if intending to continue west.
The town benefited from the growth of the local agricultural population in the early medieval period, which began to establish new farmland in places like Stoke Prior and Hanbury through assarting Feckenham Forest. The number of minor aristocratic and ecclesiastical estates grew, which would have needed to buy and sell goods. Hanbury alone had two granges in the 1200s; the Priory Manor itself would have been a potential customer, as would Grafton Manor just south of the town. Not all the local trade would have passed directly through Bromsgrove, as the Priory for instance would take locally produced goods directly to Droitwich or Worcester, or purchase them directly at other larger centres with particular specialisms. In 1317 it was given the right hold a Tuesday market and three-day fair every 29 August at the Decollation of St John the Baptist; the market place and tollhouse were located at the junction of the High Street. Its market was used by the surrounding area to sell surplus oats, which were produced in the area, while wheat was grown in southern Worcestershire.
The area was known for the high quality of its pigs. Common trades can be traced from surnames in this period, included in the years to 1327 bakers, carpenters, dyers, masons, smiths and fullers; the town had a large number of tanneries and cloth was produced. Tanneries and breweries were located on the Priory manor side of the town, with access to the Spadesbourne brook; this created significant problems of pollution. Bromsgrove benefited from sales to travellers, for instance of beer, horsebread and cheese. Brewing and selling ale seems to have been predominantly done by women in Bromsgrove to supplement the main income of the household. Between 22 and 29 people are recorded in the 1300s at the Court Leet paying'fines' for selling ale for more than the fixed price. Women were able to hold property, sometimes as widows or jointly with their husbands, owned up to 10% of Bromsgrove's plots at various times. After the Black Death, the social structure of the Bromsgrove's hinterland changed. Farms tended to merge and become larger, moved from producing crops to raising livestock.
This resulted in higher value goods like wool and meat being sold through Bromsgrove's market
Arabella Katherine Hankey was an English missionary and nurse, best known for being the author of the poem The Old, Old Story, from which the hymns "Tell me the old, old story" and "I Love to Tell the Story", were derived. Hankey was born in the daughter of a prosperous banker in London, her family were devout members of the Clapham Sect. She was inspired by the Methodist revival of John Wesley and organised and taught in Sunday schools in London, she did missionary work as a nurse in South Africa, assisting her brother. In 1866, she was bedridden for a long convalescence. During this time, Hankey wrote her long poem, entitled The Old, Old Story, with 100 verses in two parts: The Story Wanted and The Story Told, she recovered from the illness and lived to the age of 77, dying in 1911. English women hymnwriters Works related to Katherine Hankey at Wikisource
Worcester is a city in Worcestershire, England, 31 miles southwest of Birmingham, 101 miles west-northwest of London, 27 miles north of Gloucester and 23 miles northeast of Hereford. The population is 100,000; the River Severn flanks the western side of the city centre, overlooked by Worcester Cathedral. The Battle of Worcester in 1651 was the final battle of the English Civil War, where Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army defeated King Charles II's Royalists. Worcester is known as the home of Royal Worcester Porcelain, composer Edward Elgar, Lea & Perrins, makers of traditional Worcestershire sauce, University of Worcester, Berrow's Worcester Journal, claimed to be the world's oldest newspaper; the trade route which ran past Worcester forming part of the Roman Ryknild Street, dates to Neolithic times. The position commanded a ford over the River Severn and was fortified by the Britons around 400 BC, it would have been on the northern border of the Dobunni and subject to the larger communities of the Malvern hillforts.
The Roman settlement at the site passes unmentioned by Ptolemy's Geography, the Antonine Itinerary and the Register of Dignitaries, but would have grown up on the road opened between Glevum and Viroconium in the 40s and 50s AD. The river crossing of the Severn at Worcester was the destination of the unfinished east-west Roman-dated road that ran from Magnis, until it disappeared from the historical record east of Stretton Grandison. Worcester may have been the "Vertis" mentioned in the 7th century Ravenna Cosmography. Using charcoal from the Forest of Dean, the Romans operated pottery kilns and ironworks at the site and may have built a small fort. There is no sign of municipal buildings. In the 3rd century, Roman Worcester occupied a larger area than the subsequent medieval city, but silting of the Diglis Basin caused the abandonment of Sidbury. Industrial production ceased and the settlement contracted to a defended position along the lines of the old British fort at the river terrace's southern end.
This settlement is identified with the Cair Guiragon listed among the 28 cities of Britain in the History of the Britons attributed to Nennius. This is not a British name but an adaption of its Old English name Weorgoran ceaster, "fort of the Weorgoran"; the form of the place-name varied as language and history developed over the centuries, with Early English and subsequent Norman French additions. At its settlement in 7th century by the Angles of Mercia it was known as Weogorna. After centuries of warfare against the Vikings and Danelaw it a centre for the Anglo-Saxon army or here known as Weogorna ceastre. At the time of Tenth Century Reformation to twelfth century, when scholasticism flourished it became approximated to its known linguistic origins as Wirccester; the county developed from the shire's name Wigornia from the Anglo-Norman period into the foundations of the Market Fairs during the Henrician and Edwardian parliaments. It was still known as County Wigorn in 1750; the Weorgoran were precursors of Hwicce and the West Saxons who entered the area some time after the 577 Battle of Dyrham.
In 680, their fort at Worcester was chosen—in preference to both the much larger Gloucester and the royal court at Winchcombe—to be the seat of a new bishopric, suggesting there was a well-established and powerful Christian community when the site fell into English hands. The oldest known church was St Helen's, British. Worcester appears in the historic records prior to the Viking era with reference to the church and monastic communities, showing evidence of extensive ecclesiastical ownership of lands. During King Alfred's reign, the earls of Mercia fortified Worcester "for the protection of all the people" at the request of Bishop Werfrith, it appears. A unique document detailing this and privileges granted to the church outlines the existence of Worcester's market and borough court, differentiation between church and market quarters within the city, as well as the role of the King in relation to the roads. Worcester's fortifications would most have established the line of the wall, extant until the 1600s excepting the south east area near the former castle.
It is referred to as a wall by contemporaries. Worcester was a centre of monastic church power. Oswald of Worcester was an important reformer, appointed Bishop in 961, jointly with York; the last Anglo-Saxon Bishop of Worcester, Wulfstan, or St Wulstan, was an important reformer, stayed in post until his death in 1095. Worcester became the focus of tax resistance against the Danish Harthacanute. Two huscarls were killed in May 1041 while attempting to collect taxes for the expanded navy, after being driven into the Priory, where they were murdered. A military force was sent to deal with the non-payment, while the townspeople attempted to defend themselves by moving to and occupying the island of Bevere, two miles up river, where they were besieged. After Harthacnut's men had sacked the city and set it alight, agreement was reached. Worcester was the site of a mint during the late Anglo-Saxon period, with seven moneyers in the reign of Edward the Confessor; this implies a middling role in trade for the city.
Worcester was, for tax purposes, counted within ru
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Thomas Belsham was an English Unitarian minister Belsham was born in Bedford and was the elder brother of William Belsham, the English political writer and historian. He was educated at the dissenting academy at Daventry, where for seven years he acted as assistant tutor. After three years spent in a charge at Worcester, he returned as head of Daventry Academy, a post which he continued to hold till 1789, having adopted Unitarian principles, he resigned. With Joseph Priestley for colleague, he superintended during its brief existence the New College at Hackney, was, on Priestley's departure in 1794 called to the charge of the Gravel Pit congregation. In 1805, he accepted a call to the Essex Street Chapel, headquarters and offices of the Unitarian Church under John Disney, there succeeding as minister Theophilus Lindsey who had retired and died three years in 1808. Belsham remained at Essex Street, in failing health, till his death in Hampstead, on 11 November 1829, he was buried in Bunhill Fields burial ground, in the same tomb as Theophilus Lindsey, his joint executors were Thomas Field Gibson and his father.
Belsham's beliefs reflect that transition that the Unitarian movement was going through during his lifetime from the early Bible-fundamentalist views of earlier English Unitarians like Henry Hedworth and John Biddle, to the more Bible-critical positions of Priestley's generation. Belsham adopted critical ideas on the Pentateuch by 1807, the Gospels by 1819, Genesis by 1821. Following Priestley, Belsham was to dismiss the virgin birth as "no more entitled to credit, than the fables of the Koran, or the reveries of Swedenborg." Belsham's first work of importance, Review of Mr Wilberforces Treatise entitled Practical View, was written after his conversion to Unitarianism. His most popular work was the Evidences of Christianity, he was the author of a work on philosophy, Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind, based on Hartley's psychology. In 1812 Belsham published the Memoirs of the Late Reverend Theophilus Lindsey, M. A. his predecessor at Essex Street. This included a chapter titled "American Unitarianism" arguing that many American clergy entertained Unitarian views.
The Calvinist minister Jedidiah Morse published the chapter separately, as part of his campaign against New England's liberal ministers—contributing to "the Unitarian Controversy" that produced permanent schism among New England's Congregationalist churches. His main Christological work was A Calm Inquiry into the Scripture Doctrine concerning the Person of Christ. Belsham was one of the most vigorous and able writers of his church, the Quarterly Review and Gentlemans Magazine of the early years of the 19th century abound in evidences that his abilities were recognized by his opponents; the New Testament, An improved version upon the basis of Archbishop Newcome's new translation with a corrected text and notes critical and explanatory. London: Richard Taylor & Co. 1808. Boston 1809. Humphreys, Jennett. "Belsham, Thomas". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 4. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 202–203. Webb, R. K.. "Miracles in English Unitarian Thought Essay,". In Micale, Mark S.. Enlightenment, modernity: historical essays in European thought and culture.
Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Belsham, Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. P. 711
Lant Carpenter, Dr. was an English educator and Unitarian minister. Lant Carpenter was born in the third son of George Carpenter and his wife Mary, he was christened on 2 September 1780 in Kidderminster. His parents separated after his father's business failed, Nicholas Pearsall, his mother's guardian and a Unitarian, saw to his education. For two years from age 13 he was at Stourbridge, taught by his uncle the Rev. Benjamin Carpenter returning to Kidderminster where he was at a school founded by Pearsall, was taught by William Blake. After some months at Northampton Academy under John Horsey, Carpenter transferred to the University of Glasgow and joined the ministry. After a short time as assistant master at a Unitarian school near Birmingham, in 1802 he was appointed librarian at the Liverpool Athenaeum. In 1805 Carpenter became pastor of a chapel in Exeter, he moved to Bristol in 1817. At both Bristol and Exeter he was engaged in school work, among his Bristol pupils being Harriet and James Martineau, Samuel Greg, the Westminster Review's John Bowring.
Lant Carpenter did much to broaden the spirit of English Unitarianism. He believed in the essential lawfulness of the creation; this meant. The rite of baptism seemed to him a superstition and he substituted for it a form of infant dedication. Carpenter's health broke down in 1839 and he was ordered to travel, he was drowned on 5 or 6 April 1840, having been washed overboard from the steamer in which he was travelling from Livorno to Marseille. His body washed ashore about two months near the Porto d'Anzio and was buried on the beach. In 1820, Carpenter authored An Examination of the Charges made Against Unitarianism. A collection of his sermons were published in 1840 as Sermons on Practical Subjects. For Rees's Cyclopædia he contributed the articles on Education, Vol 12,. Bibliography 1806: Lant Carpenter, An Introduction to the Geography of the New Testament: He brought out in 1806 a popular manual of New Testament geography. 1819: George Paxton, Illustrations of the Holy Scriptures: in three Parts.
1. From the Geography of the East. 2. From the Natural History of the East. 3. From the Customs of Ancient and Modern Nations. sup. An Introduction to the Geography of the New Testament: Comprising a Geographical Arrangement of the Places Mentioned in the New Testament. With Several Maps. By Lant Carpenter, LL. D. Lant Carpenter married Anna or Hannah Penn, daughter of John Penn and Mary, in 1806 in Worcester. Anna was christened on 11 May 1787 in Worcester, their marriage had the following issue: Mary Carpenter was born on 3 April 1807 in Exeter. She was buried in Arno's Vale, Bristol. Mary was founder of the ragged school movement. Anna Carpenter, born 17 September 1808. Susan Carpenter, born 19 April 1811. William Benjamin Carpenter was born on 29 October 1813 in Exeter, he died on 19 November 1885 in London, was buried in Highgate Cemetery. Russell Lant Carpenter was christened in Devonshire, he died in 1892. Philip Pearsall Carpenter was born on 4 November 1819 in Bristol, England, he died on 24 May 1877 in Montreal, Canada, of typhoid fever.
He was a noted conchologist. Lant Carpenter, about 1800, from page 14, Memoirs of the Life of Rev. Lant Carpenter, LL. D. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Carpenter, Lant". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. Cambridge University Press. Gordon, Alexander. "Carpenter, Lant". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 9. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Gordon, Alexander. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4731
Joseph Priestley was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, liberal political theorist who published over 150 works. He has been credited with the discovery of oxygen, having isolated it in its gaseous state, although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Antoine Lavoisier have strong claims to the discovery. During his lifetime, Priestley's considerable scientific reputation rested on his invention of soda water, his writings on electricity, his discovery of several "airs", the most famous being what Priestley dubbed "dephlogisticated air". However, Priestley's determination to defend phlogiston theory and to reject what would become the chemical revolution left him isolated within the scientific community. Priestley's science was integral to his theology, he tried to fuse Enlightenment rationalism with Christian theism. In his metaphysical texts, Priestley attempted to combine theism and determinism, a project, called "audacious and original".
He believed that a proper understanding of the natural world would promote human progress and bring about the Christian millennium. Priestley, who believed in the free and open exchange of ideas, advocated toleration and equal rights for religious Dissenters, which led him to help found Unitarianism in England; the controversial nature of Priestley's publications, combined with his outspoken support of the French Revolution, aroused public and governmental suspicion. He spent his last ten years in Pennsylvania. A scholar and teacher throughout his life, Priestley made significant contributions to pedagogy, including the publication of a seminal work on English grammar and books on history, he prepared some of the most influential early timelines; these educational writings were among Priestley's most popular works. It was his metaphysical works, that had the most lasting influence, being considered primary sources for utilitarianism by philosophers such as Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Herbert Spencer.
Priestley was born to an established English Dissenting family in Birstall, near Batley in the West Riding of Yorkshire. He was the oldest of six children born to a finisher of cloth. To ease his mother's burdens, Priestley was sent to live with his grandfather around the age of one, he returned home, five years after his mother died. When his father remarried in 1741, Priestley went to live with his aunt and uncle, the wealthy and childless Sarah and John Keighley, 3 miles from Fieldhead; because Priestley was precocious—at the age of four he could flawlessly recite all 107 questions and answers of the Westminster Shorter Catechism—his aunt sought the best education for the boy, intending him for the ministry. During his youth, Priestley attended local schools where he learned Greek and Hebrew. Around 1749, Priestley became ill and believed he was dying. Raised as a devout Calvinist, he believed a conversion experience was necessary for salvation, but doubted he had had one; this emotional distress led him to question his theological upbringing, causing him to reject election and to accept universal salvation.
As a result, the elders of his home church, the Independent Upper Chapel of Heckmondwike, refused him admission as a full member. Priestley's illness left him with a permanent stutter and he gave up any thoughts of entering the ministry at that time. In preparation for joining a relative in trade in Lisbon, he studied French and German in addition to Aramaic, Arabic, he was tutored by the Reverend George Haggerstone, who first introduced him to higher mathematics, natural philosophy and metaphysics through the works of Isaac Watts, Willem's Gravesande, John Locke. Priestley decided to return to his theological studies and, in 1752, matriculated at Daventry, a Dissenting academy; because he had read Priestley was allowed to skip the first two years of coursework. He continued his intense study. Abhorring dogma and religious mysticism, Rational Dissenters emphasised the rational analysis of the natural world and the Bible. Priestley wrote that the book that influenced him the most, save the Bible, was David Hartley's Observations on Man.
Hartley's psychological and theological treatise postulated a material theory of mind. Hartley aimed to construct a Christian philosophy in which both religious and moral "facts" could be scientifically proven, a goal that would occupy Priestley for his entire life. In his third year at Daventry, Priestley committed himself to the ministry, which he described as "the noblest of all professions". Robert Schofield, Priestley's major modern biographer, describes his first "call" in 1755 to the Dissenting parish in Needham Market, Suffolk, as a "mistake" for both Priestley and the congregation. Priestley yearned for urban life and theological debate, whereas Needham Market was a small, rural town with a congregation wedded to tradition. Attendance and donations dropped when they discovered the extent of his heterodoxy. Although Priestley's aunt had promised her support if he became a minister, she refused any further assistance when she realised he was no longer a Calvinist. To earn extra money, Priestley proposed opening a school, but l