Myanmar the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea; the country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people. As of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size, its capital city is Naypyidaw, its largest city and former capital is Yangon. Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations since 1997. Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language and Theravada Buddhism became dominant in the country.
The Pagan Kingdom fell. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia; the early 19th century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British took over the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Myanmar was granted independence as a democratic nation. Following a coup d'état in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the military junta was dissolved following a 2010 general election, a nominally civilian government was installed.
This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations, has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions. There is, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyi's party won a majority in both houses. However, the Burmese military remains a powerful force in politics. Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP stood at its GDP at US$221.5 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government; as of 2016, Myanmar ranks 145 out of 188 countries in human development, according to the Human Development Index. Both the names Myanmar and Burma derive from the earlier Burmese Mranma, an ethnonym for the majority Bamar ethnic group, of uncertain etymology.
The terms are popularly thought to derive from "Brahma Desha" after Brahma. In 1989, the military government changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar"; the renaming remains a contested issue. Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country. In April 2016, soon after taking office, Aung San Suu Kyi clarified that foreigners are free to use either name, "because there is nothing in the constitution of our country that says that you must use any term in particular"; the country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar". Countries that do not recognise that name use the long form "Union of Burma" instead. In English, the country is popularly known as either "Burma" or "Myanmar". Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group.
Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name. Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be Myamah; the name Burma has been in use in English since the 18th century. Burma continues to be used in English by the governments of countries such as the United Kingdom. Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as "Burma" and Barack Obama has referred to the country by both names; the government of Canada has in the past used Burma, such as in its 2007 legislation imposing sanctions, but as of the mid-2010s uses Myanmar. The Czech Republic uses Myanmar, although its Ministry of Foreign Affairs mentions both Myanmar and Burma on its website; the United Nations uses Myanmar, as do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Russia, China, Bangladesh, Norway and Switzerland. Most English-speaking international news media refer to the country by the name Myanmar, including the BBC, CNN, Al Jazeera and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation /Ra
The New Testament is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the New Testaments together as sacred scripture; the New Testament has accompanied the spread of Christianity around the world. It serves as a source for Christian theology and morality. Extended readings and phrases directly from the New Testament are incorporated into the various Christian liturgies; the New Testament has influenced religious and political movements in Christendom and left an indelible mark on literature and music. The New Testament is a collection of Christian works written in the common Greek language of the 1st century AD, at different times by various writers, the modern consensus is that it provides important evidence regarding Judaism in the 1st century. In all Christian traditions today, the New Testament consists of 27 books: the four gospels, The Acts of the Apostles, twenty-one epistles, Revelation.
The united Catholic Church defined the 27-book canon. The earliest known complete list of the 27 books is by the 4th-century eastern Catholic bishop Athanasius; the first time that church councils approved this list was with the councils of Hippo and Carthage in North Africa and Pope Innocent I ratified the same canon in 405, but it is probable that a Council in Rome in 382 under pope Damasus gave the same list first. These councils provided the canon of the Old Testament, which included the apocryphal books; the original texts were written in the first century of the Christian Era, in Greek, the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean from the conquests of Alexander the Great until the Muslim conquests in the 7th century AD. All the works that became incorporated into the New Testament are believed to have been written no than around 120 AD. John A. T. Robinson, Dan Wallace, William F. Albright dated all the books of the New Testament before 70 AD. Others give a final date of 80 AD or of 96 AD.
Collections of related texts such as letters of the Apostle Paul and the Canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John were joined to other collections and single works in different combinations to form various Christian canons of Scripture. Over time, some disputed books, such as the Book of Revelation and the Minor Catholic Epistles were introduced into canons in which they were absent. Other works earlier held to be Scripture, such as 1 Clement, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Diatessaron, were excluded from the New Testament; the Old Testament canon is not uniform among all major Christian groups including Roman Catholics, the Greek Orthodox Church, the Slavic Orthodox Churches, the Armenian Orthodox Church. However, the twenty-seven-book canon of the New Testament, at least since Late Antiquity, has been universally recognized within Christianity; the phrase new testament, or new covenant first occurs in Jeremiah 31:31. The same Greek phrase for'new covenant' is found elsewhere in the New Testament.
In early Bible translations into Latin, the phrase was rendered foedus,'federation', in Jeremiah 31:31, was rendered testamentum in Hebrews 8:8 and other instances, from which comes the English term New Testament. Modern English, like Latin, distinguishes testament and covenant as alternative translations, the treatment of the term Διαθήκη diathḗkē varies in Bible translations into English. John Wycliffe's 1395 version is a translation of the Latin Vulgate and so follows different terms in Jeremiah and Hebrews: Lo! Days shall come, saith the Lord, I shall make a new covenant with the house of Israel, with the house of Judah. For he reproving him saith, Lo! Days come, saith the Lord, when I shall establish a new testament on the house of Israel, on the house of Judah. Use of the term New Testament to describe a collection of first and second-century Christian Greek scriptures can be traced back to Tertullian. In Against Marcion, written c. 208 AD, he writes of: the Divine Word, doubly edged with the two testaments of the law and the gospel.
And Tertullian continues in the book, writing: it is certain that the whole aim at which he has strenuously laboured in the drawing up of his Antitheses, centres in this, that he may establish a diversity between the Old and the New Testaments, so that his own Christ may be separate from the Creator, as belonging to this rival god, as alien from the law and the prophets. By the 4th century, the existence—even if not the exact contents—of both an Old and New Testament had been established. Lactantius, a 3rd–4th century Christian author wrote in his early-4th-century Latin Institutiones Divinae: But all scripture is divided into two Testaments; that which preceded the advent and passion of Christ—that is, the law and the prophets—is called the Old.
Francis Mason, American missionary and a naturalist, was born in York, England. His grandfather Francis Mason, was the founder of the Baptist Society in York, his father, a shoemaker by trade, was a Baptist lay preacher there. After working with his father as a shoemaker for several years, he emigrated in 1818 to the United States, in Massachusetts was licensed to preach as a Baptist in 1827. In 1830 he was sent by the American Baptist Missionary Union to labor among the Karens in Burma. In Burma, besides conducting a training college for native preachers and teachers at Tavoy, he translated the Bible into the two principal dialects of the Karens, the Sgaw and the Pwo, Matthew and the Psalms into the Bghai dialect, he published A Pali Grammar on the Basis of Kachchayano, with Chrestomathy and Vocabulary. In 1849, he described a new species of Tenasserim Pine in the journal of the Asiatic Society. In 1850 he published a book of great value on the fauna and flora of British Burma titled The natural products of Burmah, or notes on the fauna and minerals of the Tenasserim provinces, the Burman empire.
It was published by the American Mission Press at Moulmein. An improved edition appeared in 1860 under the title Burmah, its People and Natural Productions, a third edition revised and enlarged by William Theobald in 1882-1883, he was a Freemason and faced exclusion from his missionary work due to certain views held by his wife, Ellen Huntly Bullard Mason, one of them being that God's way of speaking to Adam was revealed in the designs of the Burmese women's dresses. He died at Rangoon. See his autobiography, The Story of a Working Man's Life, with Sketches of Travel in Europe, Asia and America; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mason, Francis". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17. Cambridge University Press. P. 837
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only, doing so by complete immersion. Baptist churches generally subscribe to the tenets of soul competency/liberty, salvation through faith alone, scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ordinances: baptism and the Lord's supper. Diverse from their beginning, those identifying as Baptists today differ from one another in what they believe, how they worship, their attitudes toward other Christians, their understanding of what is important in Christian discipleship. Historians trace the earliest "Baptist" church to 1609 in Amsterdam, Dutch Republic with English Separatist John Smyth as its pastor. In accordance with his reading of the New Testament, he rejected baptism of infants and instituted baptism only of believing adults. Baptist practice spread to England, where the General Baptists considered Christ's atonement to extend to all people, while the Particular Baptists believed that it extended only to the elect.
Thomas Helwys formulated a distinctively Baptist request that the church and the state be kept separate in matters of law, so that individuals might have freedom of religion. Helwys died in prison as a consequence of the religious conflict with English dissenters under King James I. In 1638, Roger Williams established the first Baptist congregation in the North American colonies. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the First and Second Great Awakening increased church membership in the United States. Baptist missionaries have spread their faith to every continent. Baptist historian Bruce Gourley outlines four main views of Baptist origins: the modern scholarly consensus that the movement traces its origin to the 17th century via the English Separatists, the view that it was an outgrowth of Anabaptist traditions, the perpetuity view which assumes that the Baptist faith and practice has existed since the time of Christ, the successionist view, or "Baptist successionism", which argues that Baptist churches existed in an unbroken chain since the time of Christ.
Modern Baptist churches trace their history to the English Separatist movement in the 1600s, the century after the rise of the original Protestant denominations. This view of Baptist origins has the most historical support and is the most accepted. Adherents to this position consider the influence of Anabaptists upon early Baptists to be minimal, it was a time of considerable religious turmoil. Both individuals and churches were willing to give up their theological roots if they became convinced that a more biblical "truth" had been discovered. During the Protestant Reformation, the Church of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church. There were some Christians who were not content with the achievements of the mainstream Protestant Reformation. There were Christians who were disappointed that the Church of England had not made corrections of what some considered to be errors and abuses. Of those most critical of the Church's direction, some chose to stay and try to make constructive changes from within the Anglican Church.
They are described by Gourley as cousins of the English Separatists. Others decided they must leave the Church because of their dissatisfaction and became known as the Separatists. Historians trace the earliest Baptist church back to 1609 in Amsterdam, with John Smyth as its pastor. Three years earlier, while a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, he had broken his ties with the Church of England. Reared in the Church of England, he became "Puritan, English Separatist, a Baptist Separatist," and ended his days working with the Mennonites, he began meeting in England with 60–70 English Separatists, in the face of "great danger." The persecution of religious nonconformists in England led Smyth to go into exile in Amsterdam with fellow Separatists from the congregation he had gathered in Lincolnshire, separate from the established church. Smyth and his lay supporter, Thomas Helwys, together with those they led, broke with the other English exiles because Smyth and Helwys were convinced they should be baptized as believers.
In 1609 Smyth first baptized himself and baptized the others. In 1609, while still there, Smyth wrote a tract titled "The Character of the Beast," or "The False Constitution of the Church." In it he expressed two propositions: first, infants are not to be baptized. Hence, his conviction was that a scriptural church should consist only of regenerate believers who have been baptized on a personal confession of faith, he rejected the Separatist movement's doctrine of infant baptism. Shortly thereafter, Smyth left the group, layman Thomas Helwys took over the leadership, leading the church back to England in 1611. Smyth became committed to believers' baptism as the only biblical baptism, he was convinced on the basis of his interpretation of Scripture that infants would not be damned should they die in infancy. Smyth, convinced that his self-baptism was invalid, applied with the Mennonites for membership, he died while waiting for membership, some of his followers became Mennonites. Thomas Helwys and others kept their Baptist commitments.
The modern Baptist denomination is an outgrowth of Smyth's movement. Baptists rejected the name Anabaptist. McBeth writes that as late as the 18th century, many Baptists referred to themselves as "the Christians commonly—though falsely—called Anabaptists."Another milestone in the early dev
For the Nova Scotian painter see William Valentine William Orison Valentine was an innovative educator and missionary in service of the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society who established and served as first president of Jaro Industrial School, now Central Philippine University. He ministered for some thirty years in Asia, first in Burma starting in 1895 and in the Philippines from 1904 until his death in 1928 at the age of 65. Valentine was born in Spencer, New York on May 9, 1862, the son of William Valentine, a farmer and horse breeder and Electa Brown Valentine. After taking the normal course at Mansfield Normal School in Pennsylvania, he taught school for four years and enrolled at the Colgate Theological Seminary. After completing his studies, he joined the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society and was sent to Burma – first in 1895 to Rangoon to Mandalay where he became principal of the Baptist Mission High School for Boys. During his eighth year in Burma he returned to America for treatment.
It was during his treatment that he met nurse Ina Jane Van Allen. Valentine and Miss Van Allen were married in 1903 and the couple left for his new appointment in Iloilo in the Philippines; the American Baptist Mission Union had received a grant from American industrialist and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller to begin educational work in the Philippines, the Philippine Baptist Conference voted in December 1904 to establish two schools, an industrial school for boys and a Bible school to train ministers and other Christian workers under the administration of Valentine. In the fall of 1905 the Jaro Industrial School was opened as a free vocational boarding school for boys at Jaro, in Iloilo City; the first class consisted of 20 boys who worked four hours a day to pay their tuition and board, spent four hours in the classroom. One of the school's innovations was the adoption of student self-government known as the Jaro Industrial School Republic modeled on American civil government; the Republic continues to this day at Central Philippine University which evolved from the Industrial School over the years.
By 1907 there were 300 boys working an active farm and in various trades, the Bible school had been split off under a separate principal. Mrs. Valentine taught some courses, she cared for the three Valentine children born in Iloilo between 1904 and 1913. In 1913 the school opened its doors to girls. From the beginning it served poor students. In 1914, Valentine returned to America with his family to further his studies. In America he studied at Valparaiso University, where he received a degree in education, at the University of Chicago, where he presented a master's thesis in the department of practical theology, his thesis and Religious Values of Industrial Education, recounted the success of work-study schooling at Jaro and other schools in Burma, South Africa and India which had developed a similar philosophy of institutional self-support through the work of students. Meanwhile, Jaro Industrial School continued to grow, in 1953 it became Central Philippine University. In 2005, had enrolled over 13,000 students at all academic levels.
It has more than 50 academic programs and holds business and accountancy classes in Vietnam. With the completion of his studies in 1916, Valentine received a new appointment as Provincial Missionary for Negros Occidental, an island neighboring Iloilo in the Philippines, he and his family went to Bacolod, the capital of the province, where he assumed the pastorship of the Bacolod mission church. He built a new mission house to replace the small chapel and encouraged Filipino lay ministers to preach at Sunday services. There were dormitories for both boys and girls who attended public schools and received a Christian education at the mission. Valentine set about to open private schools in Bacolod and throughout the province. Mrs. Valentine taught kindergarten in the Bacolod school, both education and the ministry thrived during the eleven years that Valentine served there. On February 2, 1928, Valentine died in Bacolod of malaria complicated by heart disease and was buried at the Philippine American Cemetery in Jaro, Iloilo City.
Mrs. Valentine returned to America, bought a home offered by the Baptist Mission Society in Granville, across the street from Denison University where all three Valentine children studied, she died on March 27, 1979, aged 100. Filipinos remember Valentine's vital role in fostering Christian education in the Visayas. In 1969 he received a posthumous Honorary Doctorate in Pedagogy from the Central Philippine University in Iloilo City; the university honored him further on October 1, 2005, when Central Philippine University celebrated its Founder's Day with the unveiling of a bronze bust of Valentine at Old Valentine Hall. In Negros, the Bacolod Evangelical Church and the Bacolod Christian College as well as schools and missions throughout the province are outgrowths of Valentine’s work. List of Presidents of Central Philippine University William Orison Valentine and Religious Values of Industrial Education. Roque Granada, William O. Valentine, in Half a Century of Service, Souvenir Journal of the Golden Jubilee Year, p. 48.
Linnea A. Nelson and Elma S. Herradura, Scientia et Fides; the Story of Central Philippine University. Ina Van Allen Valentine, An Oral History, (Recorded in 1969 and printed by Alpine Vista Press
Daniel McGilvary was an American Presbyterian missionary who played an important role in the expansion of Protestantism in Northern Siam. Throughout his life, his colleagues and the general public held McGilvary in great esteem, businesses and government offices in Chiang Mai were closed in mourning on the day of his death. McGilvary was born 16 May 1828, in North Carolina, United States and, after a informal education, taught school until he entered Princeton Theological Seminary in 1853, he returned to NC to pastor two rural churches. He was ordained in 1857. In 1858 he arrived in Thailand as a member of the Bangkok Station, Siam Mission, Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, married Sophia Royce Bradley in 1860. In 1861, the McGilvarys participated in the opening of the Phet Buri Station, the first Protestant missionary station outside of Bangkok. In 1867, the McGilvary family moved to Chiang Mai, the chief city of Thailand's northern dependencies, founded a new Presbyterian mission, the Laos Mission.
The McGilvarys worked alone for one year and were chiefly responsible for the conversion of six men by early 1869. Persecution of these Christians in September 1869 led to the execution of two, the scattering of the others, the threatened closure of the Laos Mission. McGilvary's perseverance, prevented the lapse of Protestant work in Northern Thailand. From 1870 until 1890 McGilvary was the unofficial leader of the Laos Mission and took the leading hand in expanding its work including establishing several rural Christian communities which became important Christian centers. In 1878 he played a leading role in obtaining the so-called "Proclamation of Religious Toleration" from the Thai central government, which gave certain civil rights to northern Thai converts. McGilvary took a number of exploratory tours, beginning in the 1870s, going as far as the Shan States in Burma and Yunnan Province in Southern China in the 1890s; those tours inspired the Laos Mission with the vision of a greater mission to the Tai peoples of China and French Indochina, a vision which dominated mission work until the 1920s.
McGilvary supported theological training for northern Thai pastors. He took a leading role in promoting central Thai literacy among the northern Thai and he played an important role in promoting mission school education female education. In 1878, McGilvary established Dara Academy in Chiangmai Province, the Oldest school in Northern of Siam. In 1888 McGilvary established a school in Chiang Saen District, Chiang Rai Province, moved to Chiang Rai city and became Chiang Rai Witthayakhom School. McGilvary is credited with introducing Western medicine into Northern Siam, he continued active evangelistic work, including visiting established Christian groups, up until his death on 22 August 1911, in Chiang Mai. Chiang Rai Witthayakhom School Laos Mission McFarland, George B. ed. Historical Sketch of Protestant Missions in Siam 1828-1928. Bangkok: Bangkok Times Press, 1928.. McGilvary, Daniel. A Half Century Among the Lao. New York: Revell, 1912.. Herbert R. Swanson, Khrischak Muang Nua. Bangkok: Chuan Press, 1984.
Zehner, Edwin. "Church Growth and Culturally Appropriate Leadership: Three Examples From the Thai Church." Unpublished paper, School of World Mission, 1987. Forbes and Henley, David,'Under a Spreading Banyan Tree' in: Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 3. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006IN1RNW Dahlfred, Karl, "Daniel McGilvary: Pioneer Missionary to Northern Thailand." Kindle Edition, Amazon Digital Services, 2013. ASIN: B00BNFJ7NC Historical sketch of the missions in Siam
Eugenio Kincaid was an American Baptist missionary who labored for two periods in Burma. In the first period, he served twelve years. In the second period, he served for another fifteen years, his mission work in Burma covered the whole range of the country, from the farthest north to the farthest south and from the farthest west to the farthest east. Between the two periods of his ministry, he had eight years of leave of absence during which he raised funds for the foreign missions, in addition, helped in the foundation of the University of Lewisburg. At the age of 33, Eugenio Kincaid was sent by Baptist Board of Foreign Missions to preach the gospel in Burma. Eugenio Kincaid was born on 10 January 1797 in Wethersfield, Connecticut to Noah Kincaid, a physician, Lydia Hough Kincaid. In 1822 he graduated from the Theological Institution at Hamilton. New York, he was inclined to preach for the salvation of the people in Burma after hearing a sermon from Luther Rice, a fellow missionary of Adoniram Judson. and applied to the Baptist Board of Missions for an appointment to serve in Burma, but was rejected.
He assumed the pastorate of the Baptist Church in Galway, New York. He was well liked by the congregation but he did not feel contented to remain there. After four years, he went to Susquehanna valley, a more destitute place, founded the First Baptist Church in Milton, Pennsylvania starting with nine members, he married Miss Almy Goff and had two sons: Eugenio Wade Kincaid and Judson Kincaid, who died eleven months later. In 1828, Eugenio was appointed as a travelling preacher by the Board of the Baptist General Association of Pennsylvania for Missionary Purposes. After serving in that position for two years, he was appointed by the Executive Committee of the Baptist Mission Union to be posted to Burma together with Francis Mason; the assignment for Eugenio and Francis was to continue the pioneering mission work of Adoniram Judson, started in 1813. Adoniram was pouring most of his labor towards completing the Burmese Bible; the Kincaids and the Masons sailed from Boston in 1830 and after four months they reached Moulmain, under British rule following the First Anglo-Burmese War.
While learning to acquire the Burmese language, Rev. Kincaid engaged himself by preaching in Moulmain to the English congregation, consisting of British soldiers. Within a year, one hundred soldiers were baptized. In December 1831, his wife Almy died of a tropical disease. In 1832, Eugenio Kincaid moved to Rangoon, still under Burmese control, he took charge of the mission schools and with the help of native missionary assistants he maintained many of the public services of the mission. During the year of his stay in Rangoon, he married Barbara McBain, daughter of an officer of the East India Company and was born in Madras, India; the following year, Rev. Kincaid took a river boat to the capital Ava, seven hundred miles up the Irrawaddy. Accompanying the Kincaids were Barbara's sister and two native missionary assistants, they escaped without any harm. They distributed a large quantity of religious portions of the New Testament; the trip took fifty four days and they visited three hundred villages and towns preaching the gospel in most of them.
The reception at the capital was chilly because the king had not forgiven Adoniram Judson for going over to the enemy after the war. A church was planted by the end of a year and Rev. Kincaid was permitted to preach to hundreds of thousands of people during the three years he was there. Rev. Kincaid met many Shan merchants in Ava and he made a plan to visit and learn the habits and characters of these people and other ethnic nationalities, but the government was opposed to him to travel to the frontiers of China border. By his persistence, he obtained at length the permission from the government. In January 1837, Rev. Kincaid and four of his native assistants went up the Irrawaddy with a boat provided by the British Resident, they stopped at many villages and distributed tracts and preached the gospel and they were warmly received. After 23 days and 350 miles from Ava, they arrived at Mogaung in Kachin state known for its jade mines, it was the northern most town of the country beneath the shadows of the Himalaya mountains.
Since it was impossible to procure men and provisions needed for further excursion, Eugenio Kincaid decided to return to Ava. On the return trip, he was exposed to extreme perils and suffering because a civil war had broken out. Bands of robbers were overrunning the land and burning the villages. Eugenio Kincaid and his disciples were robbed but miraculously he was able to escape on foot through the mountains of the Shan State; the disciples managed to escape earlier. On his arrival in Ava, he found out King Bagyidaw was dethroned by his brother Prince Tharawaddy and many had lost their lives. Rev. Kincaid was received cordially. However, the king told him that as the defender of the faith, he had to forbid him from distributing any Christian literature in his realm. Under the threatening circumstances and fear of the approaching war, Rev. Kincaid decided to go to more promising fields of Tenasserim (now known as Tanintharyi, he made a long exploration trip through the mountains near Mergui. He saw countless number of tracks of rhinoceros, tiger, wild hog, deer.
He preach and baptized the converts. He tu