Henry Beard Delany
Henry Beard Delany was the first African-American elected bishop of the Episcopal Church in the United States. The Episcopal Church honors him, along with fellow African American bishop Edward Thomas Demby, who died on the same day in 1957, with a feast day on the liturgical calendar on the anniversary of their deaths, April 14. Henry Delany was born into slavery in St. Mary's, Georgia in 1858, his parents were Thomas Delany, a ship and house carpenter, Sarah, a house servant to a Methodist family in that town. After the American Civil War and emancipation, the family moved to Fernandina Beach, where young Delany learned brick laying and carpentry from his father, helped on the family farm, he was able to attend a school staffed by missionaries. In 1881 the rector of St. Peter's Episcopal Church in that town, Rev. Owen Thackera, funded a scholarship to allow Delany to attend St. Augustine's College in Raleigh, North Carolina, which Episcopal priests had founded in 1867 to educate newly freed men and women.
There, Delany studied theology and other subjects. Upon graduating in 1885, Delany joined the faculty, where he remained until 1908, he taught carpentry and masonry and supervised building projects, as well as served as the school's vice-principal and musician. Although not trained as an architect, Delany is credited as the architect as well as builder of the Norman Gothic-style historic chapel, crafted in part from stone quarried on campus. Delany and the students built a library in 1898, St. Agnes' Hospital on the St. Augustine's College campus. Delany joined Raleigh's St. Ambrose Episcopal Church, was ordained a deacon in 1889 and a priest in 1892. From 1889 to 1904 Delany served on the national church's Commission for Work among Colored People, he visited Episcopal, Methodist and African Methodist Episcopal congregations as well as organized schools and met with and arranged educational opportunities for prisoners. Upon being appointed Archdeacon for Negro Work in the Diocese of North Carolina, Delany resigned his position at the school, but continued to live on campus, for his wife continued to teach and serve as the college's matron.
Raleigh's Shaw University awarded him an honorary degree for his educational activities in 1911. Delany was unanimously elected suffragan bishop for Negro Work at the North Carolina diocesan convention, consecrated in 1918, he agreed to assist the bishops of East and Western North Carolina, South Carolina and Upper South Carolina in establishing separate black parishes pursuant to the Jim Crow laws rampant in the south. Bishop Delany advocated keeping African American Episcopalians united within the Church despite those segregationist practices within the Church and society. Bishop Delany died at his campus home in 1928, aged 70, after a ceremony in the chapel he helped build, was buried at Mount Hope Cemetery in Raleigh. Delany married his class valedictorian Nannie James of Danville, Virginia in 1886, they had ten children, including long-lived civil rights pioneers Sadie and Bessie Delany, authors of the autobiographical bestseller Having Our Say. His son Hubert Thomas Delany became one of the first appointed African American judges in New York City, in his long and distinguished career served as legal advisor to many prominent civil rights activists.
His youngest son, was the father of author and educator Samuel R. Delany, Jr.. The family is not known to be related to activist Martin Delany. Children Lemuel Thackara Delany Sarah Louise Delany Annie Elizabeth Delany Julia Emery Delany The Rev. Henry Delany, Jr. Lucius Delany William Manross Delany Hubert Thomas Delany Laura Edith Delany Samuel Ray Delany
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
St. Marys, Georgia
St. Marys is a city in Camden County, United States; the city is the gateway to Cumberland Island National Seashore, the largest of the Georgia Coast's barrier islands. The National Seashore's visitor center and boat access are both located at the St. Marys waterfront; the city is home to the annual St. Marys Rock Shrimp Festival, the St. Marys Submarine Museum, Crooked River State Park, its territory is bordered by Kings Bay Naval Submarine Base, the home port for several Ohio-class submarines. The population of St. Marys was 17,121 as of the 2010 Census. St. Marys is located along the southern border of Camden County at 30°45′23″N 81°34′17″W, on the north bank of the St. Marys River; the state of Florida is across the river. The city of Kingsland borders St. Marys to the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, St. Marys has a total area of 24.9 square miles, of which 22.5 square miles is land and 2.4 square miles, or 9.57%, is water. The closest major city is Florida, 38 miles south.
The St. Marys area was first explored in the mid 16th century as part of the settlement of Spanish Florida, with nearby St. Augustine as the established capital. Settlement for Georgians became legal after the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Local inhabitants of Camden County gathered on Cumberland Island and signed a charter for "a town on the St. Marys" on November 20, 1787. There were twenty charter members who each received one marsh lot; these twenty city founders are named on an historical marker in downtown St. Marys: Isaac Wheeler, William Norris, Nathaniel Ashley, William Ashley, Lodowick Ashley, James Seagrove, James Finley, John Fleming, Robert Seagrove, Henry Osborne, Thomas Norris, Jacob Weed, John Alexander, Langley Bryant, Jonathan Bartlett, Stephen Conyers, William Keady, Prentis Gallup, Simeon Dillingham and Richard Cole; the original boundaries of the town correspond to the modern waterfront, Bartlett Street, North Street, a block east of Norris Street. There were two public town squares.
However, in the original deed the town was unnamed, for several years afterwards in public documents it was referred to as either St. Marys or St. Patrick's, colloquially as "the New Town". Accounts differ regarding the origin of the name itself—some say it is named after the St. Marys River, while others say it comes from a seventeenth-century Spanish mission, Santa Maria, on nearby Amelia Island, Florida. St. Marys was recognized by an act of the Georgia legislature on December 5, 1792, with the result of incorporation in November 1802. Oak Grove Cemetery is included in the St. Marys Historic District and was laid outside the western border of St. Marys during its founding in 1787. On June 29, 1796, the Treaty of Colerain was signed just up the river from St Marys between the United States and the Creek Nation. St. Marys town founder Langley Bryant served as the official interpreter between the Creek Indians and the United States. St. Marys was made a United States port of entry by act of the U.
S. Congress March 2, 1799; the first Collector was James Seagrove. During the antebellum period, Archibald Clark served as the U. S. Customs Collector from 1807 until his death in 1848. After the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves took effect in 1808, St. Marys became, along with Spanish Amelia Island, a center for smuggling during the period between 1812-1819 when various rebel groups held Amelia Island. During the War of 1812 the Battle of Fort Peter occurred near the town, at the fort on Point Peter along the St. Marys River; the British occupied it for about a month. The United States Navy bombarded the town's shoreside buildings during the American Civil War. St. Marys served as Camden County's seat of government from 1869 until 1923; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,761 people, 4,837 households, 3,758 families residing in the city. The population density was 733.8 people per square mile. There were 5,351 housing units at an average density of 285.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 72.78% White, 19.99% African American, 0.47% Native American, 1.21% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.56% from other races, 2.09% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 4.46% of the population. There were 4,837 households out of which 47.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.8% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.3% were non-families. 16.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.18. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.4% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 34.7% from 25 to 44, 15.6% from 45 to 64, 5.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $42,087, the median income for a family was $46,065. Males had a median income of $35,419 versus $24,449 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,099. About 9.6% of families and 11.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.5% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.
Cumberland Island Duck House Orange Hall List of county seats in Georgia St. Marys Historic District St. Marys Railroad St. Marys Airport St
Pratt Institute is a private, non-profit institution of higher learning located in the Clinton Hill neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, United States, with a satellite campus located at 14th Street in Manhattan and an extension campus in Utica, New York. The school originated in 1887 with programs in engineering and fine arts. Comprising six schools, the Institute is known for its ranked programs in architecture, interior design, industrial design, offers both undergraduate and Master's degree programs in a variety of fields, with a strong focus on research. U. S. News & World Report lists Pratt as one of the top 20 colleges in the Regional Universities North category. Princeton Review recognizes Pratt as being one of the best colleges in the northeast, making it among the top 25% of all four-year colleges and universities in the United States. Pratt Institute was founded in 1887 by American industrialist Charles Pratt, a successful businessman and oil tycoon and was one of the wealthiest men in the history of Brooklyn.
Pratt was an early pioneer of the oil industry in the United States and was the founder of Astral Oil Works based in the Greenpoint section of Brooklyn, a leader in replacing whale oil with petroleum or natural oil. In 1867, Pratt established Company. In 1874, Pratt's companies were purchased by John D. Rockefeller and became part of his Standard Oil trust while Pratt continued to run the companies himself. Pratt, an advocate of education, wanted to provide the opportunity for working men and women to better their lives through education. Though Pratt never had the opportunity to go to college himself, he wanted to create an affordable college accessible to the working class. In 1884, Pratt began purchasing parcels of land in his affluent home town of Clinton Hill for the intention of opening a school; the school would end up being built only two blocks from Charles Pratt's residence on Clinton Avenue. From his fortunes with Astral Oil and Charles Pratt and Company, in 1886 he endowed and founded Pratt Institute.
In May 1887, the New York State Legislature granted Charles Pratt a charter to open the school. Tuition was $4 per class per term; the college was one of the first in the country open to all people, regardless of class and gender. In the early years, the Institute's mission was to offer education to those who never had it offered to them before. Pratt sought to teach people skills that would allow them to be successful and work their way up the economic ladder. Many programs were tailored for the growing need to train industrial workers in the changing economy with training in design and engineering. Early programs sought to teach students a variety of subjects such as architectural engineering, mechanics and furniture making. Graduates of the school were taught to become engineers and technicians. Drawing, whether freehand, mechanical, or architectural, thought of as being a universal language, united such diverse programs and thus all programs in the school had a strong foundation in drawing.
In addition, the curriculum at the Institute was to be complemented by a large Liberal Arts curriculum. Students studied subjects such as history, mathematics and literature in order to better understand the world in which they will be working in, still used in Pratt's curriculum. Enrollment grew since inception. Six months after inception the school had an enrollment of nearly 600 students. By the first anniversary of the school there were 1,000 students in attendance. In five years time the school had nearly 4,000 students. In 1888 Scientific American said of the school that "it is undoubtedly the most important enterprise of its kind in this country, if not in the world". Andrew Carnegie visited Pratt for inspiration and used the school as a model in developing Carnegie Technical Schools, now Carnegie Mellon University. At the first Founders Day celebration in 1888, Charles Pratt addressed what would become the school's motto: "be true to your work and your work will be true to you" meaning that students should educate and develop themselves diligently and go out into the world working hard, giving all of themselves.
As public interest grew in the school and demand increased the school began adding new programs including the Pratt High School, Library School, Music Department, Department of Commerce. Because of the overwhelming popularity of the Department of Commerce, the department broke off from the main Institute and formed its own school, under the guidance of Norman P. Heffley, personal secretary to Charles Pratt; the Heffley School of Commerce, the former Pratt Department of Commerce having shared facilities with Pratt evolved into what is now Brooklyn Law School. In 1891, the Institute's founder and first president, Charles Pratt and his eldest son, Charles Millard Pratt, assumed responsibility of president for the school. In 1893, Charles Pratt's other son, Frederic B. Pratt, was elected President of Pratt Institute taking over from his elder brother; because Charles Pratt Snr. died so soon after the college was founded, Frederic Pratt is ascribed with guiding the college through its early decades.
Under the direction of Pratt's sons, the Institute was able to thrive both financially and critically with many new construction projects and courses. By 1892, the number of students enrolled was 3,900. In 1897 the most popular major for students was domestic arts. In 1896, the school opened its monumental Victorian-Renaissance Revival library with interiors designed by the Tiffany Decorating and Glass Company and sprawling gardens outs
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Campbell County, Virginia
Campbell County is a United States county situated in the south central part of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Located in the Piedmont region of Virginia, Campbell borders the Blue Ridge Mountains; the county seat is Rustburg. Grounded on a tobacco cash crop economy, Campbell County was created in 1782 from part of Bedford County; the county was named in honor of hero of the American Revolutionary War. Campbell County is part of VA Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the county population is 54,842. The number of residents has grown in every census after 1930, the total population has more than doubled since that time; the Native American tribes of the Monacan and Cherokee were the original inhabitants of the Campbell County area, but were forced west due to the settlers' progress. Governor Willaim Gooch in 1727 created a couple of "inducements" in order to lure settlers to the Campbell County area; these inducements were that if one settled on the Staunton River "in the bounds of the newly formed County of Brunswick" they would be freed from paying levies for ten years.
The second "inducement" was that the settler could claim 400 acres by building a cabin on the land and by "planting a patch of grain". The inducement's attempt to draw settlers was not vastly successful with the exception of a few new settlers, the Governor soon took mention of his inducements to the ocean ports in which immigrants were arriving in America, as well as to the ports back in their homelands; this great difficulty in gaining new settlers for Campbell County is one of the reasons that the Governor allowed the Scoth-Irish immigrants with Presbyterian beliefs to gain religious freedom, in order to secure as many new settlers as possible for the newly founded county. The area that would become Campbell County was first settled by Europeans Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, in the late 1730s. After nearly fifty years of immigration and development, the newly formed county was established in 1782 from part of Bedford County, was the first county formed after the American Revolution. Campbell County was named for Revolutionary War hero, General William Campbell, known for the 1780 Battle of Kings Mountain.
The independent city of Lynchburg, Virginia was subsequently formed from the county's land in 1786. Jeremiah Rust donated the land; the towns of AltaVista and Brookneal were created due to their business advantages as well as the "intersection of trails". Altavista was planned by a group of businessmen in 1907, due to its "strategic" location and "potential" as a new location for a railroad. From its earliest days, the county relied on tobacco as the primary cash crop and basis for the economy, though it developed early manufacturing operations. Brookneal, with its strategic location on the Staunton River, was long an important tobacco and textile hub. However, the departure of manufacturing and the changing tobacco market has forced Campbell to transform from a agricultural area into a mixture of suburban and rural communities. Campbell County was an iron manufacturer and begun operations Pre-Revolutionary War and continued operations in Oxford Iron Works until it was closed in 1875; the building still remains standing to today.
Campbell County opened its first public school in 1871 after the Civil War. In 1878, Campbell County and Lynchburg became two separate entities when Lynchburg was recognized as an independent city; the first school fair was held in Rustburg, the county seat, in 1908. This was the first school fair held in Virginia and was started by the Virginia Federation of Women's Club, "with the aid of J. S. Thomas school examiner in the district, with the agreement of the Van Dyke League to help in Campbell." This fair was a showcase of "training," as well as each child's best work. Campbell County and its residents have given aid in many wars, they have had soldiers involved in the American Revolution, Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War, Vietnam War, Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan. The three main religions in Campbell County's origin was Quakerism and Presbyterian; each of these religions and those who practiced them came to Campbell County in order to gain religious freedom, they migrated from many places, but most migrated from around the area of Colonial Williamsburg where the Episcopal Church reigned and made practicing other religions difficult.
The Quakers gained a foothold within the Campbell County area due to Sarah Clark Lynch, wife of Charles Lynch, the founder of the ferry boat service across the James River and mother of John Lynch, the founder of Lynchburg. Due to Sarah Lynch's influence their application for a meeting house was approved, the South River Friends Meeting House was built; the Quakers migrated from the area due to disagreements with the other Campbell County populace over issues such as slavery and the American Revolution. The Quakers maintain pacifist beliefs and as such during the American Revolution when much of America was fighting for its independence from Great Britain their Quaker neighbors apparent refusal to aid them in their fight for independence angered many and created a wedge between the Quakers and the Non-Quakers. Another issue of contention that the Campbell County populace had with the Quakers was their adamant belief in the abolition of slavery as the Virginian Quakers had freed all of their slaves in 1817, as such preached how slavery was wrong and should be disallowed, which created tension with their slave-holding neighbors and caused many Quakers to leave the Campbell County area and to move West.