New York City Marathon
The New York City Marathon is an annual marathon that courses through the five boroughs of New York City. It is the largest marathon in the world, with 52,812 finishers in 2018 and 98,247 applicants for the 2017 race. Along with the Boston Marathon and Chicago Marathon, it is among the pre-eminent long-distance annual running events in the United States and is one of the World Marathon Majors; the race is organized by New York Road Runners and has been run every year since 1970, with the exception of 2012, when it was cancelled due to the landfall of Hurricane Sandy. In past years, it has been sponsored by the financial group ING. In 2014, Tata Consultancy Services, a multinational information technology service and business solutions company headquartered in India, began an eight-year term as the title sponsor; the race is held on the first Sunday of November and attracts professional competitors and amateurs from all over the world. Because of the popularity of the race, participation is chosen by a lottery system.
Guaranteed entry to the marathon can be gained by satisfying the requirements of the 9+1 program or the 9+$1K program, having completed 15 or more previous NYC Marathons, or meeting time qualification standards. In addition, runners can gain an entry by joining a team to raise funds for one of a number of charities; the race was founded by Fred Lebow. Ted Corbitt helped plan the course of the New York City Marathon; the initial course of 1970 consisted of repeated racing around Central Park. From 1976, the course covers all five boroughs of New York City, it begins on Staten Island, in Fort Wadsworth, near the approach to the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge. The bridge, which carries only vehicular traffic, is closed for the event. Runners use both sides of the westbound side of the lower level. In the opening minutes of the race, the bridge is filled with runners, creating a dramatic spectacle, associated with the event. After descending the bridge, the course winds through Brooklyn along Fourth Avenue and Bedford Avenue, for the next 11 miles.
Runners pass through a variety of neighborhoods, including: Bay Ridge, Sunset Park, Park Slope, Bedford-Stuyvesant and Greenpoint. At 13.1 miles, runners cross the Pulaski Bridge, marking the halfway point of the race and the entrance into Long Island City, Queens. After about 2.5 miles in Queens, runners cross the East River via the Queensboro Bridge into Manhattan. It is at this point in the race when many runners begin to tire, as the climb up the bridge is considered one of the most difficult points in the marathon. Reaching Manhattan after about 16 miles, the race proceeds north on First Avenue crosses into The Bronx via the Willis Avenue Bridge for one mile before returning to Manhattan via the Madison Avenue Bridge, it proceeds south through Harlem down Fifth Avenue and into Central Park. At the southern end of the park, the race proceeds along 59th Street/Central Park South, where thousands of spectators cheer runners on during the last mile. At Columbus Circle, the race finishes beside Tavern on the Green.
The time limit for this course is 8½ hours from the 10:10 a.m. start. In 2008, the race initiated a corral system. Professional women runners were given a separate, earlier start and the balance of the runners began in three staggered starts; the official times are those recorded by a computer chip attached to the back of the runner's bib number, which calculates when a runner crosses the start and when she crosses the finish, known as "net time". Runners pass timing mats at 5 km intervals along the course, e-mail notifications can be received by people following runners during the race to track their progress. Whereas the distance is the same, there are different courses taken through Bay Ridge and up Fourth Avenue in Brooklyn until the course reaches Lafayette Avenue in Brooklyn at Mile 8. Although the marathon publicity material uses miles, the timing mats are at 5 km intervals to accommodate the publishing of splits and enabling potential world records for 20 km, 30 km and other sub-marathon distances to be recorded.
The first New York City Marathon was held 49 years ago on September 13, 1970, organized by New York Road Runners presidents Fred Lebow and Vincent Chiappetta, with 127 competitors running several loops around the Park Drive of Central Park. Only about 100 spectators watched Gary Muhrcke win the race in 2:31:38. In fact, a total of only 55 runners crossed the finish line. Over the years, the marathon grew larger. To celebrate the U. S. bicentennial in 1976, city auditor George Spitz proposed that the race traverse all five boroughs. With the support of Manhattan Borough President Percy Sutton, the men convinced Mayor Beame and race director Fred Lebow; the race was a huge success, what was intended as a one-time celebration, became the annual course. Dick Traum became the first person to complete a marathon with a prosthetic leg when he finished the 1976 New York City Marathon; the marathon grew in popularity two years when Norwegian Grete Waitz broke the women's world record, finishing in 2:32:30.
She went on to win the race an unprecedented nine times. An official wheelchair and handcycle division was introduced in 2000, starting in 2002, the elite women are given a 35-minute head start before the elite men and rest of the field. During the 1970s, the race was run in September. In the 1980s, r
San Diego Hall of Champions
The San Diego Hall of Champions was an American multi-sport museum in San Diego, California. It was recognized as the largest multi-sport museum in the United States until its closure in June 2017. Located in the Federal Building in Balboa Park until 2017, the 70,000-square-foot facility recognized outstanding athletic accomplishments and traditions involving more than forty-two sports until June 2017; the Hall of Champions was founded in 1959 and includes the Breitbard Hall of Fame, being relocated to be displayed at Petco Park. The Breitbard Hall of Fame was established in 1953 by Robert Breitbard, it honors athletes who either have excelled in sports in San Diego or are native San Diegans who have excelled in sports elsewhere. As of 2008, 117 athletes have been inducted. New members are inducted in February at the Salute to the Champions dinner. To be eligible for enshrinement, the candidate must meet these criteria: An athlete, coach or special contributor native to San Diego county or who represented a San Diego high school, sports organization or professional team Professional athletes not native to San Diego county must have spent at least 4 years of their career in San Diego Athletes must be retired for at least 2 years or be at least 50 years old Coaches and contributors do not need to be retired, but must have spent at least 7 years working in their field For each inductee's San Diego connection, see footnote San Diego Chargers Hall of Fame, local American football team's hall of fame San Diego Padres Hall of Fame, local baseball team's hall of fame California Sports Hall of Fame San Diego Hall of Champions official website Breitbard Hall of Fame webpage.
San Diego Hall of Champions website
Best Female Athlete with a Disability ESPY Award
The Best Female Athlete with a Disability ESPY Award is an annual award honoring the achievements of a female individual from the world of disabled sports. Established with the aid of disability advocate and former United States Paralympic soccer player Eli Wolff, the accolade's trophy, designed by sculptor Lawrence Nowlan, is presented to the disabled sportswoman adjudged to be the best at the annual ESPY Awards ceremony in Los Angeles; the Best Female Athlete with a Disability ESPY Award was first bestowed as part of the ESPY Awards in 2005 after the non-gender specific Best Athlete with a Disability ESPY Award was presented the previous three years. Balloting for the award is undertaken by fans over the Internet from between three and five choices selected by the ESPN Select Nominating Committee, composed of a panel of experts, it is conferred in July to reflect achievement over the preceding twelve months. The inaugural winner of the Best Female Athlete with a Disability ESPY Award at the 2005 ceremony was American swimmer Erin Popovich, affected by achondroplasia.
She won seven gold medals at the 2004 Summer Paralympics in Athens. She is one of three people to have won the Best Female Athlete with a Disability ESPY Award more than once, winning again at the 2009 awards. Fellow swimmer Jessica Long has the most victories of any other sportswoman, collecting the award three times at the 2007, 2012 and 2013 awards with one further nomination at the 2009 ceremony, while cross-country skier Oksana Masters has been nominated the most times without winning. Swimmers have been successful at the awards with eight victories and three nominations, followed by paratriathles with two wins and six nominations; the 2017 winner of the Best Female Athlete with a Disability ESPY Award is swimmer Rebecca Meyers. She achieved her second win after receiving the accolade at the 2015 ceremony; the accolade is held by American snowboarder Brenna Huckaby after being announced as the winner at the 2018 ceremony. Best Male Athlete with a Disability ESPY Award United States Olympic Committee Paralympian of the Year Award Laureus World Sports Award for Sportsperson of the Year with a Disability Official website
The Lincoln MKZ, is a four-door, five-passenger mid-size sedan manufactured by Ford and marketed as the Zephyr and as the MKZ by Ford's Lincoln brand — across two generations in both gasoline and hybrid gas/electric models. Along with the badge engineered variant Ford Fusion, the MKZ is manufactured at Ford's Hermosillo Stamping & Assembly plant in Mexico; the 2006 Lincoln Zephyr was unveiled in concept form at the 2004 New York International Auto Show as a new entry-level luxury sedan, with several revised design elements from concept made their way into the production model. The front featured Lincoln's signature waterfall jeweled quad projector beam headlights. Chrome trim extends along the Zephyr's beltline while the car's rear fascia features LED taillights and dual chrome exhaust tips. All Zephyrs featured low-profile tires on 17x7.5-inch wheels with painted aluminum versions standard and chrome versions optional. Lincoln revived the Zephyr name in the fall of 2005 as a rebadged variant for the Ford Fusion and Mercury Milan.
Lincoln had used the Zephyr name in the late 30's for the smaller Lincoln-Zephyr line of mid-size vehicles. The "Zephyr" name had previously been used by Mercury during the late 1970s and early 1980s, for several vehicles built on the Fox Platform; the Zephyr's sole powertrain was a 3.0 L DOHC Duratec V6 mated to an Aisin 6-speed automatic transmission. The interior is unique to the Lincoln, along with different equipment packaging; the 2006 Zephyr started at a base MSRP of $28,995 USD, ranging up to $35,340 USD when optioned. Though smaller and front-wheel drive, the Zephyr was marketed as a replacement for Lincoln's previous entry level mid-size, the rear-wheel drive Lincoln LS. To facilitate a smooth transition, the Zephyr and LS were sold parallel to each other during the 2006 model year, the first model year of the Zephyr and the last for the LS. For 2007 the model was renamed MKZ, took over the LS' market with sales beginning in September 2006. Lincoln's decision to resurrect the Zephyr name refers to the early days of Lincoln before World War II.
At that time, the only Lincoln manufactured was the Lincoln K-series, a full-size sedan, Lincoln, under the direction of Edsel Ford, Henry Ford's only son, hoped to introduce a smaller product to compete with the Packard One-Twenty, the LaSalle, a smaller sibling offered at Cadillac dealerships. The Zephyr featured a revised interior from the Milan; the design featured shapes with real maple wood inserts in metallic frames. These surfaces were contrasted with chrome-bezeled gauges, chrome-finished vents and a metallic center stack where the radio and climate controls are housed; the Zephyr's steering wheel was leather-wrapped with real wood grips and satin-nickel audio and cruise control buttons. White LED backlighting was used for instrumentation. Leather seating surfaces were standard in all models. In terms of luxury and convenience features there was little that distinguished the Zephyr from the Fusion or Milan. Most of the features that were optional in the Fusion or Milan were standard in the Zephyr.
Some of these standard features in the Zephyr include: cruise control, automatic headlights, fog lights, power door locks, "global" power windows, power adjustable and heated mirrors with puddle lamps, remote keyless entry, a tilt and telescoping steering wheel with redundant audio and climate controls, dual-zone automatic climate control, a universal garage door opener, 10-way power driver and front passenger seats, rear-seat reading lamps, a six-speaker audio system with an AM/FM stereo radio and a six-disc, MP3-compatible CD changer. Optional in the Zephyr was a power moonroof, a DVD-based satellite navigation system, HID headlights and cooled front seats, an industry-first THX II-Certified audio system with a six-disc, MP3-compatible CD changer and ten speakers. Safety features include standard dual front-side airbags, front seat-deployed side airbags, curtain airbags that extend from the front to rear seats. Mechanically the Zephyr was related to the Fusion and Milan; as mentioned, all three cars were based on Ford's CD3 platform, in turn derived from the Mazda 6.
Like these cars the Zephyr is natively front-wheel drive. The Zephyr uses a coil-over damper, short- and long-arm front suspension with double-ball-joint control arms while the rear suspension is an independent multi-link design with lower control arms and a 17 mm stabilizer bar. Spring rates and dampers have been specially tuned for the Zephyr to provide excellent ride comfort without compromising handling. All Zephyrs feature standard four-wheel anti-lock disc brakes with traction control; the sole engine offered in the Zephyr was an all-aluminum 3.0 L DOHC Duratec V6 producing 221 hp at 6250 rpm and 205 lb·ft of torque at 4800 rpm. This engine was mated to an Aisin 6-speed automatic transmission and had a final drive ratio of 3.46:1. This powertrain was identical to the V6 powertrain available in the Fusion and Milan from 2006-2009. With this powertrain the Zephyr could accelerate from zero to 60 mph in 7.5 seconds. The FWD Zephyr came with a 16.5 US gal fuel tank and is rated to deliver 17 mpg‑US in city driving and 26 mpg‑US on the highway based on the revised 2008 EPA fuel efficiency measurement standard
Kona District, Hawaii
Kona is a moku or district on the Big Island of Hawaiʻi in the State of Hawaii. In the current system of administration of Hawaiʻi County, the moku of Kona is divided into North Kona District and South Kona District; the term "Kona" is sometimes used inaccurately to refer to Kailua-Kona. Other towns in Kona include Kealakekua, Holualoa, Hōnaunau and Honalo. In the Hawaiian language, kona means leeward or dry side of the island, as opposed to ko‘olau which means windward or the wet side of the island. In the times of Ancient Hawaiʻi, Kona was the name of the leeward district on each major island. In Hawai‘i, the Pacific anticyclone provides moist prevailing northeasterly winds to the Hawaiian islands, resulting in rain when the winds contact the windward landmass of the islands – the winds subsequently lose their moisture and travel on to the leeward side of the island; when this pattern reverses, it can produce a Kona storm from the west. Kona has cognates with the same meaning in other Polynesian languages.
In Tongan, the equivalent cognate would be tonga. Kona is the home of the world-famous Ironman World Championship Triathlon, held each year in October in Kailua-Kona; the Kealakekua Bay State Historical Park marks the place where Captain James Cook was killed in 1779. Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park and Honokohau Settlement and Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park are in Kona; the volcanic slopes of Hualālai and Mauna Loa in the Kona district provide an ideal microclimate for growing coffee. Kona coffee is considered one of the premium specialty coffees of the world. In pop culture, the region served as the basis of the Beach Boys' song "Kona Coast" from their 1978 album M. I. U. Album. Kona is the home of one of the main bases of the international Christian mission organization YWAM, the University of the Nations, first founded here. Juvik, Sonia P. 1998, Atlas of Hawaii, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-2125-8 Kona Historical Society, 1997, A Guide to Old Kona, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-2010-7 Kona Historical Society web site Kona Kohala Chamber of Commerce web site North Kona shoreline access map at Hawaiʻi County web site South Kona shoreline access map at Hawaiʻi County web site
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti