London Missionary Society
The London Missionary Society was a predominantly Congregationalist missionary society formed in England in 1795 at the instigation of Welsh Congregationalist minister Dr Edward Williams working with evangelical Anglicans and various nonconformists. It was Reformed in outlook, with Congregational missions in Oceania and the Americas, although there were Presbyterians, Methodists and various other Protestants involved, it now forms part of the Council for World Mission. In 1793, Edward Williams minister at Carr's Lane, wrote a letter to the churches of the Midlands, expressing the need for world evangelization and foreign missions, it was effective and Williams began to play an active part in the plans for a missionary society. He left Birmingham in 1795, becoming pastor at Masbrough and tutor of the newly formed Masbrough academy. In 1793, the Anglican cleric John Eyre of Hackney founded the Evangelical Magazine, he had the support of the presbyterian John Love, congregationalists Edward Parsons and John Townshend.
Proposals for the Missionary Society began in 1794 after a Baptist minister, John Ryland, received word from William Carey, the pioneer British Baptist missionary who had moved to Calcutta, about the need to spread Christianity. Carey suggested that Ryland join forces with others along the non-denominational lines of the Anti-Slavery Society to design a society that could prevail against the difficulties that evangelicals faced when spreading the Word; this aimed to overcome the difficulties. It had proved hard to raise the finance because evangelicals belonged to many denominations and churches. Edward Williams continued his involvement and, in July 1796, gave the charge to the first missionaries sent out by the Society; the society aimed to create a forum where evangelicals could work together, give overseas missions financial support and co-ordination. It advocated against opponents who wanted unrestricted commercial and military relations with native peoples throughout the world. After Ryland showed Carey’s letter to Henry Overton Wills, an anti-slavery campaigner in Bristol, he gained support.
Scottish ministers in the London area, David Bogue and James Steven, as well as other evangelicals such as John Hey, joined forces to organize a new society. Bogue wrote an influential appeal in the Evangelical Magazine for September 1794: Ye were once Pagans, living in cruel and abominable idolatry; the servants of Jesus came from other lands, preached His Gospel among you. Hence your knowledge of salvation, and ought ye not, as an equitable compensation for their kindness, to send messengers to the nations which are in like condition with yourselves of old, to entreat them that they turn from their dumb idol to the living God, to wait for His Son from heaven? Verily their debtors ye are. John Eyre responded by inviting a leading and influential evangelical, Rev. Thomas Haweis, to write a response to Bogue's appeal; the Cornishman sided with Bogue, identified two donors, one of £500, one of £100. From this start, a campaign developed to raise money for the proposed society, its first meeting was organised at Baker’s Coffee House on Change Alley in the City of London.
Eighteen supporters showed up and helped agree the aims of the proposed missionary society – to spread the knowledge of Christ among heathen and other unenlightened nations. By Christmas over thirty men were committed to forming the society. In the following year, 1795, Spa Fields Chapel was approached for permission to preach a sermon to the various ministers and others by now keenly associated with the plan to send missionaries abroad; this was organised for Tuesday 22 September 1795, the host chapel insisting that no collection for the proposed society must be made during the founding event which would be more solemn, formally mark the origin of the Missionary Society. Hundreds of evangelicals attended, the newly launched society began receiving letters of financial support, interest from prospective missionaries. Joseph Hardcastle of Hatcham House, Deptford became the first Treasurer, the Rev. John Eyre of Hackney became the first Secretary to the Missionary Society—the latter appointment providing it with an effective'newspaper' to promote its cause.
The Missionary Society's board began interviewing prospective candidates. In 1800 the society placed missionaries with the Rev. David Bogue of Gosport for preparation for their ministries. A Captain James Wilson offered to sail the missionaries to their destination unpaid; the society was able to afford the small ship Duff, of 267 tons. It could carry 30 missionaries. Seven months after the crew left port from the Woolwich docks in late 1796 they arrived in Tahiti, where seventeen missionaries departed; the missionaries were instructed to become friendly with the natives, build a mission house for sleeping and worship, learn the native language. The missionaries faced unforeseen problems; the natives were anxious to gain possessions from the crew. The Tahitians had faced difficulties with diseases spread from the crews of ships that had docked there; the natives saw this as retribution from the gods, they were suspicious of the crew. Of the seventeen missionaries that arrived in Tahiti, eight soon left on the first British ship to arrive in Tahiti.
When Duff returned to Britain it was sent back to Tahiti with thirty more missionaries. This journey was disas
Congregational churches are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. Congregationalism, as defined by the Pew Research Center, is estimated to represent 0.5 per cent of the worldwide Protestant population. The report defines it narrowly, encompassing denominations in the United States and the United Kingdom, which can trace their history back to nonconforming Protestants, Separatists, English religious groups coming out of the English Civil War, other English dissenters not satisfied with the degree to which the Church of England had been reformed. Congregationalist tradition has a presence in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand, various island nations in the Pacific region, it has been introduced either by immigrant dissenter Protestants or by missionary organization such as the London Missionary Society. A number of evangelical Congregational churches are members of the World Evangelical Congregational Fellowship.
In the United Kingdom, many Congregational churches claim their descent from Protestant denominations formed on a theory of union published by the theologian and English separatist Robert Browne in 1582. Ideas of nonconforming Protestants during the Puritan Reformation of the Church of England laid foundation for these churches. In England, the early Congregationalists were called Separatists or Independents to distinguish them from the Calvinistic Presbyterians, whose churches embrace a polity based on the governance of elders. Congregationalists differed with the Reformed churches using episcopalian church governance, led by a bishop. Congregationalism in the United States traces its origins to the Puritans of New England, who wrote the Cambridge Platform of 1648 to describe the autonomy of the church and its association with others. Within the United States, the model of Congregational churches was carried by migrating settlers from New England into New York into the Old North West, further.
With their insistence on independent local bodies, they became important in many social reform movements, including abolitionism and women's suffrage. Modern Congregationalism in the United States is split into three bodies: the United Church of Christ, the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches and the Conservative Congregational Christian Conference, the most theologically conservative. Congregationalists believe their model of church governance fulfills the description of the early church and allows people the most direct relationship with God. Congregationalism is more identified as a movement than a single denomination, given its distinguishing commitment to the complete autonomy of the local congregation; the idea that each distinct congregation constitutes the visible Body of the church can, however, be traced to John Wycliffe and the Lollard movement, which followed Wycliffe's removal from teaching authority in the Roman Catholic Church. The early Congregationalists shared with Anabaptist theology the ideal of a pure church.
They believed the adult conversion experience was necessary for an individual to become a full member in the church, unlike other Reformed churches. As such, the Congregationalists were a reciprocal influence on the Baptists, they differed in counting the children of believers in some sense members of the church. On the other hand, the Baptists required each member followed by baptism. King Henry VIII made himself Supreme Head of the Church without allowing a change in doctrine or liturgy during his lifetime, he was not excommunicated but broke with Rome to legitimize his marriage to Anne Boleyn in 1533 after trying unsuccessfully to have his marriage with his wife, Catherine of Aragon annulled. Henry forced Parliament to approve the Act of Supremacy in 1534 which made him "the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England"; the title was changed to Supreme Governor of the Church of England in 1559. Still in effect; the Church of England ceased to be subject to the Church of Rome. However, it continued as before with the same episcopal ecclesiastical structure, Canon Law, Apostolic Succession.
It saw itself as the continuing Church in England without break. However its worship life was changed." The whole story of the English Reformation which produced the Church of England is a tale of retreat from the Protestant advance of 1550..." Pope Saint Pius V regretfully excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I. From the beginning of her reign a small but vocal party of radical Reformers Calvinists who represented less than 10% of the population pressed for the abolition of episcopacy - the 3-fold order of bishop priest and deacon - church music, the old canon law and liturgical and doctrinal practices they regarded as hangovers from Catholicism, they got nowhere. The persistence of the government's religious program and time had defeated them: England 80% Catholic in 1558 with a Catholic clergy evolved under Elizabeth. By 1600 the country was 20 % Catholic, 70 % Protestant C of 10 % Radicals; the great majority of Catholics had gone over to the Settlement as the Catholic-trained clergy ministered to them in the early years "with the vestments and movements of the old mass," Christopher Haigh, English Reformations p. 289, were replaced over four decades by new clergy weaned on the Prayer Book.
Frustrated at these leftovers from an earlier Ag
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The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
William Ellis (missionary)
William Ellis was an English missionary and author. He travelled through the Society Islands, Hawaiian Islands, Madagascar, wrote several books describing his experiences, he was born in London of working-class parents on 24 August 1794. His father and a short-lived older brother were named William. If a child died young, parents named another child by the same name if wanting to pass on a parent's or grandparent's name. Not much is known of his mother. Young William became a gardener, he worked first in the East of England at a nursery north of London, for a wealthy family in Stoke Newington. Being of a religious nature, he applied to train as a Christian missionary for the London Missionary Society and was accepted to the school, he began writing at the age of 12, on being urged by an elementary-school teacher, who discerned his talent at an early age. After attending Homerton College in Hampstead, Ellis was ordained in 1815, he married Mary Mercy Moor on 9 November 1815. He was soon posted to the South Sea Islands with his wife, leaving England on 23 January 1816.
They arrived at Eimeo, one of the Windward Islands, via Sydney, learned the language there. During their stay, several chiefs of nearby Pacific islands who had assisted Pomare in regaining sovereignty of Tahiti, visited Eimeo and welcomed the LMS missionaries to their own islands. All three missionary families went to Huahine, arriving in June 1818, drawing crowds from neighbouring islands, including King Tamatoa of Raiatea. Ellis and a small group travelled from Tahiti on the schooner Mermaid to the Hawaiian Islands, known as the "Sandwich Islands". On the same voyage, another small schooner called Prince Regent, outfitted with six cannons, was presented to King Kamehameha II; the party arrived in Honolulu on 16 April 1822. Although the plan had been to visit the Marquesas Islands, they returned to Tahiti on 27 August 1822. Ellis was invited to stay, he arranged for his family to come to Hawaii, where they arrived on the Active on 4 February 1823. In June 1823 Ellis joined American Missionaries Asa Thurston, Artemas Bishop, Joseph Goodrich on a tour of the island of Hawaiʻi, to investigate suitable sites for mission stations.
On the way he stopped at Maui and baptized Queen Keōpūolani. Their first stop was Kailua-Kona, where they met the Governor of the island Kuakini, known as "John Adams", they visited Kealakekua Bay, toured the historic sites nearby, such as the Puʻuhonoua o Hōnaunau. They travelled south past the Mauna Loa volcano, they were some of the first Europeans to visit the caldera of the Kīlauea volcano, active at the time. On the eastern side they visited Hilo and Waipiʻo Valley, some of the party continued up snow-covered Mauna Kea; some of the important missions set up as a result of this trip include Mokuaikaua Church, Imiola Church, Kealakekua Church, the Haili Church. Returning to Honolulu, Ellis learned the Hawaiian language, transcribed the language into a Roman alphabet, helped set up a printing press. In August 1824 he had to return to England since Mrs Ellis was in poor health, so took a ship via America. Back in London, Ellis published his narrative of travels in Hawaii, he was selected as Assistant Foreign Secretary of the London Missionary Society, Chief Foreign Secretary in 1832.
His wife Mary Ellis died on 11 January 1835, after having four children. He published a biography of her in 1836. Ellis remarried two years to Sarah Stickney, she had been brought up a Quaker but had latterly chosen to become an Independent or Congregationalist, as were many of those involved in the London Missionary Society, albeit non-denominational. She shared her husband's love of writing. Ellis had started to become a successful writer about the topography, history and ethnography of Polynesia since returning from the South Seas. Sarah Ellis gained her own success with books on women's role in society. Ellis's most important work was Polynesian Researches; this established him as a talented enthographic and geographical writer. The book was reviewed in the Quarterly Review by Robert Southey, who wrote: "A more interesting book we have never perused." This and similar acclaim for Ellis's writing from others influenced investors to regard the missionaries more favorably the LMS missionaries. They had been portrayed as naively raising the expectations, educational level and status of slaves and native peoples, rather than taking a traditionally hard-headed approach to trade and commerce.
Ellis was asked by the directors of the LMS to write up his studies of Madagascar. His work was published in 1838 as the two-volume History of Madagascar. In 1844 his first volume of a History of the London Missionary Society was published. Due to ill health, Ellis resigned from the LMS. Three years in 1847, he was offered a post there as pastor of its Congregational church. After five years, Ellis recovered his health, he accepted an offer from the LMS to travel to Madagascar as their official emissary. Arriving in 1853, he was rebuffed by officials in attempting to establish a mission and refused permission to go to the capital. Establishing a temporary base in Mauritius, he again was refused, he made a third visit in 1856. I
William Allen (Quaker)
William Allen was an English scientist and philanthropist who opposed slavery and engaged in schemes of social and penal improvement in early nineteenth-century England. He was the eldest son in the Quaker family of Job Allen, a silk manufacturer and his wife Margaret Stafford, he was educated at a Quaker school in Rochester and went into his father's business. As a young man, in the 1790s, he became interested in science, he attended meetings of scientific societies, including lectures at St. Thomas's Hospital and Guy's Hospital, becoming a member of the Chemical Society of the latter establishment. On Job Allen's death, the family silk firm was taken over by his father's assistant. Allen had concentrated on his own career in the field of pharmacy, taking over the Plough Court chemical business of Joseph Gurney Bevan who retired in 1795. In 1802 he lectured on chemistry at Guy's Hospital. A year he was made president of the Physical Society at Guy's, on the advice of Humphry Davy and John Dalton accepted an invitation from the Royal Institution to become one of its lecturers.
In 1807, Allen's original research enabled him to be proposed for election to Fellowship of the Royal Society, bringing him into contact with those who were publishing much of the original scientific research of the day. This strengthened his ties with the eminent Humphry Davy, in due course with his long-standing friend Luke Howard, elected to Fellowship of the Royal Society, though some years later. Allen was known in commerce for his pharmaceutical company at 2 Plough Court, trading in 1795 as Mildred & Allen while he was in partnership with Samuel Mildred, it was situated off Lombard Street in the City of London. In 1797 Allen brought in Luke Howard as a partner. A partner of Allen was Daniel Bell Hanbury, father of Daniel Hanbury the botanist. By 1856 the company had become Hanburys, it was acquired in 1958 by Glaxo Laboratories, who retained the Allen & Hanburys name as a separate marque within the GSK group. Allen strengthened the company's links with medical institutions Guy's Hospital where he was elected to its Physical Society.
Using Plough Court for meetings, he co-founded the Askesian Society. There new ideas for research and experimentation could be discussed with others such as Luke Howard, Joseph Fox, William Hasledine Pepys, William Babington, the surgeon Astley Cooper. A second laboratory was opened for the development of new chemicals, a few miles away in Plaistow. In 1841, Jacob Bell pressed for a professional body for pharmacists. Allen co-founded The Pharmaceutical Society, which became The Royal Pharmaceutical Society, he was its first president. As a teenager, Allen gave up sugar as a reaction to the Atlantic slave trade, under the influence of Quaker abolitionists and abstained from it to 1834, he became interested in the politics of abolitionism in 1790/1, in 1792, made a speech on the topic at the Worshipful Company of Coachmaker's Hall. The speech was published as a pamphlet by Martha Gurney, it was influenced by the writer William Fox. In 1794 he befriended Thomas Clarkson. In 1805, after some years of assisting the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, William Allen was elected to its committee.
The society had always been influenced by Quakers, by those based in or near London. All the members of its predecessor committee had been Quakers, nine of the twelve founders of the subsequent non-denominational Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade were Quakers, including two - Samuel Hoare Jr and Joseph Woods Sr - who lived close to William Allen in Stoke Newington, the village near London where Allen had family interests after his second marriage in 1806; the best known committee member of the new non-denominational abolition society, founded in 1787, was William Wilberforce, unlike its Quaker members, was eligible as an Anglican to be elected to, sit in, the House of Commons. Wilberforce visited William Allen at his experimental gardens on several occasions in his role as the Society's parliamentary representative, he had long been familiar with the village. His sister Sarah had married the lawyer James Stephens, whose family home was the Summerhouse, a large house adjoining Abney Park in the grounds of the mansion that in the 1820s, was to become William Allen's novel girls' school.
William Allen was a founder member and a Director of the African Institution. The work of the successor body began in 1808, when the colony had been handed to the Crown in return for the British Parliament passing legislation for its protection at about the same time as the passing in 1807 of the Act for the abolition of the slave trade. William Allen's active interest in the abolitionist cause continued until his death. In the mid-1830s he was passionate about abolition of the apprenticeship clause, achieving the complete freedom of African-Caribbean people on 1 August 1838, his biographer James Sherman records,'the apprenticeship clause in the Bill... had been abused by the planters. Mr Allen was indefatigable in his efforts, by interviews with Ministers and official persons.. His account of the spirit-stirring time is graphic:', The cruelty and oppression of the planters of Jamaica, as exercised on those poor sufferers, whose redemption from slavery we have paid twenty millions, has been exposed in the face of day
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Quakers called Friends, are a Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends, Society of Friends or Friends Church. Members of the various Quaker movements are all united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "the light within", or "that of God in every one"; some may profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. There are Nontheist Quakers whose spiritual practice is not reliant on the existence of gods. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were about 359,000 adult Quakers worldwide. In 2017, there were 377,557 adult Quakers, with 49% in Africa. Around 89% of Quakers worldwide belong to the "evangelical" and "programmed" branches of Quakerism—these Quakers worship in services with singing and a prepared message from the Bible, coordinated by a pastor.
Around 11% of Friends practice waiting worship, or unprogrammed worship, where the order of service is not planned in advance, is predominantly silent, may include unprepared vocal ministry from those present. Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry; the first Quakers lived in mid-17th-century England. The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, breaking away from the established Church of England; the Quakers the ones known as the Valiant Sixty, attempted to convert others to their understanding of Christianity, travelling both throughout Great Britain and overseas, preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ. Some of these early Quaker ministers were women, they based their message on the religious belief that "Christ has come to teach his people himself", stressing the importance of a direct relationship with God through Jesus Christ, a direct religious belief in the universal priesthood of all believers.
They emphasized a personal and direct religious experience of Christ, acquired through both direct religious experience and the reading and studying of the Bible. Quakers focused their private life on developing behaviour and speech reflecting emotional purity and the light of God. In the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, teetotalism; some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays and Friends Provident. In 1947, the Quakers, represented by the British Friends Service Council and the American Friends Service Committee, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. During and after the English Civil War many dissenting Christian groups emerged, including the Seekers and others. A young man, George Fox, was dissatisfied with the teachings of the Church of England and non-conformists, he had a revelation that "there is one Christ Jesus, who can speak to thy condition", became convinced that it was possible to have a direct experience of Christ without the aid of an ordained clergy.
In 1652 he had a vision on Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England, in which he believed that "the Lord let me see in what places he had a great people to be gathered". Following this he travelled around England, the Netherlands, Barbados preaching and teaching with the aim of converting new adherents to his faith; the central theme of his Gospel message was. His followers considered themselves to be the restoration of the true Christian church, after centuries of apostasy in the churches in England. In 1650, Fox was brought before the magistrates Gervase Bennet and Nathaniel Barton, on a charge of religious blasphemy. According to Fox's autobiography, Bennet "was the first that called us Quakers, because I bade them tremble at the word of the Lord", it is thought that Fox was referring to Isaiah 66:2 or Ezra 9:4. Thus, the name Quaker began as a way of ridiculing Fox's admonition, but became accepted and is used by some Quakers. Quakers described themselves using terms such as true Christianity, Children of the Light, Friends of the Truth, reflecting terms used in the New Testament by members of the early Christian church.
Quakerism gained a considerable following in England and Wales, the numbers increased to a peak of 60,000 in England and Wales by 1680. But the dominant discourse of Protestantism viewed the Quakers as a blasphemous challenge to social and political order, leading to official persecution in England and Wales under the Quaker Act 1662 and the Conventicle Act 1664; this was relaxed after the Declaration of Indulgence and stopped under the Act of Toleration 1689. One modern view of Quakerism at this time was that the relationship with Christ was encouraged through spiritualisation of human relations, "the redefinition of the Quakers as a holy tribe,'the family and household of God'". Together with Margaret Fell, the wife of Thomas Fell, the vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and an eminent judge, Fox developed new conceptions of family and community that emphasised "holy conversation": speech and behaviour that reflected piety and love. With the restructuring of the family and household came new roles for wom