Hanson Industries invented and popularized the rear-entry ski boot. Formed by brothers Chris and Denny Hanson in 1969, the company became a huge success in the late 1970s. A series of missteps in the early 1980s led to a rapid death spiral and the company went bankrupt in 1984, it was purchased by Daiwa, a Japanese fishing tackle company that handled Hanson's distribution in Japan. Daiwa ended sales in North Europe. European products, notably the famous Salomon SX series, used Hanson's exit as a springboard to market domination during the second half of the 1980s. Denny Hanson introduced the "Apex" design, which combines features of alpine and snowboarding boots. Alden Hanson Sr. was the chief scientist at Dow Chemical during the'60s. He led development of a Silly Putty-like plastic known as "Flo-fit" and started looking for applications. Alden's son Chris used some in an effort to make a better ski boot, which at the time were simple leather boots that were uncomfortable and wore out. Chris built a fiberglass shell that fitted over the entire foot area of the boot to provide support, filled the gap with Flo-fit to provide cushioning between the two.
The prototype was only one boot, not a pair, Chris stopped work on the design. Around the same time, Bob Lange started work on a new ski boot design using plastics in place of leather, it took several years of development before he had a suitable design, widespread sales started in the winter of 1965-66. These early designs were stiff and offered a tremendous improvement in control, but they became more uncomfortable than the leather designs they replaced when the inner liner lost its elasticity around pressure points; the area around the leg cuff and the ankle would wear out and could draw blood. In 1968, Alden Hanson started negotiations with Bob Lange to add Flo-fit to Lange's boot designs. Lange proved interested, hired Chris, an industrial designer, his brother Denny, a salesman for Head Skis, to help design a system to incorporate the newly christened "Lange-flo" into their boot lineup. However, Chris proved more interested in developing a new boot design than working on Lange-flo, Lange dismissed them both in 1969.
However, the liners ended up failing. This allowed the Lange-flo to squeeze into the boot, led to millions of dollars in warranty work in the 1969-1970 season. During 1969, the Hansons were building prototypes of their new boot design, in June 1970, they formed Hanson Industries to produce them; the boot was moulded in two halves and back, both of simple shaping that made them easy to remove from the moulds, at least compared to traditional front-entry designs like Lange where the shaping results in complex moulds. A single buckle locked the rear portion forward onto the front for closure. Unlike designs, the Hanson boot did not have a pivot point to allow forward flex of the leg. Instead, the one-piece forward section ran from the toe to the mid-calf area as a continuous piece, was designed to be flexible; the rear section of the boot fit inside the front. When the skier flexed forward, the front section would bend with the leg, the rear section would be pulled forward with it by the buckle; the inner liner was a one-piece system similar to a thick sock.
As the foot area was a single piece there was no way to snug it down. The design was released during 1971, during the fall they shipped 2,500 pairs to stores across the US, they proved to be a hit, by 1975, the company was competing with Lange for the number one position in the boot market. Improvements followed in the Riva design, which split the front section into left and right sections and held them together with a clip. By moving the clip up or down a fitting along the instep, the forward flex could be controlled. With the clip at the top position, on the shin, the front section of the boot had to move forward as a unit, set lower on the leg or over the foot area allowed some of the forward motion to push the two halves apart to the side, lowering resistance. During the half of the 1970s, many ski and boot companies rushed to introduce their own rear-entry designs; this was attractive to companies that had not been involved in boots, as the traditional market for front-entry systems was well established.
O'Brien and Rosemount all introduced versions similar to the Hanson. K2 introduced the "Three", which reversed the Hanson pattern by making the rear flap much larger and bucking on the front like a conventional front-entry design. None of these had a major impact on Hanson's sales, in the period between 1978 and 1981, the company was shipping an average of 120,000 pairs of boots a year; this represented about half of the high end boot market in the US, at least on a dollar basis. Flush with success, Hanson decided to enter the ski market. Hexcel produced a well-regarded product using a honeycomb material in place of wood or foam, but the company decided to focus on the aerospace market and was looking to sell their ski factory. Hanson purchased the entire line, they arranged a deal with the Spyder ski wear brand, offering high-end racing boots under this marque. Hanson had decided from the start to try to keep steady employment through the year, instead of using temporary workers to fill the needs of the winter season rush.
To do this, the company borrowed money from the banks to fund production, which it repaid with the proceeds from sales during the winter. When US interest rates soared to 22% in 1980, t
Emmeric Ong Yu Min is a Singaporean footballer who plays as a defender and midfielder for Warriors FC in the S. League. Ong got his break in the S. League when he was still registered as a Prime league player with Hougang United in 2011. Commanding a starting spot and impressing the coaches, Ong caught the eyes of the national youth setup, he moved to Courts Young Lions as part of the Sea Games Preliminary Squad during the mid season transfer window. National Service commitments meant that Ong was ruled out of the Sea Games and was enlisted to the Army on 3 November 2011. Subsequent years followed in the S. League with the Courts Young Lions, appearances were limited due to NS commitments. In 2013, Ong was reunited with 2011 Hougang United coach Aide Iskandar, he started the season as first choice centre back for the Courts Young Lions, making 7 appearances before suffering an ACL injury and was ruled out of the season. Ong signed for MSL side LionsXII for the 2014 season. However, despite being a regular sight on the bench, Ong only managed a solitary appearance for the LionsXII, in a Malaysia Cup match, for the entire season.
Ong signed for S. League Champions Warriors FC for the 2015 S. League season after failing to make any appearances for the LionsXII in the 2014 Malaysian Super League, he made just a single Malaysia Cup appearance on the last day of the season. In 2015, Ong was signed by the reigning S. League Champions Warriors looked to provide cover in defence for the champions, he did not feature in the match day squad for the first two league games of the season and remained on the bench for their AFC Champions league qualifier against Yadanarbon FC. However, things took a turn when Ong was given a run out in their 2-0 loss to Maldivian side Maziya FC and impressed coach Alex Weaver, he came off their bench against Albirex Niigata FC in their next league game, started their following AFC cup game against Bengaluru FC and never looked back. Ong began to hold down a starting role in the team and kept experienced and foreign players such as Shi Jiayi and Thomas Beattie out of the side, he filled in at right back when needed but was utilised as a holding midfielder.
In December 2015, Ong signed on to stay at the Warriors for the 2016 S. League season, his performances in the 2017 Singapore League Cup, in which the Warriors finished as runners-up, saw him earn a spot in Fourfourtwo's League Cup team of the year. 2017 proved to be a good year for Ong as he was a mainstay in the team throughout the season, with the club announcing on Facebook that Ong had been retained for the 2018 S. League season. Although he was just a backup player in the LionsXII squad, Ong was called up to the Singapore Under-21 team for the Hassanal Bolkiah Trophy, one of the much-respected Southeast Asian youth tournaments. In 2017, Ong was called up to the national team for the friendly against Hong Kong and the 2019 Asian Cup Qualifiers against Turkmenistan on 31 August and 5 September respectively, he was red carded in the 87th minute. As of match played 4 Nov 2019. Caps and goals may not be correct. Young Lions and LionsXII are ineligible for qualification to AFC competitions in their respective leagues.
Don Wilson was an American announcer and actor in radio and television, with a Falstaffian vocal presence, remembered best as the rotund announcer and comic foil to the star of The Jack Benny Program. Wilson played football for the University of Colorado in the 20s. For his size he was an excellent sportsman, was an excellent amateur golfer, teaming up with fellow NBC announcer Bud Stevens to win many matches in Southern California. Wilson began his radio career as a singer over Denver radio station KFEL in 1923. By 1929, he was working at KFI, shortly afterwards for Don Lee at KHJ, in Los Angeles. In a 1978 appearance on Tomorrow with Tom Snyder, Wilson claimed he was fired from KHJ because he had bought a Packard from Earle C. Anthony, the business arch-rival of Cadillac dealer Don Lee and owner of KFI and KECA. Though best known for his comedy work with Benny, Wilson had a background as a sportscaster, covering the opening of the 1932 Summer Olympics. Don appeared in two Broadway shows in the 1930s, "The Passionate Pilgrim", which opened October 19, 1932, "The First Legion", which opened October 1, 1934.
Wilson first worked with Benny on the broadcast of April 6, 1934, concurrent with a short stint as announcer on George Gershwin's series, Music by Gershwin. At 6 feet and 300 pounds, Wilson possessed a resonant voice, a deep belly laugh, a plump figure, all of which would become important parts of his character with Benny. Though Wilson's primary function as announcer was to read the opening and the commercial pitches — notably for Jell-O, Grape-Nuts, Lucky Strike — his importance to the program was as both feed and foil to Jack and other cast members. A recurring goal was his effort to get the Sportsmen Quartet singing commercials approved by Benny. On radio in particular, Wilson's girth could be exploited, both in jokes by Benny and in audio gags, such as the amount of time it took a railroad porter to brush the soot off of Don following a train trip, or to measure charging him by the pound. Wilson flubbed his lines, his most famous incident occurred on the January 1950 broadcast. The script called for him to refer to columnist Drew Pearson, but Wilson read the name as "Dreer Pooson."
On in the broadcast, during a murder-mystery skit, Frank Nelson was instructed – without Jack Benny's knowledge – to take advantage of the situation. Benny asked Nelson, "Pardon me, are you the doorman?" and Nelson, in his customary sarcastic manner, came back with: "Well who do you think I am, Dreer Pooson?," to sustained laughter and applause. Wilson served stints as announcer for radio comedy or variety shows starring Alan Young, Bing Crosby, Ginny Simms, Fanny Brice's comedy hit Baby Snooks. In 1946, Don Wilson was a regular on the daytime comedy Glamour Manor, opposite former Jack Benny Program regular Kenny Baker. Wilson accompanied Benny into television in 1950, remaining with him through the end of the series in 1965. On television, the fat jokes were toned down only mostly because the real Wilson was not as impossibly large as the radio Wilson was described; these appearances often involved the fictional character of Don's hefty, aspiring announcer son, Harlow. Wilson co-starred with Benny in Buck Benny Rides Again and voicing a caricature of himself in The Mouse that Jack Built, a 1959 Warner Brothers spoof of The Jack Benny Program directed by Robert McKimson.
Wilson appeared in the Broadway show "Make a Million", which opened on October 23, 1958. In 1959, Wilson appeared as a flim-flam preacher in the episode, "Gates Ajar Morgan", on the syndicated anthology series, Death Valley Days, hosted by Stanley Andrews. In the story line, Morgan promotes a false religious philosophy based on the novel The Gates Ajar, he must confess the sham to save his benefactor from a lynch mob. The episode features Chris Alcaide and Sue Randall, his other film roles included small appearances as announcers or commentators in several films, providing narration for Walt Disney's Academy Award nominated short Ferdinand the Bull, a credited appearance as Mr. Kettering opposite Marilyn Monroe in Niagara, his role in the film Village Barn Dance was acclaimed by a review that said, "Surprise performance was that of Don Wilson... who steals the show with his portrayal of a good-humored, grinning radio announcer."Wilson did frequent commercials and appeared in the Western Union Candygram commercials as their spokesman from 1969 through 1971.
Those who recall the commercial remember him blaring out "Just tell them I want to send a Candygram."His final on-camera appearance in a series was in two episodes of the 1960s Batman as newscaster Walter Klondike. Wilson would continue to appear on talk-shows throughout his life whenever a program would salute Jack Benny or talk about old-time radio. Wilson was married four times, his second wife was daughter of 20th Century Fox President Sidney R. Kent, they were married November 19, 1940 and divorced in December, 1942. The same month the divorce was final, Wilson married Polish countess Marusia Radunska; this marriage ended in divorce in 1949. Wilson found a lasting partnership with fourth wife, radio actress Lois Corbett. Together they hosted a local Palm Springs, California television show Town Talk from 1968 until the mid-1970s. Wilson and his wife lived in Palm Springs after his retirement, he died of a stroke. Dunning, John. On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. New York: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 0-19-507678-8 Don Wilson on IMDb Don Wilson at Find a Grave
2,4 Dienoyl-CoA reductase known as DECR1 is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the DECR1 gene which resides on chromosome 8. This enzyme catalyzes the following reactions DECR1 participates in the beta oxidation and metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty enoyl-CoA esters, it catalyzes the reduction of 2,4 dienoyl-CoA thioesters of varying length by NADPH cofactor to 3-trans-enoyl-CoA of equivalent length. Unlike the breakdown of saturated fat and trans polyunsaturated fatty acid degradation requires three additional enzymes to generate a product compatible with the standard beta oxidation pathway. DECR is the rate limiting step in this auxiliary flow. DECR is capable of reducing both 2-trans,4-cis-dienoyl-CoA and 2-trans,4-trans-dienoyl-CoA thioesters with equal efficiency. At this time, there is no clear explanation for this of lack of stereo-specificity. Eukaryotic DECR exists in the peroxisome; the enzymes from each organelle are homologous and part of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase SDR super-family.
MDECR is 124 kDa consisting of 335 amino acids before post-translational modification. The secondary structure shares many of the motifs of SDR, including a Rossmann fold for strong NADPH binding; the protein exists as a homotetramer in physiological environment, but has been shown to form monomers and dimers in solution. Crystallization of mDECR shows the enzyme provides a network of hydrogen bonds from key residues in the active site to NADPH and the 2,4-dienoyl-CoA which positions the hydride at 3.4 Å to the Cδ, compared with 4.0 Å to the Cβ. The enolate intermediate discussed earlier is stabilized by residues additional hydrogen bonds to Tyr166 and Asn148. Lys214 and Ser210 are thought to stabilize the transition state. Additionally, at one end of the active site there is a flexible loop that provides sufficient room for long carbon chains; this gives the enzyme flexibility to process fatty acid chains of various lengths. Substrate length for mDECR catalysis is thought to be limited at 20 carbons, at which this long chain fatty acid is first oxidized by pDECR in the peroxisome.
2,4 Dienoyl-CoA thioester reduction by NADPH to 3-Enoyl CoA occurs by a two-step sequential mechanism via an enolate intermediate. DECR binds NADPH and the fatty acid thioester and positions them for specific hydride transfer to the Cδ on the hydrocarbon chain; the electrons from the Cγ-Cδ double bond move over to the Cβ-Cγ position, those from the Cα-Cβ form an enolate. In the final step, a proton is abstracted from the water to the Cα and the thioester is reformed, resulting in a single Cβ-Cγ trans double bond. Since the final proton comes from water, the pH has a significant effect on the catalytic rate with the enzyme demonstrating maximal activity at ~6.0. A decrease in activity at pH < 6.0 can be explained by de-protonation of titratable residues that affect protein folding or substrate binding. Mutant proteins with modifications at key acidic amino acids show order of magnitude increases in Km and/or decreases in Vmax. 2,4 Dienoyl-CoA Reductase from Escherichia coli shares similar kinetic properties to that of eukaryotes, but differs in both structure and mechanism.
In addition to NADPH, E. Coli DECR requires a set of FAD, FMN and iron–sulfur cluster molecules to complete the electron transfer. A further distinction is E. Coli DECR produces the final 2-trans-enoyl-CoA without the need for Enoyl CoA Isomerase; the active site contains positioned Tyr166 that donates a proton to the Cγ after hydride attack at the Cδ, completing the reduction in a single concerted step. Mutation of the Tyr166 does not eliminate enzyme activity but instead changes the product to 3-trans-enoyl-CoA; the current explanation is that Glu164, an acidic residue in the active site, acts as a proton donor to Cα when Tyr166 is not present. DECR is one of three auxiliary enzymes involved in a rate-limiting step of unsaturated fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria. In particular, this enzyme contributes to breaking the double bonds at all even-numbered positions, some double bonds at odd-numbered position; the structure of the ternary complex of pDCR with NADP and its substrate provides essential and unique insights into the mechanism of catalysis.
Unlike other members belonging to the SDR family, catalysis by pDCR does not involve a tyrosine-serine pair. Instead, a catalytically critical aspartate, together with an invariant lysine, polarizes a water molecule to donate a proton for the formation of the product. Although pDCR can use 2,4-hexadienoyl CoA as a substrate, the affinities for short chain fatty acids are lower. Analysis of the hinge movement of DCRs from the mitochondrion and peroxisomes sheds light on the reason behind the unique ability of the peroxisome to shorten long chain fatty acids. Mutations in the DECR1 gene may result in 2,4 Dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency, a rare but lethal disorder. Due to its role in fatty acid oxidation, DECR may serve as a therapeutic target for treating non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, which features hyperglycemia due to increased fatty acid oxidation. In knockout mice studies, DECR1−/− subjects accumulate significant concentrations of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver during fasting.
Mutant subjects were found to have poor tolerance to cold, decrease in diurnal activity, an overall reduction in adaptation to metabolic stressors. Beta oxidation 2,4-dienoyl-Co
Hylobius abietis or the large pine weevil is a beetle belonging to family Curculionidae. This species is regarded as the most important pest of most commercially important coniferous trees in European plantations. Seedlings planted or arising from natural regeneration after clear felling operations are at risk; the adult weevils cause damage by eating the bark of seedlings around the'collar' of the stem, thus'ring-barking' the tree seedling which results in its demise. The adult weevils are 10–13 mm in length and are dark brown with patches of yellow or light brown hairs arranged in irregular rows on their elytra; the legs are deep red with a distinctive tooth on the femora and at the end of tibiae. The full grown larvae are 14–16 mm, typical for weevils, apodial and are whitish, with brown head. Adults can be found all year long although they hibernate during the cold winter months, they reproduce ground into stumps, thick roots or in the soil in their vicinity. Large pine weevils can locate spots on the ground to dig into in a great precision using olfactory cues.
Mating usually takes place in the soil. To get to maturity, adults feed on the bark and phloem of seedlings and young conifers, but sometimes deciduous trees, causing severe growth loss, stem deformities and increased mortality. Thus, in the years following the clearing of plots and planting of new seedlings, adults that hatch in large numbers may cause a plague; the large pine weevils have a tendency to attack artificially fertilized trees those fertilized with phosphorus which causes greater nutritional quality of phloem for the weevils or make faster more attractive plants for the weevils due to faster growing. In the spring, after hibernation, in the ground in the forest litter, females lay eggs on in or near the roots, of freshly felled trees or sick. A female can lay up to 100 eggs in her life; the larvae hatch after 2 or 3 weeks, feed under the bark, excavating galleries and complete development, ending with pupation case, leaving the entrance blocked by sawdust. The pupae are immobile, cream in colour and soft bodied.
This phase lasts 3 weeks, after which the insect leaves the chamber as an adult. With favorable weather the entire development lasts four to five months; the oviposition takes place in April or May, so the weevils emerge in August or September, but are not sexually active until after the winter. The imago lives from two to three years. In colder seasons the larval development is longer and the whole cycle lasts twelve months, resulting that imagos able to reproduce quickly. Biennial generation it is common, by which the larvae hatch from eggs laid in May, live through the whole season overwinter and the imago appears in July or August next year; the main damage is caused by the adults that feed on the cambium. The imago eats throughout the growing season, but the intensive attacks are observed April–May and from August to September. Clear cuttings, if not followed by burning or removing of the thick branches and stumps favor the spread of the pest. Insecticides provide the used method of protection transplant from H. abietis feeding damage.
Now other methods are being considered, like the use of natural parasites. Physical barriers of seedlings are used in some of the European countries. For more than 100 years, different ways of suppressing the weevil population have been tried with poor results; some of these techniques are still useful either as tools to monitor weevil populations. Debarking of stumps was practiced as a weevil suppression technique, but is now abandoned as laborious and inefficient; the pine weevil problem is much related to the practice of clear-felling and planting. There is clear evidence showing that pine weevil problems are smaller in natural regeneration than in plantations. Natural regeneration is a good strategy to avoid Hylobius damage at sites where it can be practiced, but old spruce stands are unstable and natural regeneration hence risky. Various natural enemies attack adult pine weevils in the wild. Natural enemies include predatory beetles, insect killing fungi, microscopic insect killing worms and a parasitic wasp, Bracon hylobii.
Ground beetles and fungi can kill both immature and adult weevils. The parasitic wasp attacks pine weevil larvae only. Entomopathogenic nematodes are microscopic worms. Nematodes of the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae are used as biological insecticides against a number of soils inhabiting insect pest. Laboratory and field research has demonstrated that the larval and adult stages of H. abietis are susceptible to these nematodes. In contrast, the parasitic wasp B. Hylobii, kills only the larval stage of H. abietis. The life cycles of entomopathogenic nematodes and B. hylobii are well adapted to their host and both are capable of locating and killing H. abietis in the concealed environment of the tree stump. In 1994 was treated in Asturias, because of great attack, with Metoxicloro 1% in 20 ha affected; the result was quite good, but the problem was not solved. Beetles in Colour, Leif Lyneborg ISBN 0-7137-0827-1 Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe, Michael Chinery ISBN 0-00-219137-7 The pine weevil Hylobius abietis - Biology and current research