Rockaway Avenue (IRT New Lots Line)
Rockaway Avenue is a station on the IRT New Lots Line of the New York City Subway, located at Rockaway Avenue and Livonia Avenue in Brownsville, Brooklyn. It is served by the 3 train at all times except late nights, occasional rush hour 2,4 and 5 trains stop here. This station opened on November 22,1920, as part of an extension of the IRT Eastern Parkway Line from Utica Avenue to Junius Street and this station has two side platforms and two tracks. Between the two tracks, there is space for a third track that was never installed. From April 20,2015 to March 28,2016, Rockaway Avenue was closed for renovations and this stations only exit is via a wooden mezzanine under the tracks. The mezzanine has a crossunder and metal canopies, outside fare control, stairs go to the northwest and southeast corners of Livonia and Rockaway Avenues
3 (New York City Subway service)
The 3 Seventh Avenue Express is a rapid transit service in the A Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or bullet, is colored tomato red since it uses the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line through most of Manhattan, on November 23,1904, the IRT Lenox Avenue Line opened between 96th Street and 145th Street. 3 trains ran between 145th Street and City Hall, making all stops, on July 1,1918, the entire IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line was completed. 3 trains were rerouted south of 42nd Street from the IRT Lexington Avenue Line to this new line and they now made all stops to South Ferry. As of 1934,3 service operated between 145th Street and South Ferry except late nights, when operated between 145th Street and 96th Street, making local stops. Beginning on January 4,1955, some 3 trains ran express in Manhattan during rush hours and were extended to Flatbush Avenue, late night service was discontinued between 145th Street and 96th Street. Beginning on December 20,1957,3 trains were rerouted to New Lots Avenue during rush hours, on February 6,1959, all trains except late nights made express stops in Manhattan as part of the West Side Improvement and ran to Flatbush Avenue.
Beginning on April 8,1960,3 trains rerouted to New Lots, weekday evening service was cut to a shuttle 145th Street to 135th Street only. Beginning on April 18,1965,3 service ran to Flatbush Avenue again, beginning on October 17,1965, weekend evening service was cut to a shuttle 145th Street to 135th Street. On May 13,1968, trains were extended to the newly completed 148th Street – Lenox Terminal, beginning on December 15,1968, all-night shuttle service between 145th Street and 135th Street were brought back, this was the first time since 1955. Beginning on May 23,1976, the current practice of starting Sunday service late began. Beginning on July 10,1983, the 2 and 3 trains swapped Brooklyn Terminals, beginning on August 5,1990, late-night shuttles between 148th Street and 135th Street were discontinued and replaced by shuttle buses. Beginning on September 4,1994, late-night shuttles between 148th Street and 135th Street were resumed, but were discontinued again on September 10,1995, from March 2 to October 12,1998, the IRT Lenox Avenue Line was rehabilitated.
Most 3 service was rerouted to 137th Street–City College, after September 11,2001, the 3 service became a local in Manhattan. After a few switching delays at 96th Street, service was changed on September 19,2001 and it ran in Manhattan as an express between Harlem–148th Street and 14th Street and was replaced by 1 service in Brooklyn. It returned to New Lots Avenue on September 15,2002, on July 27,2008, late night 3 service was restored, operating as an express between 148th Street and Times Square–42nd Street. The following table shows the lines used by the 3, with shaded boxes indicating the route at the times, For a more detailed station listing. MTA NYC Transit –3 Seventh Avenue Express 3 Subway Timetable, Effective November 7,2016
Brownsville is a residential neighborhood located in eastern Brooklyn in New York City. The 1. 163-square-mile area that comprises Brownsville has 58,300 residents as of the 2010 United States Census, part of Brooklyn Community Board 16, Brownsville is generally considered part of greater East New York, though it is not actually a part of East New York itself. Founded in its current incarnation in 1858, it has been characterized as a slum through most of its existence, initially a settlement composed of Jewish factory workers, Brownsville underwent a major demographic change in the 1950s that saw an influx of African-American and Latino residents. Since then, it has held one of the highest poverty. The area that would become Brownsville was first used by the Dutch for farming, as well as manufacturing stone slabs, in 1823–1824, the Dutch founded the New Lots Reformed Church in nearby New Lots because the corresponding church in Flatbush was too far away. The church, which has its own cemetery that was built in 1841, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983, in 1858, William Suydam parceled the land into 262 lots, providing simple two- to four-room accommodations for workers who were living there.
However, Suydam vastly underestimated how undesirable the area was, there were 250 houses in Browns Village by 1883, most of them occupied by factory workers who commuted to Manhattan. In the 1880s, the area was a floodplain that was used as a dumping ground. Fumes from the factories along Jamaica Bay would usually blow upwind into Brownsville. This place was far enough from Manhattan that the affluent refused to move to Brownsville. Brownsville was predominantly Jewish from the 1880s until the 1950s, kaplan built a factory and accommodations for his workers, placed a synagogue, named Ohev Sholom, in his own factory. Other manufacturers that created low-tech products like food and metals followed suit throughout the next decade and this led to much more housing being built there. The area bounded by present-day Dumont and Liberty Avenues, and Junius Street, quickly became populated, with factories, workshops. By 1900, an estimated 25,000 people lived in Brownsville, many of these buildings were grossly overcrowded, with up to eight families living in some of these two-family houses.
Many of these houses lacked amenities like running water, and their wood construction made these houses susceptible to fires, New brick-and-stone houses erected in the early 1900s were built with indoor plumbing and less prone to fire. The quality of life was decreased by the fact that the unpaved roads were used as open sewers. Within twenty years of the development, the area acquired a reputation as a vicious slum. Indeed, as of 1904,22 out of 25 housing units in Brownsville were tenement housing, rising to 24 out of 25 units by 1907 and it became as dense as the very densely packed Lower East Side, according to one account
A side platform is a platform positioned to the side of a pair of tracks at a railway station, tram stop, or transitway. Dual side platform stations, one for direction of travel, is the basic station design used for double-track railway lines. Side platforms may result in a wider overall footprint for the station compared with a platform where a single width of platform can be shared by riders using either track. In some stations, the two platforms are connected by a footbridge running above and over the tracks. While a pair of platforms is often provided on a dual-track line. Where the station is close to a crossing the platforms may either be on the same side of the crossing road or alternatively may be staggered in one of two ways. With the near-side platforms configuration, each platform appears before the intersection, in some situations a single side platform can be served by multiple vehicles simultaneously with a scissors crossing provided to allow access mid-way along its length. Normally, the facilities of the station are located on the Up platform with the other platform accessed from a footbridge.
However, in cases the stations main buildings are located on whichever side faces the town or village the station serves. Larger stations may have two platforms with several island platforms in between. Some are in a Spanish solution format, with two platforms and an island platform in between, serving two tracks
Rapid transit, known as heavy rail, subway, tube, or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas. The stations typically have high platforms, without steps inside the trains and they are typically integrated with other public transport and often operated by the same public transport authorities. However, some transit systems have at-grade intersections between a rapid transit line and a road or between two rapid transit lines. It is unchallenged in its ability to transport large numbers of people quickly over short distances with little use of land, variations of rapid transit include people movers, small-scale light metro, and the commuter rail hybrid S-Bahn. The worlds first rapid-transit system was the partially underground Metropolitan Railway which opened as a railway in 1863. In 1868, New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway, china has the largest number of rapid transit systems in the world. The worlds longest single-operator rapid transit system by length is the Shanghai Metro.
The worlds largest single rapid transit service provider by both length of revenue track (665 miles and number of stations is the New York City Subway. The busiest rapid transit systems in the world by annual ridership are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Moscow Metro, the Beijing Subway, Metro is the most common term for underground rapid transit systems used by non-native English speakers. One of these terms may apply to a system, even if a large part of the network runs at ground level. In Scotland, the Glasgow Subway underground rapid transit system is known as the Subway, in the US, underground mass transit systems are primarily known as subways, whereas the term metro is a shortened reference to a metropolitan area. In that vein, Chicagos commuter rail system, serving the area, is called Metra. Exceptions in naming rapid transit systems are Washington DCs subway system the Washington Metro, Los Angeles Metro Rail, and the Miami Metrorail, the opening of Londons steam-hauled Metropolitan Railway in 1863 marked the beginning of rapid transit.
Initial experiences with steam engines, despite ventilation, were unpleasant, experiments with pneumatic railways failed in their extended adoption by cities. Electric traction was more efficient and cleaner than steam, in 1890 the City & South London Railway was the first electric-traction rapid transit railway, which was fully underground. Both railways were merged into London Underground. The 1893 Liverpool Overhead Railway was designed to use electric traction from the outset, budapest in Hungary and Glasgow and New York all converted or purpose-designed and built electric rail services. Advancements in technology have allowed new automated services, hybrid solutions have evolved, such as tram-train and premetro, which incorporate some of the features of rapid transit systems
5 (New York City Subway service)
The 5 Lexington Avenue Express is a rapid transit service in the A Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or bullet, is colored apple green since it uses the IRT Lexington Avenue Line in Manhattan. The 5 operates between Dyre Avenue in Eastchester and Flatbush Avenue–Brooklyn College in Flatbush, making all stops in the Bronx, the 5 short turns at Bowling Green in Financial District, Manhattan on evenings and weekends, and at East 180th Street during late nights. Limited rush hour service terminates at Wakefield–241st Street instead of Dyre Avenue in the Bronx, upon its closure in 1937, the entire property was put up for sale. Beginning on April 28,1930, Saturday 5 service to Crown Heights–Utica Avenue began, as of 1934, trains normally ran from Wakefield–241st Street or East 180th Street to Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center. During weekday rush hours and weekend afternoons they were extended to Utica Avenue, from July 24,1938 to September 18,1938 there was Sunday daytime 5 service to New Lots Avenue.
Beginning on July 10,1939, Sunday afternoon 5 service to New Lots began, on December 22,1946, alternate Sunday morning 5 service to New Lots began. However, on March 5,1950,5 service was cut back to Utica Avenue all day on Sundays, starting on April 23,1953,5 trains began using the middle express track between East 180th Street and 149th Street weekday rush in the peak direction. Starting on October 2,1953, the track was used by peak trains south of Gun Hill Road. Beginning on May 3,1957, limited rush hour 5 service ran to Flatbush Avenue–Brooklyn College replacing the 4 service, Saturday afternoon, and Sunday trains were cut back to South Ferry. Beginning on March 1,1960 evening trains making all stops in Manhattan. Beginning on April 8,1960, weekday evening service was discontinued, starting on April 18,1965, most daytime service was rerouted to Dyre Avenue, replacing Dyre Shuttle except evenings and late nights. Some weekday rush service to 241st Street was retained, while Saturday and Sunday evening trains were cut back from 241st Street to East 180th Street.
Also, Saturday morning trains were cut back from Atlantic Avenue to South Ferry, starting on May 3,1965, trains to or from 241st Street began making all stops between Gun Hill Road and East 180th Street. Beginning on May 23,1976,5 service began starting late on Sunday mornings, as of May 24,1976, weekday midday 5 service was cut back to Bowling Green from Atlantic Avenue. In 1979, with the coding of subway routes based on their trunk line in Manhattan. 5 service was re-extended May 15,1980 to Atlantic Avenue, on July 10,1983, all rush hour service ran to Flatbush Avenue, with limited service to/from Utica or New Lots Avenue. Beginning on January 18,1988, all midday 5 service was cut back to Bowling Green, in 1995, rush hour service to 241st Street was cut back to Nereid Avenue
A metro station or subway station is a railway station for a rapid transit system, which as a whole is usually called a Metro or Subway. The station provides a means for passengers to purchase tickets, access trains stopping at its platforms, the location of a metro station is carefully planned to provide easy access to important urban facilities such as roads, commercial centers, major buildings and other transport nodes. Most stations are located underground, with entrances/exits leading up to ground or street level, the bulk of the station typically positioned under land reserved for public thoroughfares or parks. This is especially important where the station is serving high-density urban precincts, in other cases, a station may be elevated above a road, or at ground level depending on the level of the train tracks. The physical and economic impact of the station and its operations will be greater, planners will often take metro lines or parts of lines at or above ground where urban density decreases, extending the system further for less cost.
Metros are most commonly used in cities, with great populations. Alternatively, a railway land corridor is re-purposed for rapid transit. At street level the logo of the company marks the entrances/exits of the station. Usually, signage shows the name of the station and describes the facilities of the station, often there are several entrances for one station, saving pedestrians from needing to cross a street and reducing crowding. A metro station typically provides ticket vending and ticket validating systems, the station is divided into an unpaid zone connected to the street, and a paid zone connected to the train platforms. The ticket barrier allows passengers with tickets to pass between these zones. The barrier may operated by staff or more typically with automated turnstiles or gates that open when a pass is scanned or detected. Some small metro systems dispense with paid zones and validate tickets with staff in the train carriages, access from the street to ticketing and the train platform is provided by stairs, escalators and tunnels.
The station will be designed to minimise overcrowding and improve flow, permanent or temporary barriers may be used to manage crowds. Some metro stations have connections to important nearby buildings. Most jurisdictions mandate that people with disabilities must have unassisted use of the station and this is resolved with elevators, taking a number of people from street level to the unpaid ticketing area, and from the paid area to the platform. In addition, there will be stringent requirements for emergencies, with lighting, emergency exits. Stations are a part of the evacuation route for passengers escaping from a disabled or troubled train
2 (New York City Subway service)
The 2 Seventh Avenue Express is a rapid transit service in the A Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or bullet, is colored tomato red since it uses the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line through most of Manhattan. The 2 operates at all times between 241st Street in Wakefield and Flatbush Avenue–Brooklyn College in Flatbush, making all stops in the Bronx, daytime 2 service runs express in Manhattan, late night service operates local. The service operates via White Plains Road in the Bronx, Lenox Avenue and Seventh Avenue in Manhattan and Eastern Parkway, limited rush hour service operates between the Bronx and New Lots Avenue in East New York, Brooklyn due to capacity issues at Flatbush Avenue. The first section of what became the current 2 entered service on November 26,1904 from the temporary 180th Street–Bronx Park terminal via the West Farms El to 149th Street–3rd Avenue. On July 10,1905, the connection between the IRT Lenox Avenue Line and IRT White Plains Road Line opened, allowing subway service from Manhattan to the Bronx.
On January 9,1908, the Joralemon Street Tunnel opened, at this time, trains ran from East 180th Street to Borough Hall. On May 1,1908, trains were extended to Nevins Street, on March 3,1917, the IRT White Plains Road Line was extended to 219th Street. On March 31,1917, the IRT White Plains Road Line was extended to 238th Street–Nereid Avenue, on August 1,1918, the entire IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line was completed. On April 15,1919, the Clark Street Tunnel, connecting the line to Brooklyn, beginning on December 19,1919, trains ran to South Ferry with some rush hour trains to Atlantic Avenue. In 1923, during rush hours,2 trains alternated between South Ferry and Utica Avenue, beginning December 1,1924,2 trains that ended at South Ferry were extended to New Lots Avenue. As of 1934,2 trains ran from 180th Street-Bronx Park to Flatbush Avenue weekdays and Saturday during daytime and to South Ferry evenings and Sundays, late-night service was from 241st St to South Ferry, making all stops. There were occasional lay-up/put-ins from New Lots, four weekday evening trains turned at Atlantic.
On September 5,1937, some evening rush hour trains started running to Flatbush Avenue, as of July 1,1938, weekday and Saturday evening service was extended to Flatbush Avenue from South Ferry. Sunday service was extended to Flatbush Avenue on March 5,1950, beginning on December 26,1950, alternate weekday rush trains were extended to 241st Street in the peak direction, but PM rush service to 241st Street was discontinued on June 26,1952. Beginning on August 4,1952, the 180th Street - Bronx Park station was closed, morning rush hour service to 241st Street, on October 2,1953, was cut back to Gun Hill Road. On March 19,1954, weekend service was rerouted to New Lots Avenue at all times except late nights, on May 4,1957, a track connection to the IRT Dyre Avenue Line was completed and daytime 2 trains were rerouted to Dyre Avenue. Evening service remained a shuttle between Dyre Avenue to East 180th Street, and morning service from Gun Hill Road was discontinued
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a Census-estimated 2,636,735 residents in 2015. It borders the borough of Queens at the end of Long Island. Today, if New York City dissolved, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous city in the U. S. behind Los Angeles, the borough continues, however, to maintain a distinct culture. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves, Brooklyns official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght which translates from early modern Dutch as Unity makes strength. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms. The history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years, the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North Americas first tidal mill. It was built by the Dutch, and the foundation can be seen today, the area was not formally settled as a town. Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furmans early compilation, what is today Brooklyn left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War.
The English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1,1683 and this tract of land was recognized as a political entity for the first time, and the municipal groundwork was laid for a expansive idea of Brooklyn identity. On August 27,1776 was fought the Battle of Long Island, the first major engagement fought in the American Revolutionary War after independence was declared, and the largest of the entire conflict. British troops forced Continental Army troops under George Washington off the heights near the sites of Green-Wood Cemetery, Prospect Park. The fortified American positions at Brooklyn Heights consequently became untenable and were evacuated a few days later, One result of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 was the evacuation of the British from New York City, celebrated by residents into the 20th century. The New York Navy Yard operated in Wallabout Bay for the entire 19th century, the first center of urbanization sprang up in the Town of Brooklyn, directly across from Lower Manhattan, which saw the incorporation of the Village of Brooklyn in 1817.
Reliable steam ferry service across the East River to Fulton Landing converted Brooklyn Heights into a town for Wall Street. Ferry Road to Jamaica Pass became Fulton Street to East New York and Village were combined to form the first, kernel incarnation of the City of Brooklyn in 1834. Industrial deconcentration in mid-century was bringing shipbuilding and other manufacturing to the part of the county. Each of the two cities and six towns in Kings County remained independent municipalities, and purposely created non-aligning street grids with different naming systems and it became the most popular and highest circulation afternoon paper in America. The publisher changed to L. Van Anden on April 19,1842, on May 14,1849 the name was shortened to The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, on September 5,1938 it was further shortened to Brooklyn Eagle
4 (New York City Subway service)
The 4 Lexington Avenue Express is a rapid transit service in the A Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or bullet, is colored apple green since it uses the IRT Lexington Avenue Line in Manhattan. 4 trains operate between Woodlawn in the Bronx and Utica Avenue in Crown Heights, Brooklyn via Jerome Avenue Local in the Bronx and Eastern Parkway Express in Brooklyn at all times except nights. During nights, they serve all stops except Hoyt Street and are extended to/from New Lots Avenue in East New York, Brooklyn via Livonia Avenue as a replacement for the 3. During the extension of the IRT Lexington Avenue Line north of 42nd Street–Grand Central Terminal, on April 15,1918, shuttles were extended to Woodlawn. A second shuttle, using cars, from 149th Street–Grand Concourse to Grand Central started on July 17,1918. On August 1,1918, the entire Jerome and Lexington Avenue Lines were completed, trains began running between Woodlawn and Bowling Green. Beginning on November 4,1925, rush hour 4 trains were extended from Atlantic Avenue to Crown Heights–Utica Avenue, two years later, on December 5,1927, weekday evening service was extended to Utica Avenue.
The following year, midday 4 service went to Utica Avenue, trains ran express in Manhattan except late nights, and in Brooklyn. This was the first time the 6 became the Pelham Shuttle between Pelham Bay Park and 125th Street–Lexington Avenue, on August 20,1938, Saturday morning after the peak service was extended to Utica Avenue. Beginning on May 10,1946, all 4 trains were made express during late nights running on 12 minute headways as the 6 went back to Brooklyn Bridge during that time, previously 4 trains ran local from 12,30 to 5, 30am. At this time 4 trains terminated at Atlantic Avenue, beginning on December 16,1946, trains were extended from Atlantic Avenue to New Lots Avenue during late nights, running express between Atlantic and Franklin Avenues. When the Board of Transportation began to replace the older subway cars starting with the R12 cars in 1948, with these cars, numbers were assigned to the IRT lines. The Lexington Avenue–Jerome Line trains were given the number 4, by 1964, all cars had the route numbers on them.
During 1950, Saturday morning service was cut back to South Ferry, starting on December 15,1950, four 4 trains began operating during rush hours to Flatbush Avenue on the Nostrand Avenue Line. Also on that day, weekday service was cut back from Atlantic Avenue to South Ferry. Additionally, on January 18,1952,4 service to Atlantic Avenue during weekday middays was restored, on March 19,1954, late-night service in Brooklyn began making all stops, but resumed operating express between Atlantic Avenue and Franklin Avenue on June 29,1956. Starting on March 1,1960, late-night 4 trains resumed making all stops in Manhattan and this arrangement ended on October 17,1965 when the 4 went back express in Manhattan late nights