Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas. The disease begins in the lungs, skin, or lymph nodes. Less affected are the eyes, liver and brain. Any organ, can be affected; the signs and symptoms depend on the organ involved. None, or only mild, symptoms are seen; when it affects the lungs, coughing, shortness of breath, or chest pain may occur. Some may have Löfgren syndrome with fever, large lymph nodes, a rash known as erythema nodosum; the cause of sarcoidosis is unknown. Some believe it may be due to an immune reaction to a trigger such as an infection or chemicals in those who are genetically predisposed; those with affected family members are at greater risk. Diagnosis is based on signs and symptoms, which may be supported by biopsy. Findings that make it include large lymph nodes at the root of the lung on both sides, high blood calcium with a normal parathyroid hormone level, or elevated levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme in the blood.
The diagnosis should only be made after excluding other possible causes of similar symptoms such as tuberculosis. Sarcoidosis may resolve without any treatment within a few years. However, some people may have severe disease; some symptoms may be improved with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. In cases where the condition causes significant health problems, steroids such as prednisone are indicated. Medications such as methotrexate, chloroquine, or azathioprine may be used in an effort to decrease the side effects of steroids; the risk of death is 1-7%. The chance of the disease returning in someone who has had it is less than 5%. In 2015, pulmonary sarcoidosis and interstitial lung disease affected 1.9 million people globally and they resulted in 122,000 deaths. It occurs in all parts of the world. In the United States, risk is greater among black, it begins between the ages of 20 and 50. It occurs more in women than men. Sarcoidosis was first described in 1877 by the English doctor Jonathan Hutchinson as a nonpainful skin disease.
Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease that can affect any organ, although it can be asymptomatic and is discovered by accident in about 5% of cases. Common symptoms, which tend to be vague, include fatigue, lack of energy, weight loss, joint aches and pains, dry eyes, swelling of the knees, blurry vision, shortness of breath, a dry, hacking cough, or skin lesions. Less people may cough up blood; the cutaneous symptoms vary, range from rashes and noduli to erythema nodosum, granuloma annulare, or lupus pernio. Sarcoidosis and cancer may mimic one another; the combination of erythema nodosum, bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, joint pain is called Löfgren syndrome, which has a good prognosis. This form of the disease occurs more in Scandinavian patients than in those of non-Scandinavian origin. Localization to the lungs is by far the most common manifestation of sarcoidosis. At least 90% of affected persons experience lung involvement. Overall, about 50% develop permanent pulmonary abnormalities, 5 to 15% have progressive fibrosis of the lung parenchyma.
Sarcoidosis of the lung is an interstitial lung disease in which the inflammatory process involves the alveoli, small bronchi, small blood vessels. In acute and subacute cases, physical examination reveals dry crackles. At least 5% of persons suffer pulmonary arterial hypertension; the upper respiratory tract may be affected, which occurs in between 10 % of cases. The four stages of pulmonary involvement are based on radiological stage of the disease, helpful in prognosis: Stage I: bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy alone Stage II: BHL with pulmonary infiltrates Stage III: pulmonary infiltrates without BHL Stage IV: fibrosisUse of the Scadding scale only provides general information regarding the prognosis of the pulmonary disease over time. Caution is recommended, as it only shows a general relation with physiological markers of the disease and the variation is such that it has limited applicability in individual assessments, including treatment decisions. Sarcoidosis involves the skin in between 9 and 37% of persons and is more common in African Americans than in European Americans.
The skin is the second-most affected organ after the lungs. The most common lesions are erythema nodosum, maculopapular eruptions, subcutaneous nodules, lupus pernio. Treatment is not required, since the lesions resolve spontaneously in 2–4 weeks. Although it may be disfiguring, cutaneous sarcoidosis causes major problems. Sarcoidosis of the scalp presents with patchy hair loss; the frequency of cardiac involvement varies and is influenced by race. Autopsy studies in the US have revealed a frequency of cardiac involvement of about 20–30%, whereas autopsy studies in Japan have shown a frequency of 60%; the presentation of cardiac sarcoidosis can range from asymptomatic conduction abnormalities to fatal ventricular arrhythmia. Conduction abnormalities are the most common cardiac manifestations of sarcoidosis in humans and can include complete heart block. Second to conduction abnormalities, in frequency, are ventricular arrhythmias, which occurs in about 23% of persons with card
The Seafarer 30 known as the Seafarer Swiftsure 30, is an American sailboat, designed by James A. McCurdy and Philip H. Rhodes as a cruiser/racer and first built in 1978; the design was built by Seafarer Yachts in Huntington, New York, United States between 1978 and 1985, but it is now out of production. The Seafarer 30 is a recreational keelboat, built predominantly of fiberglass, with teak wood trim, it has a masthead sloop rig, a raked stem, a reverse transom, a skeg-mounted rudder controlled by a wheel and a fixed fin keel or optional centerboard. It carries 3,450 lb of lead ballast; the keel-equipped version of the boat has a draft of 4.75 ft, while the centerboard-equipped version has a draft of 3.42 ft with the centreboard retracted. A tall rig was available, with a mast about 1.75 ft taller than standard. The boat is fitted with a Japanese Yanmar Westerbeke diesel engine; the fuel tank holds 20 U. S. gallons and the fresh water tank has a capacity of 43 U. S. gallons. The boat's galley is located on the port side of the cabin and includes dual sinks and a three-burner alcohol fueled stove.
The head is located forward, just aft of the bow "V"-berth and has a hanging locker and two bi-fold privacy doors. Additional sleeping space is provided by the dinette settees, which has a drop-leaf table, plus two large quarter berths aft, providing sleeping space for eight people. A large chart table is located on just forward of the companionway steps. Ventilation is provided by a two hatches, one in the forward cabin and one in the main cabin and eight opening ports in the head, while two additional cabin ports are fixed. There are two Dorade vents; the boat has internally-mounted halyards, with an outhaul, plus a boom lift. The cockpit has a third winch for the halyards; the mainsheet traveler is mounted on the bridge deck. Two genoa winches are mounted on two halyard winches on the cabin roof; the design has a PHRF racing average handicap of 181. List of sailing boat typesSimilar sailboats Annie 30 Aloha 30 Bahama 30 Bristol 29.9 C&C 30 Catalina 30 CS 30 Grampian 30 Hunter 30 Hunter 30T Hunter 30-2 Leigh 30 Mirage 30 Mirage 30 SX Nonsuch 30 Pearson 303 S2 9.2 Southern Cross 28 Tanzer 31
Ezri Konsa Ngoyo is an English professional footballer who plays as a central defender for Aston Villa. He is an England U21 international. A central defender, Konsa began his career with Senrab and joined Charlton Athletic at the age of 11, he began a scholarship in July 2014 and progressed sufficiently to sign a "long term" professional contract on 11 December 2015. Eight days he received his maiden call into the first team squad for a Championship match versus Burnley and remained an unused substitute during the 4–0 defeat. Konsa was an unused substitute on one further occasion during the 2015–16 season, which culminated in the Addicks' relegation to League One. Konsa broke into the first team squad during the 2016–17 pre-season and made his professional debut with a start in a 1–0 EFL Cup first round defeat to Cheltenham Town on 9 August 2016, he finished the campaign with 39 appearances. He showed his versatility by deputising in midfield and at full back. For his efforts, Konsa was named the club's Young Player of the Year.
He signed a new three-year contract in March 2017 and was again a regular during the 2017–18 season, making 47 appearances as Charlton reached the League One play-off semi-finals. He departed Charlton Athletic in June 2018, having made 86 appearances during two-and-a-half seasons as a professional at The Valley. On 12 June 2018, Konsa moved across London to join Championship club Brentford on a three-year contract, with a one-year option, for an undisclosed fee, reported to be £2.5 million. He was a first-choice in central defence throughout the 2018–19 season and he scored the first senior goal of his career in a 3–0 victory over Preston North End on the final day. On 11 July 2019, Konsa moved to newly promoted Premier League club Aston Villa, for an undisclosed fee; the move reunited Konsa with Dean Smith, who signed him for Brentford one year earlier, Richard O'Kelly. He scored on his debut for Villa in an EFL Cup tie against Crewe Alexandra on 27 August 2019. On 21 January 2020, Konsa assisted Tyrone Mings to set up the winning goal in a 2-1 victory against Watford.
Konsa was a member of the England squad that won the 2017 FIFA U-20 World Cup with his only appearance of the tournament coming as a 93rd minute substitute during the 3-1 semi-final victory over Italy Konsa was named in the U21 squad for the 2018 Toulon Tournament and made two appearances. He was an unused substitute during the 2–1 victory over Mexico in the Final. Konsa scored his first international goal on his fourth cap, in a 7–0 2019 European U21 Championship qualifying win over Andorra on 11 October 2018, he was named in the squad for the tournament finals, but made just one appearance, as a substitute in the Young Lions' dead rubber final group stage match. Konsa was born to an Angolan mother, he is a Tottenham Hotspur supporter. As of match played 1 February 2020 Aston Villa EFL Cup runner-up: 2019–20England U20 FIFA U-20 World Cup: 2017England U21 Toulon Tournament: 2018Individual Charlton Athletic Young Player of the Year: 2016–17 Ezri Konsa at Soccerbase Ezri Konsa at Soccerway Ezri Konsa at thefa.com Ezri Konsa at brentfordfc.com Ezri Konsa – FIFA competition record Ezri Konsa – UEFA competition record