London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
New Zealand national cricket team
The New Zealand national cricket team, nicknamed the Black Caps, played their first Test in 1930 against England in Christchurch, becoming the fifth country to play Test cricket. From 1930 New Zealand had to wait until 1956, more than 26 years, for its first Test victory, against the West Indies at Eden Park in Auckland, they played their first ODI in the 1972–73 season against Pakistan in Christchurch. The current Test, One-day and Twenty20 captain is Kane Williamson, who replaced Brendon McCullum who announced his retirement in late December 2015; the national team is organised by New Zealand Cricket. The New Zealand cricket team became known as the Black Caps in January 1998, after its sponsor at the time, Clear Communications, held a competition to choose a name for the team. Official New Zealand Cricket sources typeset the nickname as BLACKCAPS; this is one of many national team nicknames related to the All Blacks. As of 12 March 2019, New Zealand have played 1309 Internationals, winning 496, losing 594, tying 11 and drawing 165 matches while 43 matches ended yielding no result.
The team is ranked 2nd in Tests, 3rd in ODIs and 6th in T20Is by the ICC. New Zealand defeated South Africa in the semi final of Cricket World Cup 2015, their first win in the a world cup semi final and hence they made their maiden appearance in a World Cup Final; the reverend Henry Williams provided history with the first report of a game of cricket in New Zealand, when he wrote in his diary in December 1832 about boys in and around Paihia on Horotutu Beach playing cricket. In 1835, Charles Darwin and HMS Beagle called into the Bay of Islands on its epic circumnavigation of the Earth and Darwin witnessed a game of cricket played by freed Māori slaves and the son of a missionary at Waimate North. Darwin in The Voyage of the Beagle wrote: several young men redeemed by the missionaires from slavery were employed on the farm. In the evening I saw a party of them at cricket; the first recorded game of cricket in New Zealand took place in Wellington in December 1842. The Wellington Spectator reports a game on 28 December 1842 played by a "Red" team and a "Blue" team from the Wellington Club.
The first recorded match was reported by the Examiner in Nelson between the Surveyors and Nelson in March 1844. The first team to tour New Zealand was Parr's all England XI in 1863–64. Between 1864 and 1914, 22 foreign teams toured New Zealand. England sent Australia 15 and one from Fiji. On 15–17 February 1894 the first team representing New Zealand played New South Wales at Lancaster Park in Christchurch. New South Wales won by 160 runs. New South Wales returned again in 1895–96 and New Zealand won the solitary game by 142 runs, its first victory; the New Zealand Cricket Council was formed towards the end of 1894. New Zealand played its first two internationals in 1904–05 against a star-studded Australia team containing such players as Victor Trumper, Warwick Armstrong and Clem Hill. Rain saved New Zealand from a thrashing in the first match, but not the second, which New Zealand lost by an innings and 358 runs – the second largest defeat in New Zealand first-class history. In 1927 NZ toured England.
They played 26 first class matches against county sides. They managed to beat Worcestershire, Glamorgan and Derbyshire. On the strength of the performances of this tour New Zealand was granted Test status. In 1929/30 the M. C. C played 4 Tests all of 3 days in duration. New Zealand lost its first Test match but drew the next 3. In the second Test Stewie Dempster and Jackie Mills put on 276 for the first wicket; this is still the highest partnership for New Zealand against England. New Zealand first played South Africa in 1931–32 in a three match series but were unable to secure Test matches against any teams other than England before World War II ended all Test cricket for 7 years. A Test tour by Australia, planned for February and March 1940, was cancelled after the outbreak of the war. New Zealand's first Test after the war was against Australia in 1945/46; this game was not considered a "Test" at the time but it was granted Test status retrospectively by the International Cricket Council in March 1948.
The New Zealand players who appeared in this match did not appreciate this move by the ICC as New Zealand were dismissed for 42 and 54. The New Zealand Cricket Council's unwillingness to pay Australian players a decent allowance to tour New Zealand ensured that this was the only Test Australia played against New Zealand between 1929 and 1972. In 1949 New Zealand sent one of its best sides to England, it contained Martin Donnelly, John R. Reid and Jack Cowie. However, 3-day Test matches ensured. Many have regarded the 1949 tour of England among New Zealand's best touring performances. All four tests were high-scoring despite being draws and Martin Donnelly's 206 at Lord's hailed as one of the finest innings seen there. Despite being winless, New Zealand did not lose a test either. Prior to this, only the legendary 1948 Australian team, led by the great Don Bradman, had achieved this. New Zealand played its first matches against the West Indies in 1951–52, Pakistan and India in 1955/56. In 1954/55 New Zealand recorded the lowest innings total, 26 against England.
The following season New Zealand achieved its first Test victory. The first 3 Tests of a 4 Test series were won by the West Indies but New Zealand won the fourth to notch up its first Test victory, it had taken them 26 years to attain. In the next 20 years New Zealand won only seven more Tests. For most of this period New Zealand lacked a class bowler to lead their attack although they had two excellent batsmen in Bert Sutcliffe and Glenn Turner and a great all-rounder in John R. Reid. Reid capt
Lord's Cricket Ground known as Lord's, is a cricket venue in St John's Wood, London. Named after its founder, Thomas Lord, it is owned by Marylebone Cricket Club and is the home of Middlesex County Cricket Club, the England and Wales Cricket Board, the European Cricket Council and, until August 2005, the International Cricket Council. Lord's is referred to as the Home of Cricket and is home to the world's oldest sporting museum. Lord's today is not on its original site, being the third of three grounds that Lord established between 1787 and 1814, his first ground, now referred to as Lord's Old Ground, was. His second ground, Lord's Middle Ground, was used from 1811 to 1813 before being abandoned to make way for the construction through its outfield of the Regent's Canal; the present Lord's ground is about 250 yards north-west of the site of the Middle Ground. The ground can hold 28,000 spectators. Proposals are being developed to increase amenity; as of December 2013, it was proposed to redevelop the ground at a cost of around £200 million over a 14-year period.
The current ground celebrated its two hundredth anniversary in 2014. To mark the occasion, on 5 July an MCC XI captained by Sachin Tendulkar played a Rest of the World XI led by Shane Warne in a 50 overs match. Acting on behalf of the White Conduit Club and backed against any losses by George Finch, 9th Earl of Winchilsea and Colonel Charles Lennox, Thomas Lord opened his first ground in May 1787 on the site where Dorset Square now stands; the White Conduit moved there from Islington soon afterwards and reconstituted themselves as Marylebone Cricket Club. In 1811, feeling obliged to relocate because of a rise in rent, Lord removed his turf and relaid it at his second ground; this was short-lived. The "Middle Ground" was on the estate of the Eyre family; the new ground, on the present site, was opened in the 1814 season. The earliest known match was MCC v Hertfordshire on 22 June 1814; this is not rated a first-class match. MCC won by 27 runs; the next match known to have been played at Lord's, from 13 to 15 July 1814, was the earliest first-class one, between MCC and the neighbouring St John's Wood club, which had several guest players for the occasion, including five leading professionals.
MCC won by 4 wickets. The annual Eton v Harrow match was first played on the Old Ground in 1805. There is no record of the fixture being played again until 29 July 1818, when it was held at the present Lord's ground for the first time. From 1822, the fixture has been an annual event at Lord's; as of January 2015, the stands at Lord's are: Pavilion Warner Stand Grandstand Compton Stand Media Centre Edrich Stand Mound Stand Tavern Stand Allen StandMany of the stands were rebuilt in the late 20th century. In 1987 the new Mound Stand, designed by Michael Hopkins and Partners, was opened, followed by the Grandstand in 1996. Most notably, the Media Centre was added in 1998-9; the ground can hold up to 28,000 spectators. The two ends of the pitch are the Pavilion End, where the main members' pavilion is located, the Nursery End, dominated by the Media Centre; the main survivor from the Victorian era is the Pavilion, with its famous Long Room. This historic landmark— a Grade II*-listed building— underwent an £8 million refurbishment programme in 2004–05.
The pavilion is for members of MCC, who may use its amenities, which include seats for viewing the cricket, the Long Room and its Bar, the Bowlers Bar, a members' shop. At Middlesex matches the Pavilion is open to members of the Middlesex County Club; the Pavilion contains the dressing rooms where players change, each of which has a small balcony for players to watch the play. In each of the two main dressing rooms are honours boards which commemorate all the centuries scored in Test matches or One Day Internationals at Lord's, all instances of a bowler taking five wickets in a Test or ODI innings and all occurrences of a bowler taking ten wickets in a Test match; the only cricketer to hit a ball over the pavilion was Albert Trott, off Monty Noble on 31 July 1899. Another visible feature of the ground is Old Father Time, a weather vane in the shape of Father Time adorning a stand on the south-east side of the field; the Media Centre was commissioned in time for the 1999 Cricket World Cup, was the first all-aluminium, semi-monocoque building in the world.
It was fitted out in two boatyards, using boat-building technology. The centre stands 15 metres above the ground and its sole support comes from the structure around its two lift shafts— it is about the same height as the Pavilion directly opposite it on the other side of the ground; the lower tier of the centre provides accommodation for over 100 journalists, the top tier has radio and television commentary boxes. The centre's only opening window is in the broadcasting box used by BBC Test Match Special; the building was awarded the RIBA Stirling Prize for architecture in 1999. The Lord's Taverners, a charitable group comprising cricketers and cricket-lovers, take their name from the old Tavern pub at Lord's, where the organisation's founders used to congregate; the pub no longer exists, the Tavern Stand now stands on its former site. However, a new pub of the same name is open in the grounds, as well as the Members Bar, in the Pavilion. One
Pakistan national cricket team
The Pakistan Men's National Cricket Team, popularly referred to as the Shaheens, Green Shirts and Men in Green, is administered by the Pakistan Cricket Board. The team is a Full Member of the International Cricket Council, participates in Test, ODI and Twenty20 International cricket matches. Pakistan has played 423 Test matches, winning 136, losing 128 and drawing 159. Pakistan was given Test status on 28 July 1952, following a recommendation by India, made its Test debut against India at Feroz Shah Kotla Ground, Delhi, in October 1952, with India winning by an innings and 70 runs. In the 1930s and 40s, several Pakistani Test players had played Test cricket for the Indian cricket team before the creation of Pakistan in 1947; the team has played tying 8 with 19 ending in no-result. Pakistan was the 1992 World Cup champion, was the runner-up in the 1999 tournament. Pakistan, in conjunction with other countries in South Asia, has hosted the 1987 and 1996 World Cups, with the 1996 final being hosted at Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore.
The team has played 142 Twenty20 Internationals, the most of any team, winning 90 losing 49 and tying 3. Pakistan won the 2009 ICC World Twenty20 and were runners-up in the inaugural tournament in 2007. Pakistan won the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy for the first time, defeating India. Pakistan has the distinct achievement of having won each of the major ICC international cricket tournaments: ICC Cricket World Cup, ICC World Twenty20, ICC Champions Trophy; as of 25 March 2019, the Pakistani cricket team is ranked seventh in Tests, sixth in ODIs and first in T20Is by the ICC. In the past, Pakistan has suffered a lot from terrorism which prevented foreign teams from visiting Pakistan due to the 2009 attack on the Sri Lanka national cricket team; as a result, their home matches have been held in the United Arab Emirates since then. However, due to a decrease in terrorism in Pakistan over the past few years, as well as a sharp increase in security, many teams have toured Pakistan since 2015 and the situation appears to be getting better.
These teams include Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, West Indies, an ICC World XI. Cricket in Pakistan has a history predating the creation of the country in 1947; the first international cricket match in Karachi was held on 22 November 1935 between Sindh and Australian cricket teams. The match was seen by 5,000 Karachiites. Following the independence of Pakistan in 1947, cricket in the country developed and Pakistan was given Test match status at a meeting of the Imperial Cricket Conference at Lord's in England on 28 July 1952 following recommendation by India, being the successor state of the British Raj, did not have to go through such a process; the first captain of the Pakistan national cricket team was Abdul Hafeez Kardar. Pakistan's first Test match was played in Delhi in October 1952 as part of a five Test series which India won 2–1. Pakistan made their first tour of England in 1954 and drew the series 1–1 after a memorable victory at The Oval in which fast bowler Fazal Mahmood took 12 wickets. Pakistan's first home Test match was against India in January 1955 at Bangabandhu National Stadium, East Pakistan, after which four more Test matches were played in Bahawalpur, Lahore and Karachi.
The team is considered a unpredictable team. Traditionally Pakistani cricket has been composed of talented players but is alleged to display limited discipline on occasion, making their performance inconsistent at times. In particular, the India-Pakistan cricket rivalry is emotionally charged and can provide for intriguing contests, as talented teams and players from both sides of the border seek to elevate their game to new levels. Pakistan team contests with India in the Cricket World Cup have resulted in packed stadiums and charged atmospheres; the team is well supported at home and abroad in the United Kingdom where British Pakistanis have formed a fan-club called the "Stani Army". Members of the club are known to provide raucous support; the Stani Army takes part in charity initiatives for underprivileged Pakistanis, including annual friendly cricket matches against British Indian members of the similar "Bharat Army". The 1986 Austral-Asia Cup, played in Sharjah in UAE, is remembered for a famous last-ball victory for Pakistan against arch-rivals India, with Javed Miandad emerging as a national hero.
India batted first and set a target of 245 runs, leaving Pakistan with a required run rate of 4.92 runs per over. Miandad came in to bat at number 3 and Pakistan lost wickets at regular intervals. Recalling the match, he stated that his main focus was to lose with dignity. With 31 runs needed in the last three overs, Miandad hit a string of boundaries while batting with his team's lower order, until four runs were required from the last delivery of the match. Miandad received a leg side full toss from Chetan Sharma, which he hit for six over the midwicket boundary. At the 1992 World Cup Semi-final, having won the toss, New Zealand chose to bat first and ended with a total of 262 runs. Pakistan lost wickets at regular intervals. With the departure of Imran Khan and Saleem Malik shortly thereafter, Pakistan still required 115 runs at a rate of 7.67 runs per over with veteran Javed Miandad being the only known batsman remaining at the crease. A young Inzamam-ul-Haq, who had just turned 22 and was not a well-known player at the time, burst onto the international stage with a match-winning 60 off 37 balls.
Once Inzamam got out, Paki
Fast bowling is one of two main approaches to bowling in the sport of cricket, the other being spin bowling. Practitioners of pace bowling are known as fast bowlers, quicks, or pacemen, they can be referred to as a seam bowler or a'fast bowler who can swing it' to reflect the predominant characteristic of their deliveries. Speaking, a pure swing bowler does not need to have a high degree of pace, though dedicated medium-pace swing bowlers are seen at Test level these days; the aim of fast bowling is to deliver the ball in such a fashion as to cause the batsman to make a mistake. The bowler achieves this by making the hard cricket ball deviate from a predictable, linear trajectory at a speed that limits the time the batsman has to compensate for it. For deviation caused by the ball's stitching, the ball bounces off the pitch and deflects either away from the batsman's body, or inwards towards them. Swing bowlers on the other hand use the seam of the ball but in a different way. To'bowl swing' is to induce a curved trajectory of the cricket ball through the air.
Swing bowlers use a combination of seam orientation, body position at the point of release, asymmetric ball polishing, variations in delivery speed to affect an aerodynamic influence on the ball. The ability of a bowler to induce lateral deviation or'sideways movement' make it difficult for the batsman to address the flight of the ball accurately. Beyond this ability to create an unpredictable path of ball trajectory, the fastest bowlers can be potent by delivering a ball at such a rate that a batsman fails to react either or at all. A typical fast delivery has a speed in the range of 137–153 km/h, it is possible for a bowler to concentrate on speed when young, but as fast bowlers mature they pick up new skills and tend to rely more on swing bowling or seam bowling techniques. Most fast bowlers specialise in one of these two areas and are sometimes categorised as swing or seam bowler. However, this classification is not satisfactory because the categories are not mutually exclusive and a skilled bowler bowls a mixture of fast, swinging and cutting balls—even if he prefers one style to the others.
For simplicity, it is common to subdivide fast bowlers according to the average speed of their deliveries, as follows. There is a degree of subjectivity in the usage of these terms. For comparison, most spin bowlers in professional cricket bowl at average speeds of 70 to 90 km/h. Shoaib Akhtar, Brett Lee, Shaun Tait, Jeff Thomson and Mitchell Starc have clocked over 160 km/h and are categorised as "Ultra Fast" bowlers although bowling at speeds lower than this mark. While Steven Finn is classified as a fast-medium bowler by Cricinfo, he can bowl at around 145 km/h, with his fastest clocked at 151.9 km/h, making him the 10th fastest amongst active bowlers as of 3 January 2015 The first thing a fast bowler needs to do is to grip the ball correctly. The basic fast bowling grip to achieve maximum speed is to hold the ball with the seam upright and to place the index and middle fingers close together at the top of the seam with the thumb gripping the ball at the bottom of the seam; the image to the right shows the correct grip.
The first two fingers and the thumb should hold the ball forward of the rest of the hand, the other two fingers should be tucked into the palm. The ball is held quite loosely so. Other grips are possible, result in different balls – see swing and seam bowling below; the bowler holds their other hand over the hand gripping the ball until the latest possible moment so that the batsman cannot see what type of ball is being bowled. A fast bowler needs to take a longer run-up toward the wicket than a spinner, due to the need to generate the momentum and rhythm required to bowl a fast delivery. Fast bowlers measure their preferred run up in strides, mark the distance from the wicket, it is important for the bowler to know how long the run-up is because it must terminate behind the popping crease. A bowler who steps on or beyond this has bowled a no-ball, which affords the batsman immunity from dismissal, adds one run to the batting team's score, forces the bowler to bowl another ball in the over. At the end of the run-up the bowler brings his lead foot down on the pitch with the knee as straight as possible.
This can be dangerous due to the pressure it places on the joint. Knee injuries are not uncommon amongst fast bowlers: for example, the English pace bowler David Lawrence was sidelined for many months after splitting his kneecap in two; the pressure on the leading foot is such that some fast bowlers cut the front off their shoes to stop their toes from being injured as they are pressed against the inside of the shoe. The bowler brings the bowling arm up over their head and releases the ball at the height appropriate to where they want the ball to pitch. Again, the arm must be straight though this is a stipulation of the laws of cricket rather than an aid to speed. Bending the elbow and "chucking" the ball would make it too easy for the bowler to aim at the batsman's wicket and get them out. Fast bowlers tend to have an action that leaves them either side-on or chest-on at the end of the run up. A chest-on bowler has chest and hips aligned towards the batsman at the instant of back foot contact, while a side-on bowler has chest and hips aligned at ninety degrees to the batsman at the instant of back foot contact.
West Indian bowler Malcolm Marshall was a c
Gaddafi Stadium is a cricket ground in Lahore, Pakistan. It was designed by famous architect and engineer Nasreddin Murat-Khan, constructed by Mian Abdul Khaliq and Company in 1959; the stadium was renovated for the 1996 Cricket World Cup. The headquarters of the Pakistan Cricket Board are situated at Gaddafi Stadium making it the home of Pakistan cricket team; the stadium has a capacity of 27,000 seats, making it one of the biggest in Pakistan. Lahore Stadium, the ground was renamed in 1974 in honour of the former Libyan leader Colonel Muammar Gaddafi following a speech he gave at the 2nd Organisation of the Islamic Conference meeting in Lahore in favour of Pakistan's right to pursue nuclear weapons; the stadium houses the headquarters of the Pakistan Cricket Board. In 1995–96, the Gaddafi Stadium was renovated by architect Nayyar Ali Dada -, qualified from National College of Arts Lahore - for the 1996 Cricket World Cup. Dada's redesign was done with red, hand-laid brickwork and arches. Dada had plastic seating installed in place of the existing concrete benches.
The lower portion under the stands was converted to shops for boutiques and offices. Gaddafi Stadium was the first in Pakistan to be equipped with modern floodlights having their own standby power generators. On 23rd October 2011, Pakistan Cricket Board discussed renaming the stadium following the death of Gaddafi, to support the new government in Libya; the Punjab Olympic Association made a similar request in late October 2011 to the provincial chief minister, "I don't think his profile is inspirational enough to link with our cricket stadium's identity." As of April 2012, however, it does not appear. Gaddafi Stadium being the largest cricket stadium in Pakistan used to have capacity of 60,000 spectators, until the redesigning of its enclosures reduced the capacity to 27,000. Three hat-tricks have been taken at the stadium, by Peter Petherick of New Zealand against Pakistan, 9 October 1976, Wasim Akram of Pakistan against Sri Lanka, 6 March 1999 and Mohammad Sami of Pakistan against Sri Lanka.
Pakistan has enjoyed some memorable moments on the ground, including a fifth-wicket stand of 281 between Javed Miandad and Asif Iqbal against New Zealand in 1976 and an innings and 324 run win against New Zealand in 2002. On 3 March 2009, the scheduled third day of second Test of 2008–09 Sri Lanka tour of Pakistan, the Sri Lankan team's convoy was attacked by armed militants at Liberty Roundabout, near Gaddafi stadium. Eight Sri Lankan players were injured, including Mahela Jayawardene; the Sri Lankan team was air-lifted from Gaddafi Stadium to a nearby airbase, from where they were evacuated back to Sri Lanka, this event marked the end of international cricket in Pakistan. However, on 19 May 2015, the Zimbabwe cricket team landed at the Allama Iqbal International Airport to become the first Full Member nation to tour Pakistan since March 2009. On 5 March 2017 the final of the 2017 Pakistan Super League was played in the stadium. Pakistan won both T20I series comfortably. On August 2017, PCB along with ICC started to improve international cricket in Pakistan.
With that, under heavy security, PCB planned World XI tour to Pakistan for three T20Is. In August 2017, Thilanga Sumathipala, president of Sri Lanka Cricket, said that he would like to play at least one of the three T20I matches in Lahore, Pakistan during October. In March 2009, the Sri Lanka cricket team were attacked by terrorists while travelling to the Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore. Since the only Test side to visit Pakistan has been Zimbabwe, when they toured during May 2015. Two of Sri Lanka's current team, Chamara Kapugedera and Suranga Lakmal were on the bus during the 2009 terrorist attack, both could have been selected for the T20I squad for this series. In September 2017, the fixtures were confirmed, with the final T20I match of the series scheduled to be played in Lahore. Sri Lanka Cricket said that players have a "contractual obligation" to play the match in Lahore, but it was unlikely to issue penalties to any player who chose not to visit Pakistan. However, on 14 October 2017, the Sri Lankan team expressed their reluctance to travel to Pakistan, requesting that the fixture is moved to a neutral venue.
On 16 October 2017, Sri Lanka Cricket confirmed that the fixture in Lahore would go ahead as planned, but their limited-overs captain, Upul Tharanga, had pulled out of the match. Despite the concerns from the players, team manager Asanka Gurusinha felt that a competitive squad would be named. On 19 October 2017, Sri Lanka's chief selector, Graham Labrooy, said that players who do not travel to Lahore would be unlikely to be selected for the other two T20I fixtures; the squad for the T20I fixtures was named two days with Thisara Perera selected as captain. The Sri Lankan squad arrived in Lahore under "extraordinary" security and made their way to the team's hotel in a bomb-proof bus. Ahead of the T20I in Lahore, Cricket Sri Lanka's president Thilanga Sumathipala said that the team was privileged to be in Pakistan and that he would help support the country in hosting more tours. Najam Sethi, chairman of the PCB, said that this fixture would be the start of international cricket returning to the country, with him expecting every country to play in Pakistan by the end of 2020.
Pakistan went on to win the T20I series 3–0. The venue is hosted some of the main matches as a part of the 2018 Blind Cricket World Cup. Highest team total: 699, by Pakistan against India in 1989 Lowest team total: 73, by New Zealand against Pakistan in 2002. Highest individual score: 329, by Inzamam-ul-Haq against New Zealand in 2002. Highest team total: 376, by Pakistan against
Chris Old is a former English cricketer, who played 46 Tests and 32 ODIs from 1972 to 1981. A right-arm fast-medium bowler and lower order left-handed batsman, Old was a key feature of the Yorkshire side between 1969 and 1983, before finishing his career at Warwickshire in 1985; as a Test bowler for England he took 143 wickets, scored useful runs in the famous 1981 Ashes series' Headingley victory. The youngest of three brothers, Chris Old first made his mark in school cricket as a left handed batsman playing for Middlesbrough and England Schools. In 1962 he was recommended to Yorkshire, thus following in the footsteps of his older brothers Alan and Malcolm, who had preceded him, he made his debut, aged 15, for Yorkshire 2nd XI against Lincolnshire at Grimsby in August 1964 as a batsman, scoring 26 in the first innings and 8 not out in the second, but he was subsequently encouraged by resident coach Arthur Mitchell to develop his bowling. He was still predominantly a batsman when he made his debut for the Yorkshire first team as a 17-year-old against Hampshire in 1966, scoring 3 runs and conceding 8 runs from 3 overs without taking a wicket.
That was the start of a first-class cricket career lasting 20 years from 1966 to 1986. He was mentored by the resident Yorkshire opening bowlers, Fred Trueman and Tony Nicholson, who took over 2800 wickets between them for the county and following Fred Truemans retirement in 1968 he became Nicholsons opening new ball bowling partner, he won his Yorkshire cap in 1969, was named as the Cricket Writer's Club Young Cricketer of the Year in 1970. Old hit the 3rd fastest century of all time at Edgbaston in 1977, with 100 runs from 72 balls in 37 minutes, with the second 50 taking just 9 minutes; this feat won him the Walter Lawrence Trophy for the fastest century of the year. He was nominated as one of the five Wisden Cricketers of 1979.'Chilly' subsequently took the Yorkshire captaincy in 1981, but it was not a happy period. The next season, suffering from personal problems, he was ousted from the role to allow the 50-year-old, Ray Illingworth, to take charge on the field, he moved on to Warwickshire for three seasons and he appeared for Northern Transvaal in South Africa between 1981 and 1983.
His valedictory first-class cricket appearance was for a Brian Close XI against the touring New Zealand side at Scarborough in September 1986. In 379 first-class matches he took 1,070 first-class wickets at the average of 23.48 and scored 7,756 first-class runs with six centuries. He finished off his domestic cricket career with a season of minor counties cricket, playing 8 matches for Northumberland in 1987, with the highlight being 6 - 98 against Durham at Chester-le-Street in July, he made his Test debut in the Second Test against India at Calcutta in December 1972. His first victim was the great Sunil Gavaskar whom he caught off the bowling of Derek Underwood as the first Indian wicket to fall, he produced a notable all-round performance scoring 33 and 17 not out and taking 2 for 72 and 4 for 43 but still finished on the losing side as India won by 28 runs. Over the next 9 years he played in 46 Test matches scoring 845 runs. One of his most notable performances was taking four wickets in five balls on the opening day of the Test Match against Pakistan at Edgbaston in June 1978, the wicketless third ball being a no-ball.
Bowling at pace from the City End, the second ball of his nineteenth over was top-edged by Wasim Raja to wicket-keeper Bob Taylor before his third ball nipped back though the gate to remove Wasim Bari's off stump. Old's fourth ball, the no-ball, was edged by Iqbal Qasim into the ground but Qasim nicked a late outswinger to the keeper off the next legitimate delivery, before Sikander Bakht found the safe hands of Graham Roope at second slip. Old thus equalled the record of four wickets in five balls set by Maurice Allom on his Test debut at Lancaster Park, Christchurch in 1929-30, a feat which has since been repeated by Pakistan's Wasim Akram; when India under A. Wadekar toured England in 1974, England swept the series 3-0. In the 2nd test, England batted first and made 629, India were bowled out for 302 and followed on, in the Indian second innings Chris Old took 5-21 and Arnold took 4-19 and together they bowled India out for 42, their lowest test score. However, he is best remembered for one of the key second innings batting partnerships with Ian Botham during the famous Headingley Ashes game of 1981, where they put on 67 crucial runs for the 9th wicket.
He followed this up by taking the key wicket of Allan Border who he clean bowled for a duck in the Australian second innings. He was the only England cricketer to play in both Centenary Test Matches against Australia in 1977 at Melbourne and 1980 at Lord's, alongside Greg Chappell, Dennis Lillee and Rodney Marsh for Australia. Old turned down an invitation from Tony Greig to play in Kerry Packer's rebel World Series Cricket, fearing the withdrawal of the traditional benefit season offered by Yorkshire, he subsequently joined the rebel South African Breweries English touring side in South Africa during 1982 ending his Test career with the resulting 3-year ban from international cricket. He subsequently went to Australia to play in a veterans three-match series, Old Australia XI v Old England XI in 1988, five years made a final appearance for an England XI v an Australian XI in a 36 over per side game for Derek Randall’s Testimonial at Trent Bridge in June 1993. None of these matches had first-class status.
There is little doubt that he would have played more Test cricket had he not been so prone to injuries. He had surgery on