Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc
The Matenadaran the Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts is a museum, repository of manuscripts, a research institute in Yerevan, Armenia. It is the world's largest repository of Armenian manuscripts, it was established in 1959 on the basis of the nationalized collection of the Armenian Church held at Etchmiadzin. Its collection has risen since its establishment from individual donations. One of the most prominent landmarks of Yerevan, it is named after Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet, whose statue stands in front of the building; the word մատենադարան, matenadaran is a compound composed of the words մատեան and դարան. According to Hrachia Adjarian both words are of Middle Persian origin. Though it is sometimes translated as "scriptorium" in English, a more accurate translation is "library of manuscripts." Though not technically a library, the Matenadaran is referred to as such. In medieval Armenia, the term matenadaran was used in the sense of a library as all books were manuscripts.
There are several manuscript repositories around the world known as matenadaran such as the one at the Mekhitarist monastery in San Lazzaro and the Vatche and Tamar Manoukian Manuscript Depository at the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin. To distinguish it from others, it is referred to as the Matenadaran of Yerevan, the Yerevan Matenadaran or Mashtots Matenadaran; the earliest mention of a manuscript repository in Armenia was recorded in the writings of the fifth century historian Ghazar Parpetsi, who noted the existence of such a repository at the Etchmiadzin catholicosate in Vagharshapat, where Greek and Armenian language texts were kept. Sources remain silent on the fate of the Etchmiadzin matenadaran until the 15th century, when the catholicosate returned from Sis in Cilicia. Manuscript repositories existed at major monasteries in medieval Armenia, such as at Haghpat, Saghmosavank, Geghard, Kecharis and Bardzraberd. In some cases, monastic complexes have separate structures as manuscript repositories.
Sometimes manuscripts would be transferred to caves to avoid destruction by foreign invaders. Thousands of manuscripts in Armenia were destroyed over the course of the tenth to fifteenth centuries during the Turkic and Mongol invasions. According to the medieval Armenian historian Stepanos Orbelian, the Seljuk Turks were responsible for the burning of over 10,000 Armenian manuscripts in Baghaberd in 1170; as a result of Armenia being a constant battleground between two major powers, the Matenadaran in Etchmiadzin was pillaged several times, the last of which took place in 1804, during the Russo-Persian War. Eastern Armenia's annexation by the Russian Empire in the early 19th century provided a more stable climate for the preservation of the remaining manuscripts. Whereas in 1828 the curators of the Matenadaran catalogued a collection of only 1,809 manuscripts, in 1863 the collection had increased to 2,340 manuscripts, in 1892 to 3,338 manuscripts. Prior to World War I, in 1914, the collected had reached 4,660 manuscripts.
The collection was sent to Moscow for safekeeping. Thousands of Armenian manuscripts were destroyed during the genocide in the Ottoman Empire. On December 17, 1920, just two weeks after the demise of the First Republic of Armenia and Sovietization of Armenia, the new Bolshevik government of Armenia issued a decree nationalizing all cultural and educational institutions in Armenia; the issue, signed by Minister of Education Ashot Hovhannisyan, declared the manuscript repository of Etchmiadzin the "property of the working peoples of Armenia." It was put under the supervision of Levon Lisitsian, an art historian and the newly appointed commissar of all cultural and educational institutions of Etchmiadzin. In March 1922 the manuscripts from Etchmiadzin, sent to Moscow during World War I were ordered to be returned to Armenia by Alexander Miasnikian. 1,730 manuscripts were added to the original 4,660 manuscripts held at Etchmiadzin once they returned to Armenia. In 1939 the entire collection of manuscripts of Etchmiadzin were transferred to the State Public Library in Yerevan by the decision of the Soviet Armenian government.
In the same year there were 9,382 cataloged manuscripts at the Matenadaran. On March 3, 1959, the Council of Ministers of Soviet Armenian established the Matenadaran as an "institute of scientific research with special departments of scientific preservation, study and publication of manuscripts" in a new building, it was named after Mesrop Mashtots, the creator of the Armenian alphabet, in 1962. The Matenadaran is located at the foot of a small hill on the northern edge of Mashtots Avenue, the widest road in central Yerevan; the building has been variously described by observers as monumental and stern. Herbert Lottman called it "solemn and solid-looking." Soviet travel writer Nikolai Mikhailov noted that "In its dimensions and architecture it is a palace." The building is listed as a national monument by the government of Armenia. It was built in gray basalt from 1945 to 1958, construction was put on hold from 1947 to 1953 due to unavailability of skilled laborers and carpenters. Designed by Yerevan's chief architect Mark Grigorian, it is influenced by medieval Armenian architecture.
According to Murad Hasratyan, the façade of the Matenadaran is influenced by the 11th century Holy Apostles church of Ani, the grand capital of Bagratid Armenia. However, Grigorian noted that the design—namely an entrance in the middle with two decorative niches on the two sides—has ancient r
Toros Roslin. Roslin introduced a wider range of narrative in his iconography based on his knowledge of western European art while continuing the conventions established by his predecessors. Roslin enriched Armenian manuscript painting by introducing new artistic themes such as the Incredulity of Thomas and Passage of the Red Sea. In addition he revived the genre of royal portraits, the first Cilician royal portraits having been found in his manuscripts, his style is characterized by a delicacy of color, classical treatment of figures and their garments, an elegance of line, an innovative iconography. The human figures in his illustrations are rendered full of life, representing different emotional states. Roslin's illustrations occupy the entire surface of the manuscript page and at times only parts of it, in other cases they are incorporated in the texts in harmony with the ensemble of the decoration. Little is known about Toros Roslin’s life, he worked at the scriptorium of Hromkla in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia where the patriarchal see was transferred to in 1151.
His patrons included Catholicos Constantine I, king Hethum I, his wife Isabella, their children and prince Levon, in particular. The colophons in Roslin’s manuscripts permit scholars to reconstruct the world in which he lived in. In these colophons Roslin appears as a chronicler, who preserved events of his time. In his earliest surviving manuscript the Zeytun Gospel of 1256, Roslin signed his name as "Toros surnamed Roslin". Only Armenians of noble origin had a surname in the Middle Ages. Roslin may have been an offspring of one of the marriages common between Armenians and Franks that were frequent among the nobility but occurred among the lower classes as well. Roslin names his brother Anton and asks the readers to recall the names of his teachers in their prayers. Professor Levon Chookaszian, head of the Chair of UNESCO and Chair of Armenian Art History at Yerevan State University, proposed a more detailed explanation of the appearance of this surname in the Armenian milieu. According to the professor, the surname Roslin originated from Henry Sinclair of the Clan Sinclair, baron of Roslin who accompanied Godfrey of Bouillon in the 1096 Crusade to Jerusalem.
Chookaszian’s hypothesis is based on the assumption that like most prominent Crusaders of the time, Sinclair married an Armenian. The approximate dates of Roslin's birth and death can be determined using the dates of his manuscripts. Based on the following it can be assumed that Roslin was at least 30 in 1260. At the time one could only achieve the level of mastery displayed in the Zeytun Gospel of 1256 no earlier than in their mid twenties. In the colophon of the Gospel of 1260, Roslin mentions that he has a son, indicating that he was a priest since a monk would have no children while a member of the laity would not have been an illuminated manuscript painter. By the time of the Gospel of 1265, Roslin had his own apprentices. Roslin painted two portraits of prince Levon, the earliest of, executed in 1250 and the second in 1262 showing the prince with his bride Keran of Lampron. Roslin's name isn't seen on any manuscript dated after 1286 and he most died in the 1270s. None of Roslin's contemporaries or his pupils refer to him in their work and in the following centuries, his name is only mentioned once when the scribe Mikayel working in Sebastea in the late 17th century found in his monastery a gospel book illustrated in 1262 by the "famous scribe Roslin" which he copied.
Seven manuscripts have been preserved that bear the signature of Roslin, they are made between 1256 and 1268 five of which are copied and illustrated by Roslin. Of these four are owned by the Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem located in the Cathedral of St. James; these include the Gospel of 1260 copied for Catholicos Constantine I. The Gospel of 1262 was commissioned by Prince Levon, copied at Sis by the scribe Avetis, illustrated by Roslin at Hromkla and bound by Arakel Hnazandents; the Gospel of 1265 was copied for the daughter of Constantine of Lampron, lady Keran who after the death of her husband Geoffrey, lord of Servandakar, retired from the world. Mashtots was commissioned in 1266 by bishop Vartan of Hromkla, copied by Avetis who had collaborated with Roslin in 1262 at Sis and illustrated by Roslin at Hromkla; the Sebastia Gospel of 1262 is located in Baltimore's Walters Art Museum. It was copied for the priest Toros, nephew of Catholicos Constantine I. Written in uncials it is the most lavishly decorated among the signed works of Roslin.
The manuscript was kept in Sivas since the 17th century where it remained until the deportation of Armenians in 1919. Ten years it was purchased by American rail magnate Henry Walters in Paris, whose long standing interest in Armenian art was rekindled by the tragic events of the previous decade, his wife Sadie Walters donated the manuscript to the Walters Art Museum in 1935. The Zeytun Gospel of 1256 copied for Catholicos Constantine I and the Malatia Gospel of 1268 are located at the Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts in Yerevan; the manuscript was presented to Catholicos Vazgen I as a gift by Archbishop Yeghishe Derderian, patriarch of Jerusalem. The Catholicos in turn gave the manuscript to the institute; the manuscript was commissioned by Catholicos Constantine I as a present for the young princ
Gospel of Mark
The Gospel According to Mark is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells of the ministry of Jesus from his baptism by John the Baptist to his death and burial and the discovery of the empty tomb – there is no genealogy of Jesus or birth narrative, nor, in the original ending at chapter 16, any post-resurrection appearances of Jesus, it portrays Jesus as a heroic man of action, an exorcist, a healer, a miracle worker. Jesus is the Son of God, but he keeps his identity secret, concealing it in parables so that most of the disciples fail to understand. All this is in keeping with prophecy; the gospel ends, in its original version, with the discovery of the empty tomb, a promise to meet again in Galilee, an unheeded instruction to spread the good news of the resurrection. Mark dates from AD 66–70. Most scholars reject the tradition which ascribes it to John Mark, the companion of the apostle Peter, regard it as anonymous, the work of an unknown author working with various sources including collections of miracle stories, controversy stories, a passion narrative.
Mark was traditionally placed second, sometimes fourth, in the Christian canon, as an inferior abridgement of what was regarded as the most important gospel, Matthew. The Church has derived its view of Jesus from Matthew, secondarily from John, only distantly from Mark, it was only in the 19th century that Mark came to be seen as the earliest of the four gospels, as a source used by both Matthew and Luke. The hypothesis of Marcan priority continues to be held by the majority of scholars today, there is a new recognition of the author as an artist and theologian using a range of literary devices to convey his conception of Jesus as the authoritative yet suffering Son of God; the Gospel of Mark is anonymous. It was written c. AD 66–70, during Nero's persecution of the Christians in Rome or the Jewish revolt, as suggested by internal references to war in Judea and to persecution; the author used a variety of pre-existing sources, such as conflict stories, apocalyptic discourse, collections of sayings.
It was written in Greek for a gentile audience, Rome, Galilee and southern Syria have all been offered as alternative places of composition. Early Christian tradition attributes it to John Mark mentioned in Acts, but scholars reject this as an attempt to link the gospel to an authoritative figureThe Gospels represent a form of Greco-Roman biography. Interpreters differ. Among some of the proposals include that Mark had a theological agenda, that Mark was written in order to distance Christianity from political connotations in light of the Roman-Jewish War, or that Mark was responding to imperial Flavian propaganda; the gospels of Matthew and Luke bear a striking resemblance to each other, so much so that their contents can be set side by side in parallel columns. The fact that they share so much material verbatim and yet exhibit important differences has led to a number of hypotheses explaining their interdependence, a phenomenon termed the Synoptic Problem. Traditionally, Mark was thought to be an epitome of Matthew: today, the most accepted hypothesis is that Mark was the first gospel and was used as a source by both Matthew and Luke, together with considerable additional material.
The strongest argument for this is the fact that Matthew and Luke agree with each other in their sequence of stories and events only when they agree with Mark. Mark appears as the second New Testament gospel because it was traditionally thought to be an epitome of Matthew, but most scholars now regard it as the earliest written gospel. In the 19th century this led to the belief; this conclusion was shaken by two works published in the early decades of the 20th century: in 1901 William Wrede argued that the "Messianic secret" motif in Mark was a creation of the early church rather than a reflection of the historical Jesus. The gospel is still seen as the most reliable of the four in terms of its overall description of Jesus's life and ministry. Christianity began within Judaism, with a Christian "church" that arose shortly after his death, when some of his followers claimed to have witnessed him risen from the dead. From the outset, Christians depended on Jewish literature, supporting their convictions through the Jewish scriptures.
Those convictions involved a nucleus of key concepts: the messiah, the son of God and the son of man, the Day of the Lord, the kingdom of God. Uniting these ideas was the common thread of apocalyptic expectation: Both Jews and Christians believed that the end of history was at hand, that God would soon come to punish their enemies and establish his own rule, that they were at the centre of his plans. Christians read the Jewish scripture as a figure or type of Jesus Christ, so that the goal of Christian literature became an experience of the living Christ; the new movement spread around the eastern Mediterranean and to Rome and further west, an
Leo IV, King of Armenia
Leo IV or Leon IV was the last Hethumid king of Cilicia, ruling from 1320 until his death. He was the son of Oshin of Armenia and Isabel of Korikos, came to the throne on the death of his father, his name is sometimes spelled as Leon. He spent his minority under the regency of Oshin of Korikos. During this period, the kingdom was much harassed by Mongols. In 1320, the Egyptian sultan Naser Mohammed ibn Kelaoun invaded and ravaged Christian Armenian Cilicia. In a letter dated July 1, 1322, sent from Avignon, Pope John XXII reminded Mongol ruler Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan of the alliance of his ancestors with Christians, asking him to intervene in Cilicia. At the same time he advocated. Mongol troops were sent to Cilicia, but only arrived after a ceasefire had been negotiated for 15 years between Constantin, patriarch of the Armenians, the sultan of Egypt; the regent Oshin had married his stepmother, Joan of Taranto, Leo was forced to marry Alice Oshin's daughter by his first wife, Margaret d'Ibelin, on August 10, 1321.
Oshin murdered a number of members of the royal family to consolidate his own power, Leo's reaction upon reaching his majority in 1329 was violent. Oshin, his brother Constantine, Constable of Armenia and Lord of Lampron, Leo's wife Alice were all murdered on the king's orders, Oshin's head being sent to the Il-Khan and Constantine's head to Al-Nasr Muhammad. Leo was pro-Western and favored a union of the Armenian and Roman Churches, which displeased the native barons, his second marriage on December 29, 1331 to Constance, daughter of Frederick III of Sicily and Eleanor of Anjou, widow of Henry II of Cyprus, further aroused anti-Western sentiment. In 1337, Al-Nasr Muhammad invaded again, taking the city of Ayas, Leo was forced to conclude a humiliating truce, surrendering territory and a large indemnity and promising to have no dealings with the West, he spent the last years of his reign holed up in the citadel at Sis. On August 28, 1341 he was murdered by his own barons, his only son by Alice, had died before 1331.
Boase, T. S. R.. The Cilician Kingdom of Armenia. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press. ISBN 0-7073-0145-9. Ghazarian, Jacob G; the Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins. Abingdon: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-7007-1418-9
In antiquity, Cilicia was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire. Extending inland from the southeastern coast of modern Turkey, Cilicia is due north and northeast of the island of Cyprus and corresponds to the modern region of Çukurova in Turkey. Cilicia extended along the Mediterranean coast east from Pamphylia, to the Nur Mountains, which separated it from Syria. North and east of Cilicia lie the rugged Taurus Mountains that separate it from the high central plateau of Anatolia, which are pierced by a narrow gorge, called in antiquity the Cilician Gates. Ancient Cilicia was divided into Cilicia Trachaea and Cilicia Pedias by the Limonlu River. Salamis, the city on the east coast of Cyprus, was included in its administrative jurisdiction; the Greeks invented for Cilicia an eponymous Hellene founder in the purely mythical Cilix, but the historic founder of the dynasty that ruled Cilicia Pedias was Mopsus, identifiable in Phoenician sources as Mpš, the founder of Mopsuestia who gave his name to an oracle nearby.
Homer mentions the people of Mopsus, identified as Cilices, as from the Troad in the northernwesternmost part of Anatolia. The English spelling Cilicia is the same as the Latin, as it was transliterated directly from the Greek form Κιλικία; the palatalization of c occurring in the west in Vulgar Latin accounts for its modern pronunciation in English. Cilicia Trachea is a rugged mountain district formed by the spurs of Taurus, which terminate in rocky headlands with small sheltered harbors, a feature which, in classical times, made the coast a string of havens for pirates and, in the Middle Ages, outposts for Genoese and Venetian traders; the district is watered by the Calycadnus and was covered in ancient times by forests that supplied timber to Phoenicia and Egypt. Cilicia lacked large cities. Cilicia Pedias, to the east, included the rugged spurs of Taurus and a large coastal plain, with rich loamy soil, known to the Greeks such as Xenophon, who passed through with his mercenary group of the Ten Thousand, for its abundance, filled with sesame and millet and olives and pasturage for the horses imported by Solomon.
Many of its high places were fortified. The plain is watered by the three great rivers, the Cydnus, the Sarus and the Pyramus, each of which brings down much silt from the deforested interior and which fed extensive wetlands; the Sarus now enters the sea due south of Tarsus, but there are clear indications that at one period it joined the Pyramus, that the united rivers ran to the sea west of Kara-tash. Through the rich plain of Issus ran the great highway that linked east and west, on which stood the cities of Tarsus on the Cydnus, Adana on the Sarus, Mopsuestia on the Pyramus. Cilicia was settled from the Neolithic period onwards. Dating of the ancient settlements of the region from Neolithic to Bronze Age is as follows: Aceramic/Neolithic: 8th and 7th millennia BC. 5400–4500 BC. 3400 BC. The area had been known as Kizzuwatna in the earlier Hittite era; the region was divided into two parts, Uru Adaniya, a well-watered plain, "rough" Cilicia, in the mountainous west. The Cilicians appear as Hilikku in Assyrian inscriptions, in the early part of the first millennium BC were one of the four chief powers of Western Asia.
Homer mentions the plain as the "Aleian plain" in which Bellerophon wandered, but he transferred the Cilicians far to the west and north and made them allies of Troy. The Cilician cities unknown to Homer bore their pre-Greek names: Tarzu, Danuna-Adana, which retains its ancient name, Pahri and Azatiwataya. There exists evidence that circa 1650 BC both Hittite kings Hattusili I and Mursili I enjoyed freedom of movement along the Pyramus River, proving they exerted strong control over Cilicia in their battles with Syria. After the death of Murshili around 1595 BC, Hurrians wrested control from the Hitties, Cilicia was free for two centuries; the first king of free Cilicia, Išputahšu, son of Pariyawatri, was recorded as a "great king" in both cuneiform and Hittite hieroglyphs. Another record of Hittite origins, a treaty between Išputahšu and Telipinu, king of the Hittites, is recorded in both Hittite and Akkadian. In the next century, Cilician king Pilliya finalized treaties with both King Zidanta II of the Hittites and Idrimi of Alalakh, in which Idrimi mentions that he had assaulted several military targets throughout Eastern Cilicia.
Niqmepa, who succeeded Idrimi as king of Alalakh, went so far as to ask for help from a Hurrian rival, Shaushtatar of Mitanni, to try and reduce Cilicia's power in the region. It was soon apparent, that increased Hittite power would soon prove Niqmepa's efforts to be futile, as the city of Kizzuwatna soon fell to the Hittites, threatening all of Cilicia. Soon after, King Sunassura II was forced to accept vassalization under the Hittites, becoming the last king of ancient Cilicia. In the 13th century BC a major population shift occurred as the Sea Peoples overran Cilicia; the Hurrians that resided there deserted the area and moved northeast towards the Taurus Mountains, where