Sargon the Sorcerer
Sargon the Sorcerer is a fictional character, a mystic and sorcerer appearing in DC Comics publications during the Golden Age. The original Sargon first appeared in All-American Comics #26, was created by John B. Wentworth and Howard Purcell; the modern Sargon first appears in Helmet of Fate: Sargon #1 and was created by Steve Niles and Scott Hampton. The name Sargon is of Mesopotamian origin, one king of Akkad and two of Assyria bore this name. Sargon debuted in All-American Comics #26, with a publication date of May, 1941, he was a stage magician, dressed like a swami complete with turban, to disguise the fact that he wielded true mystical powers, passing off such feats as illusions. As a child, he came into possession of the mystic Ruby of Life which allowed him to control anything he touches. Taking his professional name from the ancient king of the same name, Sargon has had a checkered career, acting as a hero during the Golden Age aided by his cartoonish fat little comic relief sidekick / manager Maximillian O'Leary as he battled crooks and his azure-skinned archenemy the Blue Lama, Queen of Black Magic, but re-emerging in the Silver Age – as a villain, at least at first.
It was explained that his villainous activities were the result of certain side effects of possessing the Ruby of Life. He was brought back for occasional guest appearances in the Silver Age and was awarded with an honorary membership in the Justice League in Justice League of America #99. Sargon maintained contacts with several other mages in the DC Universe, notably Baron Winters and the younger mage John Constantine. Sargon answered the summons of Constantine to participate in a ritual at the mansion of Winters in July 1985 to help deal with the effects of the Crisis on Infinite Earths, using the Swamp Thing as their portal into the war being fought in Hell. Locking hands in a circle of power, using the psychic powers of Constantine's drunken acquaintance Mento, the group of sorcerers observed the events unfolding, attempted in turn to channel their magical powers into several other mystical characters present in Hell, including Etrigan, the original Doctor Fate, the Spectre, their enemy, a primal form of evil, surging upwards to obliterate everything in its path, sensed their interference and lashed out several times.
The first to fall was Sargon. At first panicking and crying out for the others to help him, pulling his hands away from the circle, Sargon was rebuked by Zatara to maintain his composure and die like a sorcerer. In a final act of will, Sargon apologized for his outburst, calmly sat in place and burned alive without a whimper, never letting go of his colleagues' hands; this ritual kills Zatara and leaves Mento deranged. Sargon would return in Swamp Thing, "borrowing" the body of an elderly German man named Koestler and planning to lead the souls trapped in Hell in an assault on Heaven, he sacrificed this form to save Gracie Brody. During the Books of Magic series, the Phantom Stranger and young Timothy Hunter had a brief encounter with what was Sargon's soul, who attempted to warn the boy of the dangers and costs of pursuing magical power, he disintegrated right before their eyes, leaving behind his Ruby of Life. Sargon appears in the Day of Judgement series as a grey soul in the realm of Purgatory.
He joins in the fight against the guardians of Purgatory when a team of living heroes arrives to bring back the soul of Hal Jordan. The Helmet of Fate miniseries featured a Sargon the Sorcerer one-shot, starring his successor David John Sargent. After dropping out of college, having at least seven relationships, a brief stint as the lead singer in a band, David spent the rest of his life as a drifter on the side of the road. One day two men who claimed to represent the estate of his grandfather, the original Sargon, found David and told him that he was his heir; these men were demons trying to find Sargon's Ruby of Life, but could not do so because of the protection spells he had placed on his house. David was tricked into signing away his grandfather's estate over to the two men, who prepared to force him to find the Ruby when the Helmet of Fate appeared. David was led into his grandfather's secret attic by Sargon's ghost. Searching around, he found his grandfather's old props, his suit and turban, which contained some pieces of the Ruby.
Those pieces went into David's chest, through them Sargon was able to project himself in front of his grandson. He explained to David that he needed a successor to his name to find the remaining pieces of the Ruby, which somehow shattered, he was the only member of his bloodline still alive, he explained that he pulled the Helmet off its course in order to provide a distraction long enough to grant David the Ruby's power. David accepted the role of Sargon the Sorcerer, armed with new mystical abilities, went to drive the two men from his home. At the time, the two used a piece of the Ruby they acquired to turn themselves into demons, managed to weaken the Helmet. David quickly disposed of the two, sent the Helmet back on its course after placing a piece of himself into it. David went on to play a part in Reign in Hell, assisting Zatanna and Blue Devil, sacrificing himself to Lobo's mercy to allow many heroes and anti-heroes out of Hell. Sarg
Sargon of Akkad
Sargon of Akkad known as Sargon the Great, was the first ruler of the Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC. He was the founder of the "Sargonic" or "Old Akkadian" dynasty, which ruled for about a century after his death until the Gutian conquest of Sumer; the Sumerian king list makes him the cup-bearer to king Ur-Zababa of Kish. His empire is thought to have included most of Mesopotamia, parts of the Levant, besides incursions into Hurrite and Elamite territory, ruling from his capital, Akkad. Sargon appears as a legendary figure in Neo-Assyrian literature of the 8th to 7th centuries BC. Tablets with fragments of a Sargon Birth Legend were found in the Library of Ashurbanipal; the Akkadian name is normalized as either Šarru-kēn. The name's cuneiform spelling is variously šar-ru-gen6, šar-ru-ki-in, šar-ru-um-ki-in. In Late Assyrian references, the name is spelled as LUGAL-GI. NA or LUGAL-GIN, i.e. identical to the name of the Neo-Assyrian king Sargon II.
The spelling Sargon is derived from the single mention of the name in the Hebrew Bible, as סַרְגוֹן, in Isaiah 20:1. The first element in the name is šarru, the Akkadian for "king"; the second element is derived from the verb kīnum "to confirm, establish". A possible interpretation of the reading Šarru-ukīn is "the king has established" or "he has established the king"; such a name would however be unusual. There is some debate over whether the name was a birth name; the reading Šarru-kēn has been interpreted adjectivally. The terms "Pre-Sargonic" and "Post-Sargonic" were used in Assyriology based on the chronologies of Nabonidus before the historical existence of Sargon of Akkad was confirmed; the form Šarru-ukīn was known from the Assyrian Sargon Legend discovered in 1867 in Ashurbanipal's library at Nineveh. A contemporary reference to Sargon thought to have been found on the cylinder seal of Ibni-sharru, a high-ranking official serving under Sargon. Joachim Menant published a description of this seal in 1877, reading the king's name as Shegani-shar-lukh, did not yet identify it with "Sargon the Elder".
In 1883, the British Museum acquired the "mace-head of Shar-Gani-sharri", a votive gift deposited at the temple of Shamash in Sippar. This "Shar-Gani" was identified with the Sargon of Agade of Assyrian legend; the identification of "Shar-Gani-sharri" with Sargon was recognised as mistaken in the 1910s. Shar-Gani-sharri is, in Sargon's great-grandson, the successor of Naram-Sin, it is not clear whether the Neo-Assyrian king Sargon II was directly named for Sargon of Akkad, as there is some uncertainty whether his name should be rendered Šarru-ukīn or as Šarru-kēn. Primary sources pertaining to Sargon are sparse. Here, Sargon is mentioned as the son of former cup-bearer of Ur-Zababa of Kish, he took it to his own city of Akkad. Various copies of the king list give the duration of his reign as either 55 or 56 years. In absolute years, his reign would correspond to ca. 2340–2284 BC in the Middle Chronology. His successors until the Gutian conquest of Sumer are known as the "Sargonic Dynasty" and their rule as the "Sargonic Period" of Mesopotamian history.
Foster argued that the reading of 55 years as the duration of Sargon's reign was, in fact, a corruption of an original interpretation of 37 years. An older version of the king list gives Sargon's reign as lasting for 40 years. Thorkild Jacobsen marked the clause about Sargon's father being a gardener as a lacuna, indicating his uncertainty about its meaning. Ur-Zababa and Lugal-zage-si are both listed as kings, but separated by several additional named rulers of Kish, who seem to have been governors or vassals under the Akkadian Empire; the claim that Sargon was the original founder of Akkad has been called into question with the discovery of an inscription mentioning the place and dated to the first year of Enshakushanna, who certainly preceded him. The Weidner Chronicle states that it was Sargon who "built Babylon in front of Akkad." The Chronicle of Early Kings states that late in his reign, Sargon "dug up the soil of the pit of Babylon, made a counterpart of Babylon next to Agade." Van de Mieroop suggested that those two chronicles may refer to the much Assyrian king, Sargon II of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, rather than to Sargon of Akkad.
Sargon became the subject of legendary narratives describing his rise to power from humble origins and his conquest of Mesopotamia in Assyrian and Babylonian literature. Apart from these secondary, legendary, there are many inscriptions due to Sargon himself, although the majority of these are known only from much copies; the Louvre has fragments of two Sargonic victory steles recovered from Susa. Sargon appears to have promoted the use of Semitic in inscriptions, he calls himself "king of Akkad" first, after the city of Akkad which he founded. He appears to have taken over the rule of Kish at some point, also much of Mesopotamia, referr
Assyrian people, or Syriacs, are an ethnic group indigenous to Western Asia. Some of them self-identify as Chaldeans. Speakers of modern Aramaic and as well as the primary languages in their countries of residence, modern Assyrians are Syriac Christians who claim descent from Assyria, one of the oldest civilizations in the world, dating back to 2500 BC in ancient Mesopotamia; the tribal areas that form the Assyrian homeland are parts of present-day northern Iraq, southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran and, more northeastern Syria. The majority have migrated to other regions of the world, including North America, the Levant, Europe and the Caucasus during the past century. Emigration was triggered by events such as the Massacres of Diyarbakır, the Assyrian Genocide during World War I by the Ottoman Empire and allied Kurdish tribes, the Simele Massacre in Iraq in 1933, the Iranian Revolution of 1979, Arab Nationalist Ba'athist policies in Iraq and Syria, the rise of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and its takeover of most of the Nineveh plains.
Assyrians are predominantly Christian adhering to the East and West Syrian liturgical rites of Christianity. The churches that constitute the East Syrian rite include the Assyrian Church of the East, Ancient Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, whereas the churches of the West Syrian rite are the Syriac Orthodox Church and Syriac Catholic Church. Both rites use Classical Syriac as their liturgical language. Most the post-2003 Iraq War and the Syrian Civil War, which began in 2011, have displaced much of the remaining Assyrian community from their homeland as a result of ethnic and religious persecution at the hands of Islamic extremists. Of the one million or more Iraqis reported by the United Nations to have fled Iraq since the occupation, nearly 40% were Assyrians though Assyrians accounted for only around 3% of the pre-war Iraqi demography. According to a 2013 report by a Chaldean Syriac Assyrian Popular Council official, it is estimated that only 300,000 Assyrians remain in Iraq.
Because of the emergence of ISIL and the taking over of much of the Assyrian homeland by the terror group, another major wave of Assyrian displacement has taken place. ISIL was driven out from the Assyrian villages in the Khabour River Valley and the areas surrounding the city of Al-Hasakah in Syria by 2015, from the Nineveh plains in Iraq by 2017. Since the expulsion of ISIL, the Nineveh plains have been divided into Iraqi and Kurdish-controlled zones, with Assyrian militias on both sides. In northern Syria, Assyrian groups have been taking part both politically and militarily in the Kurdish-dominated but multiethnic Syrian Democratic Forces and Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria. Assyria is the homeland of the Assyrian people. In prehistoric times, the region, to become known as Assyria was home to Neanderthals such as the remains of those which have been found at the Shanidar Cave; the earliest Neolithic sites in Assyria belonged to the Jarmo culture c. 7100 BC and Tell Hassuna, the centre of the Hassuna culture, c. 6000 BC.
The history of Assyria begins with the formation of the city of Assur as early as the 25th century BC. The Assyrian king list records kings dating from the 25th century BC onwards, the earliest being Tudiya, a contemporary of Ibrium of Ebla. However, many of these early kings would have been local rulers, from the late 24th century BC to the early 22nd century BC, they were subjects of the Akkadian Empire. During the early Bronze Age period, Sargon of Akkad united all the native Semitic-speaking peoples and the Sumerians of Mesopotamia under the Akkadian Empire; the cities of Assur and Nineveh, the oldest and largest city of the ancient Assyrian empire, together with a number of other towns and cities, existed as early as the 25th century BC, although they appear to have been Sumerian-ruled administrative centres at this time, rather than independent states. The Sumerians were absorbed into the Akkadian population. In the traditions of the Assyrian Church of the East, they are descended from Abraham's grandson, progenitor of the ancient Assyrians.
However, there is no historical basis for the biblical assertion whatsoever. Ashur-uballit I overthrew the Mitanni c. 1365 BC, the Assyrians benefited from this development by taking control of the eastern portion of Mitanni territory, also annexing Hittite, Babylonian and Hurrian territories. The Assyrian people, after the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 609 BC were under the control of the Neo-Babylonian and the Persian Empire, which consumed the entire Neo-Babylonian or "Chaldean" Empire in 539 BC. Assyrians became front line soldiers for the Persian Empire under Xerxes I, playing a major role in the Battle of Marathon under Darius I in 490 BC. Herodotus, whose Histories are the main source of information about that battle, makes no mention of Assyrians in connection with it. Despite the influx of foreign elements, the presence of Assyrians is confirmed by the worship of the god Ashur; the Greeks and Romans had a rather low-level of integration with the local population in Mesopotamia, which allowed their cultures to survive.
The kingdoms of Osrhoene, Adiabene and Assur, which were under Parthian overlordship, had an Assyrian identity. Emerging in Sumer c. 3500 BC, cuneiform writing began a
Sargon is a line of chess-playing software for personal computers. The original SARGON was written by Dan and Kathleen'Kathe' Spracklen in a Z80-based computer called Wavemate Jupiter III using assembly language through TDL Macro Assembler; the name was written in capitals because early computer operating systems such as CP/M did not support lowercase file names. SARGON was introduced at the 1978 West Coast Computer Faire where it won the first computer chess tournament held for microcomputers, with a score of 5-0; this success encouraged the authors to seek financial income by selling the program directly to customers. Since magnetic media were not available at the time, the authors placed an advert in Byte magazine selling for $15 photocopied listings that would work in any Z80-based microcomputer. Availability of the source code allowed porting to other machines. For example, the March–April 1979 issue of Recreational Computing describes a project that converted Sargon to an 8080 program by using macros.
The Spracklens were contacted by Hayden Books and a book was published. When magnetic media publishing became available, a US Navy petty officer, Paul Lohnes, ported Sargon to the TRS-80, altering the graphics and housekeeping routines but leaving the Spracklen's chess-playing algorithm intact. Paul consulted with the Spracklens, who were both living in San Diego at the time, to make the TRS-80 version an instant success with the help of Hayden Book's newly established software division: Hayden Software. Paul was not involved in further refinements to the TRS-80 version due to his reassignment to sea duty shortly after signing the deal with Hayden Software. In the early 1980s, SARGON CHESS was ported to several other early microcomputers, including the Nascom, Exidy Sorcerer, Sharp MZ 80K. A complete rewrite was necessary for the Apple II port, made by Kathleen's brother Gary Shannon. Both were published by Hayden Software; the Spracklens made significant improvements on the original program and released Sargon II.
In 1978 it tied for third at the ninth North American Computer Chess Championship despite being seeded ninth of 12 entries. Sargon finished only behind Belle and Chess 4.7, defeated AWIT—running on a $5 million Amdahl mainframe—amazing the audience. That year they published a series of articles in BYTE on computer chess programming, stating "we think it would be nice if not everyone had to reinvent the wheel". Sargon II was ported to a variety of personal computers popular in the early 1980s; the game engine featured multiple levels of lookahead to make it more accessible to beginning chess players. BYTE in 1980 estimated that Sargon II had a 1500 rating at the highest tournament-time difficulty level, speculated that it was the best chess program for sale, including dedicated devices. Sargon 2.5, sold as a ROM module for the Chafitz Modular Game System, was identical to Sargon II but incorporated pondering. It received a 1641 rating at the Paul Masson tournament in June–July 1979, 1736 at the San Jose City College Open in January 1980.
Sargon 3.0 finished in seventh place at the October 1979 North American Computer Chess Championship. The competition had improved, but 3.0 drew against Cray Blitz and defeated Mychess, its main microcomputer rival. In December, 3.0 won the second microcomputer championship in London. In 1980, the Spracklens' Reversi game finished in first place at a computer tournament at Northwestern University, in 1981 it finished in third place at the Santa Cruz Open Othello Tournament. Sargon III was a complete rewrite from scratch. Instead of an exchange evaluator, this version used a capture search algorithm. Included was a chess opening repertoire; this third version was written for the 6502 assembler and was commercially published by Hayden Software in 1983. Apple contacted the Spracklens and, after a port for 68000 assembly, Sargon III was the first third-party executable software for the Macintosh. After the demise of Hayden Software chess programs were released under the name Sargon, including Sargon IV, Sargon V and a CD-i title named Sargon Chess.
The Spracklens concurrently wrote the engines for the dedicated chess computers produced by Fidelity Electronics, which won the first four World Microcomputer Chess Championships. The famous three-time world chess champion Mikhail Botvinnik played a game with Sargon in 1983 at Hamburg, he only tested the program's capabilities. Botvinnik himself was involved in chess program development. White: Mikhail Botvinnik Black: SARGON Hamburg, 1983 1.c4 e5 2. Nc3 d6 3.g3 Be6 4. Bg2 Nc6 5.d3 Nf6 6.f4 Be7 7. Nf3 O-O 8. O-O Qd7 9.e4 Bg4 10.h3 Bxh3 11.f5 Bxg2 12. Kxg2 Nb4 13.a3 Na6 14.b4 c5 15.b5 Nc7 16. Rh1 a6 17.b6 Nce8 18. Ng5 Qc6 19. Rb1 Bd8 20. Nd5 h6 21. Nf3 Nxd5 22.exd5 Qd7 23.g4 a5 24. Nd2 Ra6 25. Ne4 Rxb6 26. Rxb6 Bxb6 27.f6 Nxf6 28. Nxf6+ gxf6 29. Bxh6 Re8 30. Qf3 Bd8 31. Qh3 Qa4 32. Bd2 Kf8 33. Rf1 Kg8 34. Qh6 Qd7 35. Kg3 f5 36. Rh1 f4+ 37. Kf3 1-0 In John Carpenter's 1982 film The Thing, Antarctic helicopter pilot R. J. MacReady can be seen playing Sargon on a modified Apple II computer. J. Mishcon reviewed The Software Exchange's Sargon II for the TRS-80 and Apple II in The Space Gamer No. 32.
Mishcon commented that "This effort stands in the small group of programs that set industry standards. It is a competent computer opponent in the complex world of chess. Recommended for everyone short of the chess master."Video magazine listed Sargon III third on its list of best-selling video games in February 1985, fourth on the best-seller list in March 1985, with II Computing listing the game second on its list of top Apple II games in October
Sargon Gabriel is an Assyrian musician born in Habbaniyah, whose music style involves traditional Assyrian folk music with the instruments and dawoola. The singer resides in Chicago, Illinois; some of his notable writers of his songs include Adwar Mousa. Sargon Gabriel began singing as a teenager and made his first appearance on live television at the age of 17 in Baghdad, Iraq, he began singing backup on albums for another Assyrian singer, Albert Ruel Tamras, before starting his career as a solo singer and did a cover of Albert Ruel Tamras's famous song, "Asmar, Asmar" in his 1987 album entitled Wy Wy Minnakh. Sargon Gabriel has been featured singing with other famous Assyrian singers including Linda George, Janan Sawa, he has released over twenty albums. His first album was released in 1973, his songs have become popular in the Assyrian community upon the release of his first albums and his songs are sung by other musicians at weddings and other social gatherings. Yimma Yimma Atouraya Nineveh Shlama Aturaya Dalaleh Ganta D-Perdeisa Khooyada D-Omta Parzona Sara Way Way Minnakh Neqda Leeshana D-Yimma Kertey Nineveh Shooshla Darwid The Greatest Songs The Legend Continues Perdaisa Live In Sydney Al Balee Bassy Bassy Shoryen Zmara Official website Qeenatha: Sargon Gabriel assyrian4all.net
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, which the Bible called Akkad. The empire united Sumerian speakers under one rule; the Akkadian Empire exercised influence across Mesopotamia, the Levant, Anatolia, sending military expeditions as far south as Dilmun and Magan in the Arabian Peninsula. During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. Akkadian, an East Semitic language replaced Sumerian as a spoken language somewhere between the 3rd and the 2nd millennia BC; the Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon of Akkad. Under Sargon and his successors, the Akkadian language was imposed on neighboring conquered states such as Elam and Gutium. Akkad is sometimes regarded as the first empire in history, though the meaning of this term is not precise, there are earlier Sumerian claimants.
After the fall of the Akkadian Empire, the people of Mesopotamia coalesced into two major Akkadian-speaking nations: Assyria in the north, and, a few centuries Babylonia in the south. The Bible refers to Akkad in Genesis 10:10, which states that the beginning of Nimrod's kingdom was in the land of Akkad. Nimrod's historical identity is unknown, but some have compared him with the legendary Gilgamesh, founder of Uruk. Today, scholars have documented some 7,000 texts from the Akkadian period, written in both Sumerian and Akkadian. Many texts from the successor states of Assyria and Babylonia deal with the Akkadian Empire. Understanding of the Akkadian Empire continues to be hampered by the fact that its capital Akkad has not yet been located, despite numerous attempts. Precise dating of archaeological sites is hindered by the fact that there are no clear distinctions between artifact assemblages thought to stem from the preceding Early Dynastic period, those thought to be Akkadian. Material, thought to be Akkadian continues to be in use into the Ur III period.
Many of the more recent insights on the Akkadian Empire have come from excavations in the Upper Khabur area in modern northeastern Syria, to become a part of Assyria after the fall of Akkad. For example, excavations at Tell Mozan brought to light a sealing of Tar'am-Agade, a unknown daughter of Naram-Sin, married to an unidentified local endan; the excavators at nearby Tell Leilan have used the results from their investigations to argue that the Akkadian Empire came to an end due to a sudden drought, the so-called 4.2 kiloyear event. The impact of this climate event on Mesopotamia in general, on the Akkadian Empire in particular, continues to be hotly debated. Excavation at the modern site of Tell Brak has suggested that the Akkadians rebuilt a city on this site, for use as an administrative center; the city included two large buildings including a complex with temple, offices and large ovens. The Akkadian Period is dated to either: c. 2334 BC – c. 2154 BC, or c. 2270 BC – c. 2083 BC It was preceded by the Early Dynastic Period of Mesopotamia and succeeded by the Ur III Period, although both transitions are blurry.
For example: it is that the rise of Sargon of Akkad coincided with the late ED Period and that the final Akkadian kings ruled with the Gutian kings alongside rulers at the city-states of both: Uruk and Lagash. The Akkadian Period is contemporary with: EB IV, EB IVA and EJ IV, EB IIIB The relative order of Akkadian kings is clear; the absolute dates of their reigns are approximate. The Akkadian Empire takes its name from the region and the city of Akkad, both of which were localized in the general confluence area of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Although the city of Akkad has not yet been identified on the ground, it is known from various textual sources. Among these is at least one text predating the reign of Sargon. Together with the fact that the name Akkad is of non-Akkadian origin, this suggests that the city of Akkad may have been occupied in pre-Sargonic times. Sargon of Akkad conquered his empire; the earliest records in the Akkadian language date to the time of Sargon. Sargon was claimed to be the son of La'ibum or Itti-Bel, a humble gardener, a hierodule, or priestess to Ishtar or Inanna.
One legend related to Sargon in Assyrian times says that My mother was a changeling, my father I knew not. The brothers of my father loved the hills. My city is Azurpiranu, situated on the banks of the Euphrates. My changeling mother conceived, she set me with bitumen she sealed my lid. She cast me into the river; the river carried me to Akki, the drawer of water. Akki, the drawer of water, reared me. Akki the drawer of water, appointed me as his gardener. While I was gardener Ishtar granted me her love, for four and... years I exercised kingship. Claims made on behalf of Sargon were that his mother was an "entu" priestess; the claims might have been made to ensure
The Sargonid dynasty is an academic name for the final ruling family of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, beginning with Sargon II's ascent to the throne in 722 BC until the death of Sîn-šarru-iškun and the fall of the kingdom in 612 BC at the hands of a coalition of invaders. The dynasty was the last of the great Assyrian kings and came at the end of a 1500-year period of Assyrian ascendancy. Although the bloodline can be traced back two centuries to Tukulti-Ninurta II and Tiglath-Pileser III being the establisher of Assyria's military reforms, the dynasty is named after Sargon as it was his efforts that elevated the kingdom to its peak level and magnified the status of the šarru. Although the dynasty only encompassed the reign of four kings, the borders of the empire grew to encompass the Ancient Near East, East Mediterranean, Asia Minor and parts of the Arabian peninsula and North Africa, witnessed the subjugation of rivals such as Babylonia, Persia, Lydia, the Medes, Cimmerians, Judah, Chaldea, the Kushite Empire, the Arabs, Egypt, as Assyria's rivals were either conquered or made vassals.
With the death of the warrior king Ashurbanipal, various civil wars broke out with a number of figures laying claim to the throne. Although Assyria had faced civil wars before, this occasion saw them being coupled with a coalition of invaders, most notably long time rivals Babylonia and Media. With the coalition growing to include the Scythians and Cimmerians, the Assyrians continued to suffer defeat despite whatever help their Egyptian allies could offer. Assur and Kalhu were destroyed by 612 BC with the key city of Harran being the location of the final stand led by Aššur-uballiṭ II and his Egyptian allies; the Egyptians withdrew after a defeat in 610 BC with Harran falling in 609 BC. Assyria was never to resurrect as a political entity again; the dynasty takes its name from Sargon II who spearheaded the expansion of the kingdom from one based on the Mesopotamian heartland to a multinational and multi-ethnic empire. Sargon II was an Assyrian king. Sargon seized the throne of the Assyrian Empire in 722 BC after the death of Shalmaneser V in an violent coup.
In his inscriptions, he styles himself as a new man referring to his predecessors. Sargon was an impressive builder, establishing the new city Dur-Šarru-ukin in his name and adorning it with a lavish palace and temple citadel and lamassu statues at every gateway. Sargon was the last king to be involved in front-line battles while his successors oversaw the battles and engaged in personal combat with their rivals. Sargon gave some responsibilities to his crown prince Sīn-aḥḥī-erība and appointed his brother Sīn-aḥu-uṣur as grand-vizier. Sargon scored a number of victories against the Babylonians, Medians, Israelites and the kingdom of Carchemish; the empire now had heavy tributes flowing from every corner along with a treasury supplemented with loot from the temples of the defeat Urartians. Sargon was martyred in battle following a routine expedition to repel Cimmerian marauders from the Persian and Median vassals, his newly-built capital was moved to Nineveh. Sennacherib. Sennacherib is most notably remembered for his campaigns against Babylonia and Judah, while scholars now believe that the Hanging Gardens of Babylon may have been in Nineveh as part of his magnification works on the city as the new royal capital.
Sennacherib's military campaigning defeated him. Marduk-apla-iddina fled, Babylon was taken and the palace plundered, although the citizens were not harmed. A puppet king named Bel-ibni was placed on the throne and for the next two years Babylon was left in peace. In 701 BC, Sennacherib turned from Babylonia to the western part of the empire, where Hezekiah of Judah had renounced Assyrian allegiance through incitement by Egypt and Marduk-apla-iddina. Various small states in the area which had participated in the rebellion and Ashkelon, were taken by force and a string of other cities and states, including Byblos, Ammon and Edom paid tribute without resistance. Ekron called on Egypt for help but the Egyptians were defeated. Sennacherib besieged Hezekiah's capital and gave its surrounding towns to Assyrian vassal rulers in Ekron and Ashdod. There is no description of how the siege ended, but the annals record a submission by Hezekiah and a list of booty sent from Jerusalem to Nineveh. Hezekiah remained on his throne as a vassal ruler.
Sennacherib placed his eldest son Aššur-nādin-šumi on the throne of Babylon in 699 BC, rather than allowing a vassal monarchy rule as his father Sargon and ancestor Shalmaneser had done. Marduk-apla-iddina continued his rebellion with the help of Elam, in 694 Sennacherib took a fleet of Phoenician ships down the Tigris River to destroy the Elamite base on the shore of the Persian Gulf, but while he was doing this the Elamites captured Ashur-nadin-shumi and put Nergal-ushezib, the son of Marduk-apla-iddina, on the throne of Babylon. Nergal-ushezib was captured in 693 BC and taken to Nineveh, Sennacherib attacked Elam again; the Elamite king fled to the mountains and Sennacherib plundered his kingdom, but when he withdrew the Elamites returned to Babylon and put another rebel leader, Mu