Patroklos or Gaidouronisi is a small, private island located in the Saronic Gulf, Greece. It is part of the Attica region. In ancient times, the island was known as Patroklou Charax or Patroklou Nesos, after the Ptolemaic admiral Patroclus, who established a fortified base there during the Chremonidean War. In the late Middle Ages, the island was notorious as a haven for pirates; the Byzantine emperor John VIII Palaiologos was nearly captured by Catalan pirates in December 1437, when his ship sought shelter from a storm on the island during his journey to the Council of Ferrara. On 12 February 1944, SS Oria sank in a storm on the south east rocks of Patroklos island with 4,074 killed, most Italian military internees, it was the island at the heart of the Israeli political scandal known as the "Greek island affair"
Keros (Greek: Κέρος. Administratively it is part of the community of Koufonisia, it has an area of 15 km2 and its highest point is 432 m. It was an important site to the Cycladic civilization that flourished around 2500 BC, it is now forbidden to land in Keros. Keros is noted for the flat-faced Cycladic marble statues which inspired the work of Pablo Picasso and Henry Moore; the "Keros Hoard" is a large deposit of Cycladic figurines, found on the island of Keros. In 2006-2008, the Cambridge Keros Project, co-directed by Colin Renfrew with others, conducted excavations at Kavos on the west coast of the island; this general area is believed to be the source of the so-called "Keros Hoard" of fragmentary Cycladic figurines. The material excavated in 2006-2008 includes Cycladic figurines and other objects made of marble, all broken prior to deposition and most broken elsewhere and brought to Kavos for deposition; the lack of joining fragments shows that only a part of the broken material was deposited here, while ongoing studies of the pottery and other material show that material was brought from multiple sources for deposition here.
In 2007-2008, the same project identified and excavated a substantial Cycladic period settlement on the nearby island of Daskalio. A large area has been excavated, revealing a substantial building 16 metres long and 4 metres wide — the largest from this period in the Cyclades — within, discovered the ‘Daskalio hoard’ comprising a chisel, an axe-adze and a shaft-hole axe of copper or bronze. In addition to excavation, survey of the islet showed that most of its surface — a total of 7000 m2 — was occupied during the Early Bronze Age, making this the largest site in the Cyclades. Specialist studies for the geomorphology, petrology, ceramic petrology and environmental aspects ensued. In 2012, the activities at this site were dated 2750 to 2300 BC, which precedes any identified worship of gods in the Aegean. In 2018, excavations revealed the remains of massive terraced walls and giant gleaming structures on a tiny islet, once attached to Keros; the structures were built using 1,000 tons of stone, turning the headland, which measures just 500 ft across, into a single, giant'pyramid'.
Beneath the pyramid, researchers found evidence of a complex drainage tunnels and traces of advanced metalworking. The researchers say the remains make the island one of the most impressive archaeological sites of the Aegean Sea during the Early Bronze Age; the excavations show that the headland of Dhaskalio, once attached to Keros but is now a tiny islet because of sea level rise, was entirely covered by remarkable monuments. Keros-Syros culture is named after the two islands in the Cyclades -- Syros; this culture flourished during the Early Cycladic II period. Some of the best preserved sites of this culture are at Ios, located not far from Keros; some of the important artifacts of this culture are the so-called frying pans – shallow circular vessels or bowls with a decorated base. The use of metal became widespread during this period. Daskalio Cyprian Broodbank: An Island Archaeology of the Early Cyclades. Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN 0521528445 Mariya Ivanova: Befestigte Siedlungen auf dem Balkan, in der Ägäis und in Westanatolien, ca.
5000-2000 v. Chr.. Waxmann Verlag, 2008, ISBN 3830919379 Colin Renfrew, Christos Doumas, Lila Marangou, Giorgos Gavelas: Dhaskalio Kavos, Keros: The Investigations of 1987–88. In: N. J. Brodie, J. Doole, G. Gavalas, C. Renfrew: Horizon – a colloquium on the prehistory of the Cyclades. Cambridge, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2008, ISBN 978-1-902937-36-6, S. 107–113 Panayiota Sotorakopoulou: Dhaskalio Kavos, Keros: The pottery from the Investigations of the 1960s. In: N. J. Brodie, J. Doole, G. Gavalas, C. Renfrew: Horizon – a colloquium on the prehistory of the Cyclades. Cambridge, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2008, ISBN 978-1-902937-36-6, S. 115–120 Colin Renfrew et al.: Keros – Dhaskelion and Kavos, Early Cycladic Stronghold and Ritual Center. Preliminary Report of the 2006 and 2007 Excavation Seasons. In: The Annual of the British School at Athens 102, 2007, S. 103–136 Colin Renfrew et al.: The Early Cycladic Settlement at Dhaskalio, Keros – Preliminary Report of the 2008 Excavation Season.
In: The Annual of the British School at Athens, 104, 2009, S. 27–47 Official website of Community of Koufonísi The Cambridge Keros Project
Antiparos is a small island in the southern Aegean, at the heart of the Cyclades, less than one nautical mile from Paros, the port to which it is connected with a local ferry. Saliagos island is the most ancient settlement in the Cyclades, Despotiko, an uninhabited island in the southwest of Antiparos, is a place of great archaeological importance; the Community of Antiparos was founded in 1914 and was promoted to a municipality in 2010 with the implementation of the Law "Kallikrates", under the principle of "each island a municipality". It occupies an area including the island of Antiparos and Despotiko, it has, according to the 2011 census, 1,211 permanent residents and a density of 27 inhabitants per km². The island's economy is based on tourism, fishing and less on agriculture in the plains, it is known for its white houses, cobbled streets and the flowers that thrive in the yards of the houses. It is a tourist resort in the summer for Greeks and European visitors, as well as land investors from the United States.
The main settlement lies at the northeastern tip of the island, opposite Pounda on the main island of Paros, whence a ferry sails for Antiparos harbour. The historical center is located in the Venetian castle of Antiparos, connected through the shopping streets in the picturesque coastal street. Other settlements are the resort of St. George in the southwest edge and Kampos. Beaches in the wider area of the center are Psaralyki, the Sifneiko, Ag Spiridon and the camping beach. Other beaches include: Soros, Apantima, Monastiria; the ancient name of the island was "Oliaros", a word of Phoenician origin meaning "wooded mountain." The island was named "Antiparos" Situated within walking distance from Paros. The island of Antiparos is located 0.8 nautical mi southwest of Paros, separated by the Strait of Antiparos, known as Amfigeio. It lies 8 kilometres from the port of Parikia; the maximum length of the island is 11 kilometres from north to south, while the maximum width reaches 4.5 kilometres. The total area is estimated at 37 to 38 km.
And the highest peak, St. Elias, in the middle of the island, is at 308 m; the main town is called Antiparos. Antiparos is a volcanic rock and dry climate with high moisture, morphology favors the development of strong winds; the flowers thrive in the region are bougainvillea that adorn the gardens and shops. The morphology of Antiparos is characterised flat, with many small hilly peaks, while the vegetation of the island is low; the island of Antiparos is surrounded by many small uninhabited islands with great historical and archaeological interest, such as Tsimintiri the Round, the Double, Revmatonisi, the Red and Black Tourlos. Well known in the international community is Despotiko, an uninhabited island west of Antiparos, where in recent years excavations of great archaeological importance have been carried out; the island economy is based on tourism: the income from visits to the Cave of Antiparos form a big part of the budget of the municipality. Most people work in the shops and accommodation on the island during the tourist season from Easter to October, with the remainder funded by the Employment Service, or undertaking technical and manual jobs.
The island's economy is helped by agriculture and animal husbandry, fisheries. Since the 1970s and 1980s, Antiparos has become a popular holiday destination for nudists, attracted by the remote and sandy beaches; the best known is the Camping, or Theologians beach, at the north of the island, opposite the uninhabited island of Diplo. The far end of the town beach is nudist, as is the Perigiali beach; however most of the other beaches on Antiparos are textile. Since the 1990s there has been a steady development due to its proximity to Paros, the infrastructure has been improved to accommodate the growing influx of tourists. There are extensive; the first excavations were those made by the traveller Theodore Bent in 1884, who opened up some 40 graves in two cemeteries. In 1889 Christos Tsountas excavated in Despotiko, revealing Cycladic cemeteries. From 1964-5 a Neolithic settlement was excavated on the island of Saliagos by Colin Renfrew and J D Evans for the British School at Athens. Stone foundations of buildings, obsidian arrowheads and pottery were found, together with a marble figurine known as the Fat lady of Saliagos.
Classical remains are concentrated on the island of Despotiko. The Isle of Antiparos was identified with ancient Prepesintho, according to the extant writings of Strabo and Pliny. In 1959 Nikos Zafiropoulos began excavations at Zoumparia and Mantra, on the northeast coast, where there were architecturally Doric temples from the ancient times, dating to 500 BC. In 1997, the archaeologist Yiannos Kourayos began new excavations at Mantra, bringing to light some of the ancillary buildings of a sanctuary; the temple itself has not so far been discovered, though a number of architectural elements from an early Doric temple have been discovered built into walls. The main finding so far has been an elongated building, consisting of five consecutive parallel rooms. In the southern room archaic materials of Eastern Aegean, Rhodian and Egyptian origin have been discovered. Many marble sculptures were found, including two archaic kouros heads, a naked male statue, part of the Archaic period perirrantiriou inscribed with the inscription "Marda anethiken".
Among the significant findings include the built-square marble altar dedicated
Psyttaleia is an uninhabited island in the Saronic Gulf between the harbor of Piraeus and the Kynosoura peninsula on Salamis Island, Greece. It covers an area of 0.375 square kilometers. The island houses the largest sewage treatment plant in Europe, with a projected daily maximum drying capacity of 750 tons of sewage. Administratively it is part of the Municipality of Piraeus. In 480 BC, before the naval battle of Salamis, the Persians installed in the island a garrison of soldiers and noblemen. After the Greek victory, the Persian fleet retreated towards Phaliron and the guard was abandoned. Aristides, the Athenian strategos, executed all the Persians. From the Middle Ages until the island was called Lipsokoutali because it resembled a half-spoon when seen from the Aegaleo mountain. Ancient Psyttaleia has long been identified with modern Lipsokoutali, though some scholars proposed Agios Georgios instead. In modern history, the island was transformed into a naval prison, in accordance with the French model of the time, as well as place of exile for political dissidents.
Since the 1990s, the Saronic Gulf was starting to become polluted by industrial and residential sewage from Athens. In order to protect the ecosystem and due to considerations for negative implications on tourism, a sewage treatment plant was installed on the island which started operation on November 1994; this included the primary treatment, which prevents the waste from entering the sea, but did not provide a permanent solution for the resulting sludge. Temporary solutions of exporting the sludge and of neutralizing it through oxidization proved insufficient over the years. On June 1, 2007, the sludge treatment plant was put into operation, with two production lines of a total waste drying capacity of 500 tons per day, which matches today's daily sewage influx. Another two production lines started operation a month raising the total capacity to more than 750 tons per day, it is estimated that the remaining sludge of 150 to 160,000 tons, accumulated on the island over the years when only the primary treatment was active, will be converted to biofuel in the first six months of operation.
The resulting biofuel will be used in industry in cement kilns and electricity power plants. On October 5, 2007, environment vice-minister Themistoklis Xanthopoulos announced that there will be no sludge left in the following 5 months, that the operation has been completed, that stern auditors such as the European Court of Auditors have approved the quality of the plant. In the northeastern part of the island, not occupied by the sewage treatment plant, there is a lighthouse and a station of the Hellenic Coast Guard Vessel Traffic Service system. 37°56.620′N 23°35.664′E Official website of Municipality of Piraeus
Piraeus is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece. Piraeus is located within the Athens urban area, 12 kilometres southwest from its city centre, lies along the east coast of the Saronic Gulf. According to the 2011 census, Piraeus had a population of 163,688 people within its administrative limits, making it the fourth largest municipality in Greece and the second largest within the urban area of the Greek capital, following the municipality of Athens; the municipality of Piraeus and several other suburban municipalities within the regional unit of Piraeus form the greater Piraeus area, with a total population of 448,997. Piraeus has a long recorded history, dating to ancient Greece; the city was developed in the early 5th century BC, when it was selected to serve as the port city of classical Athens and was transformed into a prototype harbour, concentrating all the import and transit trade of Athens. During the Golden Age of Athens the Long Walls were constructed to fortify its port, it became the chief harbour of ancient Greece, but declined after the 4th century AD, growing once more in the 19th century, after Athens' declaration as the capital of Greece.
In the modern era, Piraeus is a large city, bustling with activity and an integral part of Athens, acting as home to the country's biggest harbour and bearing all the characteristics of a huge marine and commercial-industrial centre. The port of Piraeus is the chief port in Greece, the largest passenger port in Europe and the second largest in the world, servicing about 20 million passengers annually. With a throughput of 1.4 million TEUs, Piraeus is placed among the top ten ports in container traffic in Europe and the top container port in the Eastern Mediterranean. The city hosted events in both the 1896 and 2004 Summer Olympics held in Athens; the University of Piraeus is one of the largest universities in Greece. Piraeus, which means'the place over the passage', has been inhabited since the 26th century BC. In prehistoric times, Piraeus was a rocky island consisting of the steep hill of Munichia, modern-day Kastella, was connected to the mainland by a low-lying stretch of land, flooded with sea water most of the year, used as a salt field whenever it dried up.
It was called the Halipedon, meaning the'salt field', its muddy soil made it a tricky passage. Through the centuries, the area was silted and flooding ceased, thus by early classical times the land passage was made safe. In ancient Greece, Piraeus assumed its importance with its three deep water harbours, the main port of Cantharus and the two smaller of Zea and Munichia, replaced the older and shallow Phaleron harbour, which fell into disuse. In the late 6th century BC, the area caught attention due to its advantages. In 511 BC, the hill of Munichia was fortified by Hippias and four years Piraeus became a deme of Athens by Cleisthenes. According to the ancient Greek historian Thucydides, in 493 BC, Themistocles initiated the fortification works in Piraeus and advised the Athenians to take advantage of its natural harbours' strategic potential instead of using the sandy bay of Phaleron. In 483 BC, a new silver vein was discovered in Laurion mines, utilized to fund the construction of 200 triremes, the Athenian fleet, transferred to Piraeus and was built in its shipyards.
The Athenian fleet played a crucial role in the battle of Salamis against the Persians in 480 BC. From on Piraeus was permanently used as the navy base. After the second Persian invasion of Greece, Themistocles fortified the three harbours of Piraeus and created the neosoikoi; the city's fortification was farther reinforced by the construction of the Long Walls under Cimon and Pericles, with which secure port's route to Athens main city. Meanwhile, Piraeus was rebuilt to the famous grid plan of architect Hippodamus of Miletus, known as the Hippodamian plan, the main agora of the city was named after him in honour; as a result, Piraeus flourished and became a port of high security and great commercial activity, a city bustling with life. During the Peloponnesian War, Piraeus suffered its first setback. In the second year of the war, the first cases of the Athens plague were recorded in Piraeus. In 429 the Spartans ravaged Salamis as part of an abortive attack on the Piraeus, when the Athenians responded by sending a fleet to investigate, the Spartan alliance forces fled.
In 404 BC, the Spartan fleet under Lysander blockaded Piraeus and subsequently Athens surrendered to the Spartans, putting an end to the Delian League and the war itself. Piraeus would follow the fate of Athens and was to bear the brunt of the Spartans' rage, as the city's walls and the Long Walls were torn down; as a result, the tattered and unfortified port city was not able to compete with prosperous Rhodes, which controlled commerce. In 403 BC, Munichia was seized by Thrasybulus and the exiles from Phyle, in the battle of Munichia, where the Phyleans defeated the Thirty Tyrants of Athens, but in the following battle of Piraeus the exiles were defeated by Spartan forces. After the reinstatement of democracy, Conon rebuilt the walls in 393 BC, founded the temple of Aphrodite Euploia and the sanctuary of Zeus Sotiros and Athena, built the famous Skeuotheke of Philon, the ruins of which have been discovered at Zea harbour; the reconstruction of Piraeus went on