International Space Station
The International Space Station is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit. Its first component was launched into orbit in 1998, with the first long-term residents arriving in November 2000, it has been inhabited continuously since that date. The last pressurised module was fitted in 2011, an experimental inflatable space habitat was added in 2016; the station is expected to operate until 2030. Development and assembly of the station continues, with several new elements scheduled for launch in 2019; the ISS is the largest human-made body in low Earth orbit and can be seen with the naked eye from Earth. The ISS consists of pressurised habitation modules, structural trusses, solar arrays, docking ports, experiment bays and robotic arms. ISS components have been launched by American Space Shuttles; the ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, astronomy and other fields.
The station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars. The ISS maintains an orbit with an altitude of between 330 and 435 km by means of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the Zvezda module or visiting spacecraft, it circles the Earth in 92 minutes and completes 15.5 orbits per day. The ISS programme is a joint project between five participating space agencies: NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, CSA; the ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The station is divided into two sections, the Russian Orbital Segment and the United States Orbital Segment, shared by many nations; as of January 2018, operations of the American segment were funded until 2025. Roscosmos has endorsed the continued operation of ISS through 2024, but has proposed using elements of the Russian segment to construct a new Russian space station called OPSEK; the ISS is the ninth space station to be inhabited by crews, following the Soviet and Russian Salyut and Mir stations as well as Skylab from the US.
The station has been continuously occupied for 18 years and 161 days since the arrival of Expedition 1 on 2 November 2000. This is the longest continuous human presence in low Earth orbit, having surpassed the previous record of 9 years and 357 days held by Mir, it has been visited by astronauts and space tourists from 18 different nations. After the American Space Shuttle programme ended in 2011, Soyuz rockets became the only provider of transport for astronauts at the ISS; the station is serviced by a variety of visiting spacecraft: the Russian Soyuz and Progress, the American Dragon and Cygnus, the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle, the American Space Shuttle and the European Automated Transfer Vehicle. The Dragon spacecraft allows the return of pressurised cargo to Earth, used for example to repatriate scientific experiments for further analysis; the Soyuz return capsule has minimal downmass capability next to the astronauts. As of 14 March 2019, 236 people from 18 countries had visited the space station, many of them multiple times.
The United States sent 149 people, Russia sent 47, nine were Japanese, eight were Canadian, five were Italian, four were French, three were German, there were one each from Belgium, Denmark, Malaysia, the Netherlands, South Africa, South Korea, Spain and the United Kingdom. According to the original Memorandum of Understanding between NASA and Rosaviakosmos, the International Space Station was intended to be a laboratory and factory in low Earth orbit, it was planned to provide transportation and act as a staging base for possible future missions to the Moon and asteroids. In the 2010 United States National Space Policy, the ISS was given additional roles of serving commercial and educational purposes; the ISS provides a platform to conduct scientific research. Small unmanned spacecraft can provide platforms for zero gravity and exposure to space, but space stations offer a long-term environment where studies can be performed for decades, combined with ready access by human researchers over periods that exceed the capabilities of manned spacecraft.
The ISS simplifies individual experiments by eliminating the need for separate rocket launches and research staff. The wide variety of research fields include astrobiology, human research including space medicine and life sciences, physical sciences, materials science, space weather, weather on Earth. Scientists on Earth have access to the crew's data and can modify experiments or launch new ones, which are benefits unavailable on unmanned spacecraft. Crews fly expeditions of several months' duration, providing 160-man-hours per week of labour with a crew of 6. To detect dark matter and answer other fundamental questions about our universe and scientists from all over the world built the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, which NASA compares to the Hubble Space Telescope, says could not be accommodated on a free flying satellite platform because of its power requirements and data bandwidth needs. On 3 April 2013, NASA scientists reported that hints of dark matter may have been detected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer.
According to the scientists, "The first results from the space-borne Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer confirm an unexplained excess of high-energy positrons in Earth-bound cosmic rays." The space environment is hostile to life. Unprotected presence in space is characterised by an intense radiation field (consisting pr
Shikotan known as Shpanberg, is an island, administered by the Russian Federation as part of Yuzhno-Kurilsky District of Sakhalin Oblast, and, claimed by Japan as part of Nemuro Subprefecture of Hokkaido Prefecture. Russia recognised Japanese sovereignty over the island in the 19th century. In September 1945, during the final days of World War II, the island was invaded by 600 Soviet troops, it is one of the islands which the Soviet Union agreed in 1956 to transfer to Japan in the event of a peace treaty between the two countries. The name of Shikotan derives from the Ainu language and means "the village proper" or "real town"; the total land area of Shikotan is 225 km². The island is hilly; the shores of the island are indented and covered with oceanic meadows. The highest altitude is 412 m; the island is formed by the volcanic rock and sandstone of the Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic periods. There are two extinct volcanoes on Shikotan: Mount Notoro. Shikotan's vegetation consists of Sakhalin fir, deciduous trees, bamboo underbrush, juniper brushwood.
There are two settlements: Krabozavodskoye. The primary economic activities are fisheries and fishing, with the principal marine products being cod and kelp. An earthquake and subsequent tsunami caused major damage on the island's coastline on October 4, 1994; the 2014 anime film Giovanni's Island is a fictionalized account of the fate of Japanese civilians living on Shikotan at the time of the 1945 Soviet occupation. Kuril Islands dispute Soviet–Japanese Joint Declaration of 1956 Shikotan District, Hokkaido Kuril Island Network - A volunteer group dedicated to raising awareness of the habitat on the Kurils - Satellite image of Shikotan [http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20061008f1.html Ainu speaker and activist explains the meaning of the South Kuril island names
A stratovolcano known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava, tephra and ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile with a summit crater and periodic intervals of explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed summit craters called calderas; the lava flowing from stratovolcanoes cools and hardens before spreading far, due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows have travelled as far as 15 km. Stratovolcanoes are sometimes called "composite volcanoes" because of their composite stratified structure built up from sequential outpourings of erupted materials, they are in contrast to the less common shield volcanoes. Two famous examples of stratovolcanoes are Krakatoa, known for its catastrophic eruption in 1883 and Vesuvius, whose eruption in AD79 caused destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum in 79 AD.
Both eruptions claimed thousands of lives. In modern times, Mount St. Helens and Mount Pinatubo have erupted catastrophically, with lesser losses of lives; the possible existence of stratovolcanoes on other terrestrial bodies of the Solar System has not been conclusively demonstrated. The one feasible exception are the existence of some isolated massifs on Mars, for example the Zephyria Tholus. Stratovolcanoes are common at subduction zones, forming chains and clusters along plate tectonic boundaries where oceanic crust is drawn under continental crust or another oceanic plate; the magma forming stratovolcanoes rises when water trapped both in hydrated minerals and in the porous basalt rock of the upper oceanic crust is released into mantle rock of the asthenosphere above the sinking oceanic slab. The release of water from hydrated minerals is termed "dewatering", occurs at specific pressures and temperatures for each mineral, as the plate descends to greater depths; the water freed from the rock lowers the melting point of the overlying mantle rock, which undergoes partial melting and rises due to its lighter density relative to the surrounding mantle rock, pools temporarily at the base of the lithosphere.
The magma rises through the crust, incorporating silica-rich crustal rock, leading to a final intermediate composition. When the magma nears the top surface, it pools in a magma chamber within the crust below the stratovolcano. There, the low pressure allows water and other volatiles dissolved in the magma to escape from solution, as occurs when a bottle of carbonated water is opened, releasing CO2. Once a critical volume of magma and gas accumulates, the plug of the volcanic vent is broken, leading to a sudden explosive eruption. In recorded history, explosive eruptions at subduction zone volcanoes have posed the greatest hazard to civilizations. Subduction-zone stratovolcanoes, such as Mount St. Helens, Mount Etna and Mount Pinatubo erupt with explosive force: the magma is too stiff to allow easy escape of volcanic gases; as a consequence, the tremendous internal pressures of the trapped volcanic gases remain and intermingle in the pasty magma. Following the breaching of the vent and the opening of the crater, the magma degasses explosively.
The magma and gases blast out with full force. Since 1600 CE, nearly 300,000 people have been killed by volcanic eruptions. Most deaths were caused by pyroclastic flows and lahars, deadly hazards that accompany explosive eruptions of subduction-zone stratovolcanoes. Pyroclastic flows are swift, avalanche-like, ground-sweeping, incandescent mixtures of hot volcanic debris, fine ash, fragmented lava and superheated gases that can travel at speeds in excess of 160 km/h. Around 30,000 people were killed by pyroclastic flows during the 1902 eruption of Mount Pelée on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean. In March to April 1982, three explosive eruptions of El Chichón in the State of Chiapas in southeastern Mexico, caused the worst volcanic disaster in that country's history. Villages within 8 km of the volcano were destroyed by pyroclastic flows, killing more than 2,000 people. Two Decade Volcanoes that erupted in 1991 provide examples of stratovolcano hazards. On June 15, Mount Pinatubo spewed an ash cloud 40 km into the air and produced huge pyroclastic surges and lahar floods that devastated a large area around the volcano.
Pinatubo, located in Central Luzon just 90 km west-northwest from Manila, had been dormant for 6 centuries before the 1991 eruption, which ranks as one of the largest eruptions in the 20th century. In 1991, Japan's Unzen Volcano, located on the island of Kyushu about 40 km east of Nagasaki, awakened from its 200-year slumber to produce a new lava dome at its summit. Beginning in June, repeated collapse of this erupting dome generated ash flows that swept down the mountain's slopes at speeds as high as 200 km/h. Unzen is one of more than 75 active volcanoes in Japan; the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 smothered the nearby ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum with thick deposits of pyroclastic surges and lava flows. Although death toll is estimated between 13,000 and 26,000 remains, the exact number still remains unknown. Vesuvius is recognized as one of the most dangerous volcanoes, due to its
Paramushir (Russian: Парамушир, translit. Paramushir, Japanese: 幌筵島, translit. Paramushiru-tō or Horomushiro-tō, Ainu: パラムシㇼ or パラムシㇽ, translit. Para-mu-sir, is a volcanic island in the northern portion of Kuril Islands chain in the Sea of Okhotsk in the northwest Pacific Ocean, it is separated from Shumshu by the narrow Second Kuril Strait in the northeast 2.5 km, from Antsiferov by the Luzhin Strait to the southwest, from Atlasov in the northwest by 20 kilometres, from Onnekotan in the south by the 40 km wide Fourth Kuril Strait. Its northern tip is 39 kilometres from Cape Lopatka at the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula, its name is derived from the Ainu language, from “broad island” or “populous island”. Severo-Kurilsk, the administrative center of the Severo-Kurilsky district, is the only permanently populated settlement on Paramushir island. Paramushir is rectangular, is the second largest of the Kuril Islands with an area of 2,053 square kilometres. Geologically, Paramushir is a continuous chain of 23 volcanoes.
At least five of them are active, exceed 1,000 metres: Chikurachki, with a height of 1,816 metres is the highest peak on Paramushir and the third highest in the Kuril Islands. It has erupted in 1690, 1853, 1859, 1933 and several times between 1957–2008. During the most recent eruption in August 2008, the volcanic ash reached the town of Severo-Kurilsk located 60 km north-east; the previous eruption took place on March 4, 2007, when a 1.5 km high plume of ash was emitted that trailed for several hundred kilometers into the neighboring waters. Fuss Peak, with a height of 1,772 metres is a conical stratovolcano, it has erupted in 1742, 1854 and 1934. Lomonosov Group, with a height of 1,681 metres is part of the Chikurachki group. Karpinsky Group, with a height of 1,345 metres has erupted in 1957. Ebeko, with a height of 1,345 metres has erupted numerous times, most in 1990; the central crater of Ebeko is filled by a caldera lake about 20 metres deep. Paramushir has a sub-arctic climate modulated by the cooling effects of the North Pacific Oyashio Current.
The arboreal flora of Paramushir is limited to dense, stunted copses of Siberian dwarf pine and shrubby alder. The alpine tundra which dominates the landscape produces plentiful edible mushrooms and berries lingonberry, Arctic raspberry and crowberry. Red fox, Arctic hare and ermine hunted by the inhabitants; the island supports a population of brown bears. In the spring crested auklet nest on the island; the straits between Paramushir and Shumshu island support a notably dense population of sea otters. North Pacific right whales, one of the rarest and the most endangered whale species are known to appear in the surrounding waters. Several species of charr and Pacific salmon spawn in its rivers, notably in the Tukharka river, which at 20 kilometres is the longest river on the island. Paramushir was inhabited by the Ainu at the time of European contact; the island appears on an official map showing the territories of Matsumae Domain, a feudal domain of Edo period Japan dated 1644. Russian fur traders are known to have visited the island in 1711 and 1713, Russian Orthodox missionaries established a church in 1747 to convert the local inhabitants.
Subsequently, claimed by the Empire of Russia, sovereignty over the island was confirmed to be under Imperial Russia under the terms of the Treaty of Shimoda in 1855, but was transferred to the Empire of Japan per the Treaty of Saint Petersburg along with the rest of the Kuril Islands. The Japanese established a settlement, Kashiwabara, on the site of the largest Ainu village, which became the major port on the island, a center for the commercial fishing industry; the island was administered as part of Shimushu District of Nemuro Subprefecture of Hokkaidō. During World War II the island was garrisoned by both the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy; the headquarters of the IJA 91st Infantry Division, responsible for defense of the northern Kurils, was established at Kashiwabara, numerous coastal artillery positions and fortified bunkers were constructed in various locations around the island. In addition, the Imperial Japanese Army constructed four airfields: Kashiwabara Airfield in the northeast with Ki-43 Oscars, Kakumabestu Airfield on the southwest coast with a 3,800 feet runway and Ki-44 Tojos, Kitanodai Airfield on the northeast coast with a 4,000 feet runway, Suribachi Airfield, an auxiliary base in the center of the south coast with two runways.
The Imperial Japanese Navy had Musashi Airfield on the south-western tip of the island with two 4,000 feet runways, one 4,300 ft and another 4,200 ft, operating a variety of aircraft as well as a radar site. These bases were subject to sporadic air raids from the US Army Air Forces and US Navy based in the Aleutian Islands from 1943 until the end of the war. Soviet troops landed on Paramushir on August 18, 1945, during the Invasion of the Kuril Islands, combat operations continued through August 23, ending with the surrender of the surviving members of the Japanese garrison; the Soviets forcibly deported the remaining Japanese civilian inhabitants and sent the prisoners of war to labor camps. Kashiwabara was renamed Severo-Kurilsk and the island annexed by the Soviet Union in 1946. Japan formally gave up sovereignt
Broutona is an uninhabited volcanic island located near the northern end of the southern Kuril Islands chain in the Sea of Okhotsk in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Its name is derived from William Robert Broughton, a British American ship captain who charted many of the Kuril Islands during his voyages during the 19th century, its original Ainu name was Makanruru, which translates to "island in a strong current". Broutona is circular, with an area of 7 square kilometres It is located 17 kilometres to the northwest of the twin islands of Chirpoy and Brat Chirpoyev; the island consists of a dormant or extinct stratovolcano, which rises to 801 metres above sea level. The mountain has not erupted in historic times; the island has steep cliff sides, which can reach heights of 274 m and no sandy beaches, making landing difficult and dangerous in calm weather. These cliffs are weak and are eroded by the sea. Broutona appears to have never been inhabited, it appears on an official map showing the territories of Matsumae Domain, a feudal domain of Edo period Japan dated 1644, these holdings were confirmed by the Tokugawa shogunate in 1715.
Subsequently, claimed by the Empire of Russia, sovereignty passed to Russia under the terms of the Treaty of Shimoda, but was returned to the Empire of Japan per the Treaty of Saint Petersburg along with the rest of the Kuril islands. The island was administered as part of Uruppu District of Nemuro Subprefecture of Hokkaidō. After World War II, the island came under the control of the Soviet Union, is now administered as part of the Sakhalin Oblast of the Russian Federation. In the spring and summer northern fulmar and fork-tailed storm petrel nest on the island. List of volcanoes in Russia "Oceandots: Broutona". Archived from the original on 2010-12-23. Retrieved 2010-05-25. Gorshkov, G. S. Volcanism and the Upper Mantle Investigations in the Kurile Island Arc. Monographs in geoscience. New York: Plenum Press, 1970. ISBN 0-306-30407-4 Krasheninnikov, Stepan Petrovich, James Greive; the History of Kamtschatka and the Kurilski Islands, with the Countries Adjacent. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1963. Rees, David.
The Soviet Seizure of the Kuriles. New York: Praeger, 1985. ISBN 0-03-002552-4 Takahashi and Masahiro Ōhara. Biodiversity and Biogeography of the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin. Bulletin of the Hokkaido University Museum, no. 2-. Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido University Museum, 2004
Matua is an uninhabited volcanic island near the center of the Kuril Islands chain in the Sea of Okhotsk in the northwest Pacific Ocean, 16 kilometers across Golovnin Strait from Raikoke. Its name is derived from the Ainu language, from “hellmouth”. Hunting and fishing parties of the Ainu have long visited Matua, but the island had no permanent habitation at the time of European contact, it appears on an official map showing the territories of the Matsumae Domain, a feudal domain of Edo period Japan dated 1644, the Tokugawa shogunate confirmed these holdings in 1715. Some early European documents refer to the island as Raukoke; the Empire of Russia claimed sovereignty over the island, which passed to Russia under the terms of the Treaty of Shimoda, but reverted to the Empire of Japan per the Treaty of Saint Petersburg along with the rest of the Kuril islands. Japan administered Matua as part of Shimushiru District of Nemuro Subprefecture of Hokkaidō. During World War II the Imperial Japanese Army had what is believed to be a east–west-oriented airfield, which hosted the IJNAS's 553rd Kōkūtai, equipped with Aichi D3A Val dive bombers, located on this island, with the active runway of some 1.33 kilometer length, believed to be located on its southernmost areas.
The island was garrisoned by 7000-8000 men of the 41st Independent Mixed Regiment, 6th Independent Tank Company, supporting units. During 1944 the US Army Air Forces intermittently bombed the Japanese facilities on the island and ships of the United States Navy shelled it; the Americans sank several Japanese cargo vessels near the while at harbor. On June 1, 1944, a Japanese shore-battery on Point Tagan sank the American submarine USS Herring. During the Soviet Battle of the Kuril Islands in the last weeks of World War II, the Japanese garrison surrendered to the Red Army without resistance. After World War II the island came under the control of the Soviet Union, Soviet Border Troops manned the former Japanese military facilities, its most important role was radar surveillance of the Kuril Islands. A VHF P-14 radar, "Tall King", was put into service during the 1950s or 1960s, a P-35 radar and a PRV-10 “Rock Cake” radar were in service at some point. With the withdrawal of Soviet military forces following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the island became uninhabited.
The Russian Federation administers it as part of the Sakhalin Oblast. In 2016 some two hundred Russian officials and technical experts made an expedition to the island, part of a plan to rehabilitate the derelict 1.2 km Soviet airfield and establish a new naval and logistical forward military base. Matua is oval, with a length of 11 kilometres with a width of 6.5 kilometres, an area of 52 square kilometres. The island is a complex stratovolcano with two main peaks. Sarychev Peak in the northwest of the island is one of the most active volcanoes of the Kuril Islands; the central cone has a 250-meter wide steep-walled crater with a jagged rim, rising to a height of 1,496 metres. Lava flows descending on all sides of the peak forms capes along the coast. Eruptions have been recorded since the 1760s, including 1878–1879, 1923, 1930, 1946, 1960, 1976, 1981, 1987, 1989 and 2009, with the largest in 1946 which produced pyroclastic flows that reached the sea; the 2009 eruption was large enough to affect air traffic between North America.
The much smaller peak to the south, Japanese: 天蓋山. Although it is located at the same latitude as Paris or Seattle, the Oyashio current on the western flank of the Aleutian Low gives Matua a subarctic climate, close to a polar climate. Unlike the quintessential subarctic climate of Siberia or Mongolia, Matua has heavy precipitation as rain and fog, it has much milder winters than corresponding latitudes in Manchuria: the mean temperature of the coldest month in Matua is −6.1 °C as against −17.8 °C in Qiqihar in Heilongjiang. Seasonal lag, like in all the Kuril Islands, is a major feature of the climate, with August being the mildest month and February the coldest. List of volcanoes in Russia Organization of Kita and Minami Fortresses Global Volcanism Program Gorshkov, G. S. Volcanism and the Upper Mantle Investigations in the Kurile Island Arc. Monographs in geoscience. New York: Plenum Press, 1970. ISBN 0-306-30407-4 Krasheninnikov, Stepan Petrovich, James Greive; the History of Kamtschatka and the Kurilski Islands, with the Countries Adjacent.
Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1963. Rees, David; the Soviet Seizure of the Kuriles. New York: Praeger, 1985. ISBN 0-03-002552-4 Takahashi and Masahiro Ōhara. Biodiversity and Biogeography of the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin. Bulletin of the Hokkaido University Museum, no. 2-. Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido University Museum, 2004. Media related to Matua Island at Wikimedia Commons Matua Island at Oceandots at the Wayback Machine