The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a powerful northeast Native American confederacy. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the Iroquois League, as the Iroquois Confederacy, to the English as the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawk, Oneida and Seneca. After 1722, they accepted the Tuscarora people from the Southeast into their confederacy and became known as the Six Nations; the Iroquois have absorbed many other peoples into their tribes as a result of warfare, adoption of captives, by offering shelter to displaced peoples. Culturally, all are considered members of the clans and tribes into which they are adopted by families; the historic St. Lawrence Iroquoians, Wyandot and Susquehannock, all independent peoples spoke Iroquoian languages. In the larger sense of linguistic families, they are considered Iroquoian peoples because of their similar languages and cultures, all descended from the Proto-Iroquoian people and language. In addition, Cherokee is an Iroquoian language: the Cherokee people are believed to have migrated south from the Great Lakes in ancient times, settling in the backcountry of the Southeast United States, including what is now Tennessee.
In 2010, more than 45,000 enrolled Six Nations people lived in Canada, about 80,000 in the United States. The most common name for the confederacy, Iroquois, is of somewhat obscure origin; the first time it appears in writing is in the account of Samuel de Champlain of his journey to Tadoussac in 1603, where it occurs as "Irocois". Other spellings appearing in the earliest sources include "Erocoise", "Hiroquois", "Hyroquoise", "Irecoies", "Iriquois", "Iroquaes", "Irroquois", "Yroquois", as the French transliterated the term into their own phonetic system. In the French spoken at the time, this would have been pronounced as or. Over the years, several competing theories have been proposed for this name's ultimate origin, the earliest by the Jesuit priest Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix, who wrote in 1744: The name Iroquois is purely French, is formed from the term Hiro or Hero, which means I have said—with which these Indians close all their addresses, as the Latins did of old with their dixi—and of Koué, a cry sometimes of sadness, when it is prolonged, sometimes of joy, when it is pronounced shorter.
In 1883, Horatio Hale wrote that Charlevoix's etymology was dubious, that "no other nation or tribe of which we have any knowledge has borne a name composed in this whimsical fashion". Hale suggested instead that the term came from Huron, was cognate with Mohawk ierokwa "they who smoke" or Cayuga iakwai "a bear". In 1888, J. N. B. Hewitt expressed doubts, his preferred the etymology from Montagnais irin "true, real" and ako "snake", plus the French -ois suffix, though he revised this to Algonquin Iriⁿakhoiw. A more modern etymology was advocated by Gordon M. Day in 1968, elaborating upon Charles Arnaud from 1880. Arnaud had claimed that the word came from Montagnais irnokué, meaning "terrible man", via the reduced form irokue. Day proposed a hypothetical Montagnais phrase irno kwédač, meaning "a man, an Iroquois", as the origin of this term. For the first element irno, Day cites cognates from other attested Montagnais dialects: irinou, iriniȣ, ilnu. However, none of these etymologies gained widespread acceptance.
By 1978 Ives Goddard could write: "No such form is attested in any Indian language as a name for any Iroquoian group, the ultimate origin and meaning of the name are unknown."More Peter Bakker has proposed a Basque origin for "Iroquois". Basque fishermen and whalers are known to have frequented the waters of the Northeast in the 1500s, so much so that a Basque-based pidgin developed for communication with the Algonquian tribes of the region. Bakker claims that it is unlikely that "-quois" derives from a root used to refer to the Iroquois, citing as evidence that several other Indian tribes of the region were known to the French by names terminating in the same element, e.g. "Armouchiquois", "Charioquois", "Excomminquois", "Souriquois". He proposes instead that the word derives from hilokoa, from the Basque roots hil "to kill", ko, a. In favor of an original form beginning with /h/, Bakker cites alternate spellings such as "hyroquois" sometimes found in documents from the period, the fact that in the Southern dialect of Basque, the word hil is pronounced il.
He argues that the /l/ was rendered as /r/ since the former is not attested in the phonemic inventory of any language in the region. Thus the word according to Bakker is translatable as "the killer people", it is similar to other terms used by Eastern Algonquian tribes to refer to their enemy the Iroquois, which translate as "murderers". The Five Nations referred to themselves by the autonym, meaning "People of the Longhouse"; this name is preferred by scholars of Native American history, who consider the name "Iroquois" derogatory. The name derives from two phonetically similar but etymologically distinct words in the Seneca language: Hodínöhšö:ni:h, meaning "those of the extended house," and Hodínöhsö:ni:h, meaning "house builders"; the name "Haudenosaunee" first appears in English in Lewis Henry Morga
The Mohawk people are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy. They are an Iroquoian-speaking indigenous people of North America; the Mohawk were based in the valley of the Mohawk River in present-day upstate New York west of the Hudson River. As one of the five original members of the Iroquois League, the Mohawk were known as the Keepers of the Eastern Door. For hundreds of years, they guarded the Iroquois Confederation against invasion from that direction by tribes from the New England and lower New York areas, their current major settlements include areas around Lake Ontario and the St Lawrence River in Canada and New York. In the Mohawk language, the people say; the Mohawk became wealthy traders as other nations in their confederacy needed their flint for tool making. Their Algonquian-speaking neighbors, the people of Muh-heck Haeek Ing, a name transliterated by the Dutch as Mahican or Mahican, referred to the people of Ka-nee-en Ka as Maw Unk Lin, meaning "bear people".
The Dutch heard and wrote this term as Mohawk, referred to the Mohawk as Egil or Maqua. The French colonists adapted these latter terms as Maqui, respectively, they referred to the people by the generic Iroquois, a French derivation of the Algonquian term for the Five Nations, meaning "the snake people". The Algonquians and Iroquois were traditional enemies. In the upper Hudson and Mohawk Valley regions, the Mohawk long had contact with the Algonquian-speaking Mahican people, who occupied territory along the Hudson River, as well as other Algonquian and Iroquoian tribes to the north around the Great Lakes; the Mohawk had extended their own influence into the St. Lawrence River Valley, which they maintained for hunting grounds, they are believed to have defeated the St. Lawrence Iroquoians in the 16th century, kept control of their territory. In addition to hunting and fishing, for centuries the Mohawk cultivated productive maize fields on the fertile floodplains along the Mohawk River, west of the Pine Bush.
In the seventeenth century the Mohawk encountered both the Dutch, who went up the Hudson River and established a trading post in 1614 at the confluence of the Mohawk and Hudson rivers, the French, who came south into their territory from New France. The Dutch were merchants and the French conducted fur trading. During this time the Mohawk fought with the Huron in the Beaver Wars for control of the fur trade with the Europeans, their Jesuit missionaries were active among First Nations and Native Americans, seeking converts to Catholicism. In 1614, the Dutch opened a trading post at New Netherland; the Dutch traded for furs with the local Mahican, who occupied the territory along the Hudson River. Following a raid in 1626 when the Mohawk resettled along the south side of the Mohawk River, in 1628, they mounted an attack against the Mahican, pushing them back to the area of present-day Connecticut; the People of Ka-nee-en Ka gained a near-monopoly in the fur trade with the Dutch by prohibiting the nearby Algonquian-speaking tribes to the north or east to trade with them but did not control this.
European contact resulted in a devastating smallpox epidemic among the Mohawk in 1635. By 1642 they had regrouped from four into three villages, recorded by Catholic missionary priest Isaac Jogues in 1642 as Ossernenon and Tionontoguen, all along the south side of the Mohawk River from east to west; these were recorded by speakers of other languages with different spellings, historians have struggled to reconcile various accounts, as well as to align them with archeological studies of the areas. For instance, Johannes Megapolensis, a Dutch minister, recorded the spelling of the same three villages as Asserué, Thenondiogo. Late 20th-century archeological studies have determined that Ossernenon was located about 9 miles west of the current city of Auriesville. While the Dutch established settlements in present-day Schenectady and Schoharie, further west in the Mohawk Valley, merchants in Fort Nassau continued to control the fur trading. Schenectady was established as a farming settlement, where Dutch took over some of the former Mohawk maize fields in the floodplain along the river.
Through trading, the Mohawk and Dutch became allies of a kind. During their alliance, the Mohawks allowed Dutch Protestant missionary Johannes Megapolensis to come into their tribe and teach the Christian message, he operated from the Fort Nassau area about six years, writing a record in 1644 of his observations of the Mohawk, their language, their culture. While he noted their ritual of torture of captives, he recognized that their society had few other killings compared to the Netherlands of that period; the trading relations between the Mohawk and Dutch helped them maintain peace during the periods of Kieft's War and the Esopus Wars, when the Dutch fought localized battles with other tribes. In addition, Dutch trade partners equipped the Mohawk with guns to fight against other First Nations who were allied with the French, including the Ojibwe, Huron-Wendat, Algonquin. In 1
The Pequot War was an armed conflict that took place between 1636 and 1638 in New England between the Pequot tribe and an alliance of the colonists of the Massachusetts Bay and Saybrook colonies and their allies from the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes. The war concluded with the decisive defeat of the Pequots. At the end, about 700 Pequots had been taken into captivity. Hundreds of prisoners were sold into slavery to the West Indies; the result was the elimination of the Pequot tribe as a viable polity in Southern New England, the colonial authorities classified them as extinct. Survivors were absorbed into other local tribes. In the late 20th century, people claiming to be descended from the Pequot tribe gained federal recognition as a modern-day tribe and were given reserves of land along the Thames and Mystic rivers in southeastern Connecticut; the name Pequot is a Mohegan term, the meaning of, disputed among Algonquian-language specialists. Most recent sources claim that "Pequot" comes from Paquatauoq, relying on the theories of Frank Speck, an early 20th-century anthropologist and specialist of the Pequot-Mohegan language in the 1920s–1930s.
He had doubts about this etymology, believing that another term seemed more plausible, after translation relating to the "shallowness of a body of water". The Pequot people and their traditional enemies the Mohegans were at one time a single sociopolitical entity. Anthropologists and historians contend that they split into the two competing groups sometime before contact with the Puritan English colonists; the earliest historians of the Pequot War speculated that the Pequot people migrated from the upper Hudson River Valley toward central and eastern Connecticut sometime around 1500. These claims are disputed by the evidence of modern archaeology and anthropology finds. In the 1630s, the Connecticut River Valley was in turmoil; the Pequots aggressively extended their area of control at the expense of the Wampanoags to the north, the Narragansetts to the east, the Connecticut River Valley Algonquians and Mohegans to the west, the Lenape Algonquian people of Long Island to the south. The tribes contended for political control of the European fur trade.
A series of epidemics over the course of the previous three decades had reduced the Indian populations, there was a power vacuum in the area as a result. The Dutch and the English from Western Europe were striving to extend the reach of their trade into the North American interior to achieve dominance in the lush, fertile region; the colonies were new at the original settlements having been founded in the 1620s. By 1636, the Dutch had fortified their trading post, the English had built a trading fort at Saybrook. English Puritans from the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies settled at the four established river towns of Windsor, Wethersfield and Springfield Pequot: Sachem Sassacus Eastern Niantic Western Niantic: Sachem Sassious Mohigg: Sachem Uncas Niantic Sagamore Wequash Narragansett: Sachem Miantonomo Montauk or Massachusetts Bay Colony: Governors Henry Vane and John Winthrop, Captains John Underhill and John Endecott Plymouth Colony: Governors Edward Winslow and William Bradford, Captain Myles Standish Connecticut Colony: Thomas Hooker, Captain John Mason, Robert Seeley, Lt. William Pratt Saybrook Colony: Lion Gardiner Beginning in the early 1630s, a series of contributing factors increased the tensions between English colonists and the tribes of Southeastern New England.
Efforts to control fur trade access resulted in a series of escalating incidents and attacks that increased tensions on both sides. Political divisions widened between the Pequots and Mohegans as they aligned with different trade sources, the Mohegans with the English colonists and the Pequots with the Dutch colonists; the peace ended between the Dutch and Pequots when the Pequots assaulted a tribe of Indians who had tried to trade in the area of Hartford. Tensions grew as the Massachusetts Bay Colony became a stronghold for wampum production, which the Narragansetts and Pequots had controlled up until the mid-1630s. Adding to the tensions, John Stone and about seven of his crew were murdered in 1634 by the Niantics, Western tributary clients of the Pequots. According to the Pequots' explanations, they murdered him in reprisal for the Dutch murdering the principal Pequot sachem Tatobem, they claimed to be unaware that Stone was English and not Dutch. In the earlier incident, Tatobem had boarded a Dutch vessel to trade.
Instead of conducting trade, the Dutch seized the sachem and appealed for a substantial amount of ransom for his safe return. The Pequots sent bushels of wampum, but received only Tatobem's dead body in return. Stone was from the West Indies and had been banished from Boston for malfeasance, including drunkenness and piracy, he had abducted two Western Niantic men. Soon after, he and his crew were killed by a larger group of Western Niantics; the initial reactions in Boston varied from indifference to outright joy at Stone's death, but the colonial officials still felt compelled to protest the killing. They did not accept the Pequots' excuses. Pequot sachem Sassacus sent some wampum to atone for the killing, but refused the colonists' demands that the warriors responsible for Stone's death be turned over to them for trial and punishment; the Great Colonial Hurricane of 1635 placed a great deal of pressur
Sassacus is a spider genus of the Salticidae family. The genus is named after Sassacus, a Native American chief of the 16th and 17th century; the genus includes the following recognized species: Sassacus alboguttatus – Mexico Sassacus arcuatus Simon, 1901 – Brazil Sassacus arcuatus Simon, 1901 – Brazil Sassacus aurantiacus Simon, 1901 – Brazil Sassacus aztecus Richman, 2008 – Mexico Sassacus barbipes – United States to Costa Rica Sassacus biaccentuatus Simon, 1901 – Paraguay Sassacus cyaneus – USA Sassacus dissimilis Mello-Leitão, 1941 – Argentina Sassacus flavicinctus Crane, 1949 – Venezuela Sassacus glyphochelis Bauab, 1979 – Brazil Sassacus helenicus – Brazil Sassacus lirios Richman, 2008 – Mexico to Costa Rica Sassacus ocellatus Crane, 1949 – Venezuela Sassacus paiutus – USA Sassacus papenhoei Peckham & Peckham, 1895 – USA Sassacus resplendens Simon, 1901 – Venezuela Sassacus samalayucae Richman, 2008 – Mexico Sassacus sexspinosus – Venezuela Sassacus trochilus Simon, 1901 – Brazil Sassacus vitis – Canada to Panama Pictures of P. papenhoei
The Pequots are a Native American people of Connecticut. Modern Pequots are members of the federally recognized Mashantucket Pequot Tribe, four other state-recognized groups in Connecticut, the Brothertown Indians of Wisconsin, they spoke Pequot, a dialect of the Mohegan-Pequot language which became extinct by the early 20th century, though some are undertaking revival efforts. The Pequots and Mohegans were a single group, but the Mohegans split off in the 17th century as the Pequots came to control much of Connecticut. Simmering tensions with the New England Colonies led to the Pequot War of 1634–1638, which reduced the population and influence of the Pequots. Small numbers of Pequots remained in Connecticut, receiving reservations at Mashantucket in 1666 and at the Pawcatuck River in 1683. In the 18th century, some Christian Pequots joined members of several other groups to form the Brothertown Indians, they relocated to western New York in the 19th century and to Wisconsin. The Mashantucket Pequot Tribe was formed in 1975 and received federal recognition in 1983 as settlement of a land claim.
In 1986, they established the Foxwoods Resort Casino, one of the country's most successful Native American casinos. The Pawcatuck River Pequots formed the Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation, recognized by Connecticut but is not federally recognized. Additionally, Pequot descendants are enrolled in the federally recognized Mohegan Tribe, as well as the Schaghticoke Tribal Nation and Golden Hill Paugussett Indian Nation of Connecticut and the Brothertown Indians of Wisconsin, which have degrees of state recognition. Pequot is an Algonquian word. Considerable scholarship pertaining to the Pequots claims that the name came from Pequttôog, meaning "the destroyers" or "the men of the swamp". Frank Speck was a leading specialist of the Mohegan-Pequot language in the early twentieth century, he believed that another term was more plausible meaning "the shallowness of a body of water", given the Pequots' territory along the coast of Long Island Sound. Historians have debated whether the Pequots migrated about 1500 from the upper Hudson River Valley toward central and eastern Connecticut.
The theory of Pequot migration to the Connecticut River Valley can be traced to Rev. William Hubbard, who claimed in 1677 that the Pequots had invaded the region some time before the establishment of Plymouth Colony, rather than originating in the region. In the aftermath of King Philip's War, Hubbard detailed in his Narrative of the Troubles with the Indians in New-England the ferocity with which some of New England's tribes responded to the English. Hubbard described the Pequots as "foreigners" to the region. By the time of the founding of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies, the Pequots had attained a position of political and economic dominance in central and eastern Connecticut, they occupied the coastal area between the Niantic tribe of the Niantic River of Connecticut and the Narragansetts in western Rhode Island. The Pequots numbered some 16,000 persons in the most densely inhabited portion of southern New England; the smallpox epidemic of 1616–1619 killed many of the Native Americans of the eastern coast of New England, but it failed to reach the Pequot and Narragansett tribes.
In 1633, the Dutch established. They executed the principal Pequot sachem Tatobem because of a violation of an agreement. After the Pequots paid the Dutch a large ransom, they returned Tatobem's body, his successor was Sassacus. In 1633, an epidemic devastated all of the region's tribes, historians estimate that the Pequots suffered the loss of 80 percent of their population. At the outbreak of the Pequot War, Pequot survivors may have numbered only about 3,000. Members of the Pequot tribe killed a resident of Connecticut Colony in 1636, war erupted as a result; the Mohegan and the Narragansett tribes sided with the colonists. Around 1,500 Pequot warriors were killed in battles or hunted down, others were captured and distributed as slaves or household servants. A few escaped to join the Niantic tribes on Long Island; some returned to their traditional lands, where family groups of friendly Pequots had stayed. Of those enslaved, most were awarded to the allied tribes, but many were sold as slaves in Bermuda.
The Mohegans treated their Pequot captives so that officials of Connecticut Colony removed them. Connecticut established two reservations for the Pequots in 1683: the Eastern Pequot Reservation in North Stonington and the Western Pequots in Ledyard; the 1910 census numbered the Pequot population at 66, they reached their lowest number several decades later. Pequot numbers grew during the 1970s and 1980s the Mashantucket Pequot tribe which opened a casino in the same timeframe, tribal chairman Richard A. Hayward encouraged them to return to their tribal homeland, he worked for economic development. In 1976, the Pequots filed suit with the assistance of the Native American Rights Fund and the Indian Rights Association against land owners and residents of North Stonington in
The Narragansett people are an Algonquian American Indian tribe from Rhode Island. The tribe was nearly landless for most of the 20th century, but it worked to gain federal recognition and attained it in 1983, it is the Narragansett Indian Tribe of Rhode Island and is made up of descendants of tribal members who were identified in an 1880 treaty with the state. The tribe acquired land in 1991 in their lawsuit Carcieri v. Salazar, they petitioned the Department of the Interior to take the land into trust on their behalf; this would have made the newly acquired land to be recognized as part of the Narragansett Indian reservation, taking it out from under Rhode Island's legal authority. In 2009, the United States Supreme Court ruled against the request, declaring that tribes which had achieved federal recognition since the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act did not have standing to have newly acquired lands taken into federal trust and removed from state control; the Narragansett tribe was recognized by the federal government in 1983 and controls the Narragansett Indian Reservation, 1,800 acres of trust lands in Charlestown, Rhode Island.
A small portion of the tribe resides on or near the reservation, according to the 2000 U. S. Census. Additionally, they own several hundred acres in Westerly. In 1991, the Narragansetts purchased 31 acres in Charlestown for development of elderly housing. In 1998, they requested that the Department of the Interior take the property into trust on behalf of the tribe, to remove it from state and local control; the case went to the United States Supreme Court, as the state challenged the removal of new lands from state oversight by a tribe recognized by the US after the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act. Rhode Island was joined in its appeal by 21 other states. In 2009, the US Supreme Court ruled that the Department of the Interior could not take land into trust, removing it from state control, if a tribe had achieved federal recognition after the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act, if the land in question was acquired after that federal recognition, their determination was based on wording in the act which defines "Indian" as "all persons of Indian descent who are members of any recognized tribe now under federal jurisdiction."
The tribe is led by an elected tribal council, a chief sachem, a medicine man, a Christian leader. The entire tribal population must approve major decisions; the administration in 2018 was: Chief Sachem: Anthony Dean Stanton Medicine Man: John Brown First Councilman: Cassius Spears, Jr. Second Councilman: John Pompey Secretary, John Mahoney Councilmen: Yvonne Simonds Lamphere Betty Johnson Walter K. Babcock Lonny Brown Mary Brown Some present-day Narragansett people believe that their name means "people of the little points and bays". Pritzker's Native American Encyclopedia translates the name as " of the Small Point"; the Narragansett language died out in the 19th century, so modern attempts to understand its words have to make use of written sources. The earliest such sources are the writings of English colonists in the 1600s, at that time the name of the Narragansett people was spelled in a variety of different ways attesting to different local pronunciations; the present spelling "Narragansett" was first used by Massachusetts governor John Winthrop in his History of New England.
Underneath this diversity of spelling a common phonetic background can be discerned. Linguist James Hammond Trumbull explains that naiag or naiyag means a corner or angle in the Algonquian languages, so that the prefix nai is found in the names of many points of land on the sea coast and rivers of New England; the word na-ig-an-set, according to Trumbull, signifies "the territory about the point", na-ig-an-eog means "the people of the point". Roger Williams spent much time learning and studying the Narragansett language, he wrote a definitive study on it in 1643 entitled A Key Into the Language of America, he traced the source of the word Narragansett to a geographical location: Being inquisitive of what root the title or denomination Nahigonset should come I heard that Nahigonsset was so named from a little island, between Puttaquomscut and Mishquomacuk on the sea and fresh water side. I went on purpose to see it, about the place called Sugar Loaf Hill I saw it and was within a pole of it, but could not learn why it was called Nahigonset.
Berkeley anthropologist William Simmons, who specialized in the Narragansett people, explains the name as follows: The name Narragansett, like the names of most tribes in this region, referred to both a place and the people who lived there. Roger Williams, the first English settler of Providence, wrote that the name came from that of a small island, which he did not locate but which may have been in what is now Point Judith Pond, he could not learn why the Indians called it Narragansett. But in fact Roger Williams's statement does enable a precise localization: He states that the place was "a little island, between Puttaquomscut and Mishquomacuk on the sea and fresh water side", that it was near Sugar Loaf Hill; this means it was between the Pettaquamscutt river to the east, the present town of Westerly to the west (the "sea side" and "fresh water side" being with reference to the land on th
Uncas was a sachem of the Mohegans who made the Mohegans the leading regional Indian tribe in lower Connecticut, through his alliance with the English colonists in New England against other Indian tribes. Uncas was born near the Thames River in present-day Connecticut, the son of the Mohegan sachem Owaneco. Uncas is a variant of the Mohegan term Wonkus, meaning "Fox", he was a descendant of the principal sachems of the Mohegans and Narragansetts. Owaneco presided over the village known as Montonesuck. Uncas was bilingual, learning Mohegan and some English, some Dutch. In 1626, Owaneco arranged for Uncas to marry the daughter of the principal Pequot sachem Tatobem to secure an alliance with them. Owaneco died shortly after this marriage, Uncas had to submit to Tatobem's authority. Tatobem was captured and killed by the Dutch in 1633. Owaneco's alliance with Tatobem was based upon a balance of power between the Pequots. After the death of Owaneco, the balance changed in favour of the Pequots. Uncas was unwilling to challenge the power of Tatobem.
In 1634 with Narragansett support, Uncas rebelled against Sassacus and Pequot authority. Uncas became an exile among the Narragansetts, he soon returned from exile after ritually humiliating himself before Sassacus. His failed challenges resulted in Uncas having little land and few followers, but Uncas saw that the English Puritan new arrivals, though few in number, had better weapons and much courage, so he started to develop a new strategy and alliance to work towards his ultimate goal of Grand Sachem. About 1635, Uncas developed relationships with important Englishmen in Connecticut, he was a trusted ally of Captain John Mason, a partnership which lasted three and a half decades and several family generations beyond. Uncas sent word to Jonathan Brewster that Sassacus was planning to attack the English on the Connecticut river. Brewster described Uncas as being "faithful to the English". In 1637, during the Pequot War, Uncas was allied against the Pequots, he led his Mohegans in a joint attack with the English against the Pequots near Saybrook and against their fort at Mystic River.
The Pequots were defeated and the Mohegans incorporated much of the remaining Pequot people and their land. In the 1638 Treaty of Hartford, Uncas made the Mohegans a tributary of the Connecticut River Colony; the treaty dictated that Uncas could pursue his interests in the Pequot country only with the explicit approval of the Connecticut English. The Mohegans had become a regional power. In 1640, Uncas added Sebequanash of the Hammonassets to his several wives; this marriage gave Uncas some type of control over their land. The Hammonassets became Mohegans; the Mohegans were in continuous conflict with the Narragansetts over control of the former Pequot land. In the summer of 1643, this conflict turned into war; the Mohegans defeated a Narragansett invasion force of around 1,000 men and captured their sachem Miantonomo. Uncas executed several of Miantonomo's fellow warriors in front of him, trying to solicit a response from Miantonomo. Consistent with the 1638 treaty, he turned Miantonomo over to the English.
The English put him on trial. Uncas requested and was given authority to put Miantonomo to death, provided that the killing was done by Indian hands in Indian territory to prevent difficulties between the Narragansetts and the English. Miantonomo subsequently escaped from the Mohegan village where he was being held and jumped Yantic Falls in escape of the pursuing Mohegans; this site is known as Indian Leap. Uncas' brother Wawequa, leading the pursuit, caught up to Miantonomo and struck him a fatal blow to the back of his head with a tomahawk. A monument stands near the site of Miantonomo's death; the exact location is unknown, since stones marking the original location of Miantonomo's grave were used by early settlers to construct a barn. Author James Fenimore Cooper portrayed a fictional Uncas as having made the leap over the falls in his 1826 book "The Last of the Mohicans". Narragansett sachem Pessachus proposed to go to war to avenge the death of Miantonomo, but the English pledged to support the Mohegans.
The English colonies in the New England Confederation formed an alliance with the Mohegans for their defense. The Narragansett attacks started in June 1644. With each success, the number of Narragansett allies grew. In 1645, Uncas and the Mohegans were under siege in Fort Shantok at Shattuck's Point and on the verge of a complete defeat when the English relieved them with supplies, led by Thomas Tracy and Thomas Leffingwell, lifted the siege; the New England Confederation pledged any offensive action required to preserve Uncas in "his liberty and estate". The English sent troops to defend the Mohegan fort at Shantok; when the English threatened to invade Narragansett territory, the Narragansett signed a peace treaty. In 1646, the tributary tribe at Nameag, consisting of former Pequots, allied with the English and tried to become more independent. In response, Uncas plundered their village; the Bay Colony governor responded by threatening to allow the Narragansetts to attack the Mohegans. For the next several years, the English both asserted the Nameag's tributary status while supporting the Nameags in their independence.
In 1655, the English removed the tribe from Uncas' authority. King Philip's War started in June 1675. In the summer, the Mohegans entered the war on the side of the English. Uncas led his forces in joint attacks with the English against the Wampanoags. In December, the Mohegans with the English a