A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Blue Ridge Mountains
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains range. The mountain range is located in the eastern United States, extends 550 miles southwest from southern Pennsylvania through Maryland, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia; this province consists of northern and southern physiographic regions, which divide near the Roanoke River gap. To the west of the Blue Ridge, between it and the bulk of the Appalachians, lies the Great Appalachian Valley, bordered on the west by the Ridge and Valley province of the Appalachian range; the Blue Ridge Mountains are noted for having a bluish color. Trees put the "blue" in Blue Ridge, from the isoprene released into the atmosphere, thereby contributing to the characteristic haze on the mountains and their distinctive color. Within the Blue Ridge province are two major national parks – the Shenandoah National Park in the northern section, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the southern section – and eight national forests including George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Cherokee National Forest, Pisgah National Forest, Nantahala National Forest and Chattahoochee National Forest.
The Blue Ridge contains the Blue Ridge Parkway, a 469-mile long scenic highway that connects the two parks and is located along the ridge crest-lines with the Appalachian Trail. Although the term "Blue Ridge" is sometimes applied to the eastern edge or front range of the Appalachian Mountains, the geological definition of the Blue Ridge province extends westward to the Ridge and Valley area, encompassing the Great Smoky Mountains, the Great Balsams, the Roans, the Blacks, the Brushy Mountains and other mountain ranges; the Blue Ridge extends as far north into Pennsylvania as South Mountain. While South Mountain dwindles to mere hills between Gettysburg and Harrisburg, the band of ancient rocks that form the core of the Blue Ridge continues northeast through the New Jersey and Hudson River highlands reaching The Berkshires of Massachusetts and the Green Mountains of Vermont; the Blue Ridge contains the highest mountains in eastern North America south of Baffin Island. About 125 peaks exceed 5,000 feet in elevation.
The highest peak in the Blue Ridge is Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet. There are 39 peaks in North Tennessee higher than 6,000 feet. Southern Sixers is a term used by peak baggers for this group of mountains; the Blue Ridge Parkway runs 469 miles along crests of the Southern Appalachians and links two national parks: Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains. In many places along the parkway, there are metamorphic rocks with folded bands of light-and dark-colored minerals, which sometimes look like the folds and swirls in a marble cake. Most of the rocks that form the Blue Ridge Mountains are ancient granitic charnockites, metamorphosed volcanic formations, sedimentary limestone. Recent studies completed by Richard Tollo, a professor and geologist at George Washington University, provide greater insight into the petrologic and geochronologic history of the Blue Ridge basement suites. Modern studies have found that the basement geology of the Blue Ridge is made of compositionally unique gneisses and granitoids, including orthopyroxene-bearing charockites.
Analysis of zircon minerals in the granite completed by John Aleinikoff at the U. S. Geological Survey has provided more detailed emplacement ages. Many of the features found in the Blue Ridge and documented by Tollo and others have confirmed that the rocks exhibit many similar features in other North American Grenville-age terranes; the lack of a calc-alkaline affinity and zircon ages less than 1,200 Ma suggest that the Blue Ridge is distinct from the Adirondacks, Green Mountains, the New York-New Jersey Highlands. The petrologic and geochronologic data suggest that the Blue Ridge basement is a composite orogenic crust, emplaced during several episodes from a crustal magma source. Field relationships further illustrate that rocks emplaced prior to 1,078–1,064 Ma preserve deformational features; those emplaced post-1,064 Ma have a massive texture and missed the main episode of Mesoproterozoic compression. The Blue Ridge Mountains began forming during the Silurian Period over 400 million years ago.
320 Mya, North America, Europe collided, pushing up the Blue Ridge. At the time of their emergence, the Blue Ridge were among the highest mountains in the world and reached heights comparable to the much younger Alps. Today, due to weathering and erosion over hundreds of millions of years, the highest peak in the range, Mount Mitchell in North Carolina, is only 6,684 feet high – still the highest peak east of the Rockies; the English who settled colonial Virginia in the early 17th century recorded that the native Powhatan name for the Blue Ridge was Quirank. At the foot of the Blue Ridge, various tribes including the Siouan Manahoacs, the Iroquois, the Shawnee hunted and fished. A German physician-explorer, John Lederer, first reached the crest of the Blue Ridge in 1669 and again the following year. At the Treaty of Albany negotiated by Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood, of Virginia with the Iroquois between 1718 and 1722, the Iroquois ceded lands they had conquered south of the Potomac River and east of the Blue Ridge to the Virginia Colony.
This treaty made the Blue Ridge the new demarcation point between the areas and tribes subject to the Six Nati
South Carolina Department of Natural Resources
The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources is a South Carolina state agency charged with regulating hunting, boating, duck stamp orders, the conservation efforts of the state government. It is directed by seven-member Board of Directors; the governor of South Carolina appoints a member from each of the state's congressional districts, in addition to one at-large board member. The board or governor may appoint citizens advisory panels to provide recommendations on agency programs; the Department of Natural Resources oversees the state's soil and water conservation districts, which are special-purpose districts contiguous with each of South Carolina's 46 counties. Each conservation district is managed by six-member boards. Three members of each board are appointed through the Department of Natural Resources, while the other half are directly elected. Director - Alvin A. Taylor Special Assistant to the Director - D. "Breck" Carmichael, Jr. DNR Divisions: Ken Rentiers, Deputy Director COL Chisolm Frampton, Deputy Director Robert Boyles, Deputy Director Angie Cassella, Deputy Director Emily Cope, Deputy Director Norman F. Pulliam, Chairman Michael E.
"Mike" Hutchins, Vice Chairman Dr. Mark F. Hartley Jake Rasor, Jr. James Carlisle Oxner III Duane Swygert Keith C. Hinson The Division of Law Enforcement is responsible for enforcement of state and federal laws that govern hunting and commercial fishing, recreational boating, other natural resources conservation concerns; the division conducts South Carolina’s hunter and boater education courses, as well as other outreach programs including the Take One Make One and Archery in the Schools programs aimed at introducing youth to the sport of hunting. The division is responsible for investigating boating and hunting accidents, DNR officers conduct search and rescue missions in outlying areas and assist other law enforcement agencies in investigations; the Division has officers trained in underwater diving that assist in law enforcement and rescue, evidence recovery missions. The Division utilizes aircraft for law enforcement patrol and rescue, other department missions; the division and its officers are called upon to provide homeland security related to water borne activities including commercial ship escorts, hydroelectric dam, nuclear facility, energy plant security.
South Carolina's corps of natural resources enforcement officers is organized into four regions covering groups of the state's 46 counties and coastal marine shoreline and waters out to 200 miles. A 24-hour toll-free number is maintained for emergencies requiring immediate law enforcement assistance from a natural resources officer. Any person may call this number anonymously to report a conservation law violation or information that could lead to the arrest of a violator and become eligible for a cash reward through the Operation Game Thief Program; the agency as organized on July 1, 1994, under the S. C. Restructuring Act is composed of the former Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Water Resources Commission, Land Resources Commission, State Geological Survey, S. C. Migratory Waterfowl Committee; these have been combined into the present division structure. Alvin A. Taylor is the current director of the agency; the SCDNR is governed by the seven-member S. C. Natural Resources Board, with one member representing each of the state's six Congressional Districts and one at large.
The board meets monthly. Citizen advisory committees meet periodically; the public is invited to attend all meetings, comment is encouraged. Upcoming meetings are announced through news releases, local newspapers, or the DNR News and Video Section. SCDNR Board Meeting minutes are available as they are approved by the Board. List of State Fish and Wildlife Management Agencies in the U. S. List of law enforcement agencies in South Carolina South Carolina Department of Natural Resources
Great Smoky Mountains
The Great Smoky Mountains are a mountain range rising along the Tennessee–North Carolina border in the southeastern United States. They are a subrange of the Appalachian Mountains, form part of the Blue Ridge Physiographic Province; the range is sometimes called the Smoky Mountains and the name is shortened to the Smokies. The Great Smokies are best known as the home of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which protects most of the range; the park was established in 1934, with over 11 million visits per year, it is the most visited national park in the United States. The Great Smokies are part of an International Biosphere Reserve; the range is home to an estimated 187,000 acres of old growth forest, constituting the largest such stand east of the Mississippi River. The cove hardwood forests in the range's lower elevations are among the most diverse ecosystems in North America, the Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forest that coats the range's upper elevations is the largest of its kind; the Great Smokies are home to the densest black bear population in the Eastern United States and the most diverse salamander population outside of the tropics.
Along with the Biosphere reserve, the Great Smokies have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The U. S. National Park Service preserves and maintains 78 structures within the national park that were once part of the numerous small Appalachian communities scattered throughout the range's river valleys and coves; the park contains five historic districts and nine individual listings on the National Register of Historic Places. The name "Smoky" comes from the natural fog that hangs over the range and presents as large smoke plumes from a distance; this fog is caused by the vegetation exhaling volatile organic compounds, chemicals that have a high vapor pressure and form vapors at normal temperature and pressure. The Great Smoky Mountains stretch from the Pigeon River in the northeast to the Little Tennessee River to the southeast; the northwestern half of the range gives way to a series of elongate ridges known as the "Foothills," the outermost of which include Chilhowee Mountain and English Mountain.
The range is bounded on the south by the Tuckasegee River and to the southeast by Soco Creek and Jonathan Creek. The Great Smokies comprise parts of Blount County, Sevier County, Cocke County in Tennessee and Swain County and Haywood County in North Carolina; the sources of several rivers are located in the Smokies, including the Little Pigeon River, the Oconaluftee River, Little River. Streams in the Smokies are part of the Tennessee River watershed and are thus west of the Eastern Continental Divide; the largest stream wholly within the park is Abrams Creek, which rises in Cades Cove and empties into the Chilhowee Lake impoundment of the Little Tennessee River near Chilhowee Dam. Other major streams include Hazel Creek and Eagle Creek in the southwest, Raven Fork near Oconaluftee, Cosby Creek near Cosby, Roaring Fork near Gatlinburg; the Little Tennessee River passes through five impoundments along the range's southwestern boundary, namely Tellico Lake, Chilhowee Lake, Calderwood Lake, Cheoah Lake, Fontana Lake.
The highest point in the Smokies is Clingmans Dome. The mountain is the third highest in the Appalachian range. Clingmans Dome has the range's highest topographical prominence at 4,503 feet. Mount Le Conte is the tallest mountain in the range, rising 5,301 feet from its base in Gatlinburg to its 6,593-foot summit; the Smokies rise prominently above the surrounding low terrain. For example, Mount Le Conte rises more than a mile above its base; because of their prominence, the Smokies receive heavy annual amounts of precipitation. Annual precipitation amounts range from 50 to 80 inches, snowfall in the winter can be heavy on the higher slopes. For comparison, the surrounding terrain has annual precipitation of around 40 to 50 inches. Flooding occurs after heavy rain. In 2004, the remnants of Hurricane Frances caused major flooding and high winds, soon followed by Hurricane Ivan, making the situation worse. Other post-hurricanes, including Hurricane Hugo in 1989, have caused similar damage in the Smokies.
Most of the rocks in the Great Smoky Mountains consist of Late Precambrian rocks that are part of a formation known as the Ocoee Supergroup. The Ocoee Supergroup consists of metamorphosed sandstones, phyllites and slate. Early Precambrian rocks, which include the oldest rocks in the Smokies, comprise the dominant rock type in the Raven Fork Valley and lower Tuckasegee River between Cherokee and Bryson City, they consist of metamorphic gneiss and schist. Cambrian sedimentary rocks are found among the outer reaches of the Foothills to the northwest and in limestone coves such as Cades Cove; the Precambrian gneiss and schists—the oldest rocks in the Smokies—formed over a billion years ago from the accumulation of marine sediments and igneous rock in a primordial ocean. In the Late Precambrian period, this ocean expanded, the more recent Ocoee Supergroup rocks formed from accumulations of the eroding land mass onto the ocean's continental shelf. By the end of the Paleozoic era, the ancient ocean had deposited a thick layer of marine sediments which left behind sedimentary rocks such as limestone.
During the Ordovician period, the North American and African plates collided, destroying the ancient ocean and initiating the Alleghenian orogeny—the mountain-building epoch that created the Appalachian range. T
Brushy Mountains (North Carolina)
The Brushy Mountains are a mountain range located in northwestern North Carolina. They are an isolated "spur" of the much larger Blue Ridge Mountains, separated from them by the Yadkin River valley. A eroded range, they move from the southwest to the northeast, cross five counties in North Carolina: Caldwell, Wilkes and Yadkin; the Brushy Mountains divide, for much of their courses, the waters of the Yadkin River and the Catawba River, two of central North Carolina's largest rivers. The range is 45 miles long, but only 4 to 8 miles wide; the highest point in the chain is Pores Knob, in Wilkes County. Among the other notable peaks in the range are Hibriten Mountain in Caldwell County, which marks the western end of the Brushy Mountains and is a prominent landmark in the city of Lenoir, North Carolina; the "Brushies", as they are called by locals rise from 300 to 800 feet above the surrounding countryside, with few peaks rising more than a thousand feet above their base. The forests on the mountains are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion.
The Mountains are known for their abundance of apple orchards, the Brushy Mountain Apple Festival is held in North Wilkesboro, North Carolina each year to celebrate the harvest. The region was once known as a hotbed of "moonshining", or the production of illegal homemade liquor. Several of the earliest stars of stock-car racing in the 1940s and 1950s got their start in the moonshining business in the Brushy Mountains. James Larkin Pearson, a newspaper publisher and editor who served as North Carolina's official Poet Laureate from 1953 to 1981, was born and raised in the Brushy Mountains, lived in the Brushies his entire life. Much of his poetry was based on his life in the Brushy Mountains. North Carolina: The History of a Southern State, Hugh Talmadge Lefler & Albert Ray Newsome, authors. University of North Carolina Press, 1973
Marks Knob is a mountain in the Great Smoky Mountains, in the southeastern United States. It has an elevation of 6,169 feet, with 249 feet of clean prominence, its summit— located near the center of the Eastern Smokies amidst a dense stand of Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forest— is a popular bushwhacking destination and one of the most difficult-to-reach summits of the Southern Sixers. Marks Knob is the higher of the two peaks. Dashoga Ridge descends from its intersection with the Balsam Mountain crest on the slopes of Mount Yonaguska southward to the remote upper Raven Fork Valley; the ridge runs parallel to the main Great Smokies crest, just opposite the valley to the west. Marks Knob consists with the southern-most peak being the true summit; the mountain is located within Swain County, North Carolina. Raven Fork, which drains Dashoga Ridge, is part of the Oconaluftee River watershed; the rocks comprising Dashoga Ridge consist of Precambrian metamorphic sandstones of the Ocoee Supergroup.
Unlike most of the high peaks of the Eastern Smokies, neither the Tennessee-North Carolina state boundary nor any county lines traverse the summit of Marks Knob, thus the mountain received little attention for most of recorded history. Trail guides from the early 1930s refer to the mountain as "Cam's Knob" and list its elevation as greater than 6,140 feet. In the 1920s and early 1930s, two trails— the Rosser Trail and an unnamed spur trail— connected Dashoga Ridge to the logging camps at Smokemont to the southwest and Straight Fork to the southeast; the Rosser Trail ascended northeastward from Smokemont across Hughes Ridge to Enloe Creek, over Highland Ridge to the Raven Fork Valley. The trail continued northward along Raven Fork around the western base of Breakneck Ridge to an area known as Three Forks, where the Left and Right prongs of Raven Fork converge to form Raven Fork proper. Beyond Three Forks, the trail wound its way northward up the crest of Dashoga Ridge, crossing the summits of Marks Knob and Mount Hardison before joining the Balsam Mountain Trail.
The area's only other trail ascended northwestward from Straight Fork, crossing Hyatt Ridge to McGee Springs. The trail turned westward to traverse the crest of Breakneck Ridge and descend to Three Forks, where it joined the Rosser Trail. By 1974, the Hyatt Ridge Trail had been developed along the crest of Hyatt Ridge, rising northward along the ridgecrest from Straight Fork and approaching Dashoga Ridge from the east; the Rosser Trail is no longer maintained, although maintained trails still connect Smokemont and Enloe Creek. Only part of the Hyatt Ridge Trail— the segment connecting Straight Fork and McGee Springs — is maintained. Remnants of the old trails remain, making the upper Raven Fork Valley a popular bushwhacking area. Reaching the summit of Marks Knob requires a long, uphill hike followed by a 1.0-mile bushwhack across the overgrown Hyatt Ridge Trail. The Balsam Mountain Trail, which crosses the gap between Mount Hardison and Mount Yonaguska, provides the closest maintained trail access.
The old Hyatt Ridge Trail intersects the Balsam Mountain Trail at a sharp, horseshoe bend 0.8 miles east of the latter's junction with the Appalachian Trail at Tricorner Knob. One branch of the old Hyatt Ridge Trail crosses the summits of Mount Hardison and Marks Knob, another swings around the western slope of Mount Hardison to the gap between Mount Hardison and Marks Knob before descending to Three Forks. Both branches are riddled with blowdowns, but discernible; the old Hyatt/Balsam junction is located just over 10 miles from the Balsam Mountain Trailhead at Pin Oak Gap and just over 9 miles from Cosby Campground. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Trail Map —.pdf file Marks Knob — Peakbagger.com A Southern Mountaineer's Nemesis — SummitPost.org Bushwhack from Hell — trip report on the bushwhack from the Balsam Mountain Trail to the Raven Fork Valley at SummitPost.org. South Beyond 6000 in the Smokies - Details on climbing Marks Knob and other nearby mountains. Provided by the Carolina Hiking Club
Great Balsam Mountains
The Great Balsam Mountains, or Balsam Mountains, are in the mountain region of western North Carolina, United States. The Great Balsams are a subrange of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which in turn are a part of the Appalachian Mountains; the most famous peak in the Great Balsam range is Cold Mountain, the centerpiece of author Charles Frazier's bestselling novel Cold Mountain. The Blue Ridge Parkway runs along its length and at Richland Balsam, the Parkway is at its highest point. Richland Balsam – 6410 feet Black Balsam Knob – 6214 feet Mount Hardy – 6120 feet Reinhart Knob – 6080 feet Grassy Cove Top – 6040 feet Tennent Mountain – 6040 feet Sam Knob – 6040 feet Cold Mountain – 6030 feet Shining Rock – 6040 feet Chestnut Bald Balsam Gap Devil's Courthouse Judaculla Rock Tanasee Bald The area consists of a transition forest between the southern Appalachian spruce–fir forest and the mixed deciduous forests of temperate America; the following trees are at higher elevations: Fraser fir. Forests of these trees appear black from a distance.
Red spruce. The red spruce is distinguished from the Fraser fir by having bark whose rosin cannot be milked and by having hanging cones. Catawba rhododendron Flame azalea Mountain laurel List of mountains in North Carolina