Satellite radio is defined by the International Telecommunication Union's ITU Radio Regulations as a broadcasting-satellite service. The satellite's signals are broadcast nationwide, across a much wider geographical area than terrestrial radio stations, the service is intended for the occupants of motor vehicles, it is available by subscription commercial free, offers subscribers more stations and a wider variety of programming options than terrestrial radio. Satellite radio technology was inducted into the Space Foundation Space Technology Hall of Fame in 2002. Satellite radio uses the 2.3 GHz S band in North America for nationwide digital radio broadcasting. In other parts of the world, satellite radio uses the 1.4 GHz L band allocated for DAB. The first satellite radio broadcasts occurred in Africa and the Middle East in 1999; the first US broadcasts were in 2001 followed by Japan in 2004 and Canada in 2005. There has been three major satellite radio companies: WorldSpace, Sirius Satellite Radio and XM Satellite Radio, all founded in the 1990s in USA.
WorldSpace operated in the Africa and Asia region, whereas Sirius and XM competed in the North American market. Of the three companies, WorldSpace went bankrupt in 2009 and Sirius and XM merged in 2008 to form Sirius XM; the merger was done to avoid bankruptcy. The new company had financial problems and was within days of bankruptcy in 2009, but was able to find investors; the company did not go bankrupt and Sirius XM Satellite radio. WorldSpace was founded by Ethiopia-born lawyer Noah Samara in Washington, D. C. in 1990, with the goal of making satellite radio programming available to the developing world. On June 22, 1991, the FCC gave WorldSpace permission to launch a satellite to provide digital programming to Africa and the Middle East. WorldSpace first began broadcasting satellite radio on October 1999, in Africa. India would account for over 90% of WorldSpace’s subscriber base. In 2008, WorldSpace announced plans to enter Europe, but those plans were set aside when the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in November 2008.
In March 2010, the company announced. Liberty Media, which owns 50% of Sirius XM Radio, had considered purchasing WorldSpace’s assets, but talks between the companies collapsed; the satellites are now transmitting educational data and operate under the name of Yazmi USA, LLC. Ondas Media was a Spanish company which had proposed to launch a subscription-based satellite radio system to serve Spain and much of Western Europe, but failed to acquire licenses throughout Europe. Onde Numérique was a French company which had proposed to launch a subscription-based satellite radio system to serve France and several other countries in Western Europe but has suspended its plans indefinitely, effective December, 2016. Sirius Satellite Radio was founded by David Margolese and Robert Briskman. In June 1990, Rothblatt's shell company, Satellite CD Radio, Inc. petitioned the Federal Communications Commission to assign new frequencies for satellites to broadcast digital sound to homes and cars. The company identified and argued in favor of the use of the S-band frequencies that the FCC subsequently decided to allocate to digital audio broadcasting.
The National Association of Broadcasters contended that satellite radio would harm local radio stations. In April 1992, Rothblatt resigned as CEO of Satellite CD Radio. Six months Rogers Wireless co-founder David Margolese, who had provided financial backing for the venture, acquired control of the company and succeeded Briskman. Margolese renamed the company CD Radio, spent the next five years lobbying the FCC to allow satellite radio to be deployed, the following five years raising $1.6 billion, used to build and launch three satellites into elliptical orbit from Kazakhstan in July 2000. In 1997, after Margolese had obtained regulatory clearance and "effectively created the industry," the FCC sold a license to the American Mobile Radio Corporation, which changed its name to XM Satellite Radio in October 1998. XM was founded by Lon Levin and Gary Parsons, who served as chairman until November 2009. CD Radio purchased their license for $83.3 million, American Mobile Radio Corporation bought theirs for $89.9 million.
Digital Satellite Broadcasting Corporation and Primosphere were unsuccessful in their bids for licenses. Sky Highway Radio Corporation had expressed interest in creating a satellite radio network, before being bought out by CD Radio in 1993 for $2 million. In November 1999, Margolese changed the name of CD Radio to Sirius Satellite Radio. In November 2001, Margolese stepped down as CEO, remaining as chairman until November 2003, with Sirius issuing a statement thanking him "for his great vision and dedication in creating both Sirius and the satellite radio industry."XM’s first satellite was launched on March 18, 2001 and its second on May 8, 2001. Its first broadcast occurred on September 2001, nearly four months before Sirius. Sirius launched the initial phase of its service in four cities on February 14, 2002, expanding to the rest of the contiguous United States on July 1, 2002; the two companies spent over $3 billion combined to develop satellite radio technology and launch the satellites, for various other business expenses.
Stating that it was the only way satellite radio could survive, Sirius and XM announced their merger on February 19, 2007, becoming Sirius XM. The FCC approved the merger on July 25, 2008, concluding that it was not
Assault on England is the sixty-seventh novel in the long-running Nick Carter-Killmaster series of spy novels. Carter is a US secret agent, code-named N-3, with the rank of Killmaster, he works for AXE – a secret arm of the US intelligence services. The book was first published in October 1972 by Award-Tandem Books by Universal Publishing and Distributing Corporation and Universal-Tandem Publishing Co. Ltd.. The novel was written by Ralph Eugene Hayes; the story is set in autumn of an unspecified year. The British Chancellor of the Exchequer and Defence Minister are assassinated; the British Government receives a demand for GBP 12 million to stop the killings. Carter is assigned to assist in the investigation, he is contacted by Augie Fergus – an antiques smuggler in Egypt – who claims to have information about the assassinations. Fergus is killed. Carter contacts Hadiya, Fergus's stepdaughter in Tunisia, authorized to pass on the information in the event of Fergus' death; the information comprises a photograph of Fergus's British Army commando unit in Cairo, 1942.
British intelligence identifies the men in the photograph. The only person of significance is Lieutenant John Elmore who became a renowned underworld assassin after the war before being killed in a shootout with police several years – although his body was never found. Instead, British intelligence links the assassinations to a Russian agent, Boris Novosty, in the UK. Carter is briefed by the head of Special Operations Executive and is assigned a young female agent to assist him. Carter and York are sent to Penzance, Cornwall the location of Novosty’s last known sighting, they trace Novosty to a farmhouse near Land's End. Novosty escapes after a gunfight but leaves evidence behind that leads to a cottage in Lower Slaughter in the Cotswolds. Carter and York lie in his agents inside his cottage. Under interrogation, the Russians reveal, they are trying to steal Ministry of Defence missile blueprints. Returning to London and York are assigned to protect other senior Cabinet officials; the Foreign Secretary is murdered in his office and Carter catches the killer.
A note on the body demands GBP 14 million to be sent to Geneva by private plane. The Government prepares to pay the demand. A clue left in the Foreign Secretary's office leads to Jupiter Motors a failing car factory in London; the boss, Elmo Jupiter, is discovered to be Lieutenant John Elmore. Carter and York are captured by Jupiter's henchmen and driven to a large estate near Beaconsfield where they are imprisoned. Jupiter informs them that his ransom has not been paid and that he will kill the Prime Minister in revenge. Carter and York return to London. Carter and York search the rooms where a high-level ministerial meeting will be held expecting Jupiter to infiltrate and assassinate the Prime Minister. Carter goes to investigate. Jupiter is preparing to launch a rocket attack on the meeting. Carter distracts him and Jupiter escapes by helicopter. Carter and York follow in a police helicopter; the chase ends at Stonehenge. Carter is about to be shot by Jupiter. Nick Carter – agent N-3, AXE Heather York – British SOE agent Elmo Jupiter – owner of car factory.
Lieutenant John Elmore, ex-British Army Boris Novosty – a.k.a. John Ryder Augie Fergus – ex-British Army antiques smuggler Hadiya – Fergus's stepdaughter
Dream of a Lifetime is the eighteenth and first posthumously released studio album by the American recording artist Marvin Gaye. It included the top five R&B single, "Sanctified Lady". In 1982, Marvin Gaye signed a three-album deal with Columbia Records after final negotiations to leave Motown Records were completed. During the recording of his Midnight Love album and his frequent collaborator Gordon Banks worked on a series of recordings, several of which made it to Midnight Love. Following the end of Gaye's final grueling U. S. tour, Gaye remained secluded in the home he shared with his parents at the West Adams district of Los Angeles. Prior to his death, Gaye had planned to work on a duet with Barry White, but White said on the day they were to record in the studio, Gaye was shot and killed by his father. With two albums left from his Columbia contract and Gaye's former label, began to work together to complete the singer's original contract to alleviate any debts left over by the singer after his death.
In the summer of 1984, Harvey Fuqua and Gordon Banks worked on finishing or "modernizing" several of Gaye's songs left over from both Columbia and Motown recording sessions. Of the Columbia material, Banks brought in several tracks he and Gaye worked on together between 1982 and 1983 including a song that Gaye had mentioned to interviewers titled, "Sanctified Pussy". Reworked, with vocals from several session background singers including the Waters, the song was renamed "Sanctified Lady". Despite being planned and expected by Gaye to be his next hit song after Sexual Healing, the singer had warned that Columbia wouldn't release it due to the song's offensive title and its lyrics. Another controversial song Gaye and Banks composed was "Masochistic Beauty", a song dedicated to S&M which Gaye played the role of a dominatrix in a faux British accent where he rapped throughout the track. Banks provided vocoder in both "Sanctified Pussy" and "Masochistic Beauty", giving both songs an electro-funk flavor.
Both tracks were unfinished outtakes from the Midnight Love sessions. Fuqua assembled leftover sessions from Gaye's Motown days, including an obscure track Gaye composed on the fly as a joke titled "Savage in the Sack", a song David Ritz stated was a song Gaye would not have wanted released. A vamp in the song had Gaye repeating the words, "dem niggers". In the remixed Fuqua production, it was rewritten as "it's getting bigger", with the Waters replacing Gaye on background vocals; the mid-tempo "Ain't It Funny How Things Turn Around", written and recorded around the time Gaye recorded Here, My Dear, was remixed by Fuqua. The track resurfaced in another remixed version, this time by Bootsy Collins in the deluxe edition re-issue of Here, My Dear. A 1971 track, "It's Madness", was reworked with a modern drum programming beat over the original strings and music accompanying the song. "Symphony", a track recorded during the Let's Get It On sessions, was reworked with what sounded like beatboxing as its "drums".
In the re-issue of Let's Get It On, the original recording was included. The seven-minute "Life's Opera" was recorded in 1976 and was remixed again by Fuqua with the Waters again adding background vocals. A 1972 track, "Dream of a Lifetime" became the title of the album, was written as a demo for Sammy Davis, Jr. who didn't record it. Dream of a Lifetime found modest success after its release in May 1985; the leading single, "Sanctified Lady", reached #2 on the Hot R&B Singles chart, while "It's Madness" peaked at #55 on that chart. The album itself peaked at #8 on the R&B chart and #41 on the Billboard 200. Side One "Sanctified Lady" – 5:25 "Savage in the Sack" – 3:20 "Masochistic Beauty" – 4:39 "It's Madness" – 3:21Side Two "Ain't It Funny" – 4:54 "Symphony" – 2:50 "Life's Opera" – 7:42 "Dream of a Lifetime" – 3:49 Larkin Arnold – liner notes Gordon Banks – synthesizer, bass guitar, drums, background vocals, engineer William Bryant – percussion Harvey Fuqua – synthesizer, bass guitar, drums, background vocals, producer Marvin Gaye – synthesizer, keyboards, lead vocals, background vocals, producer Connie Howard and the Waters – background vocals John Kovarek – engineer Barney Perkins – engineer Preston Wilcox – drums