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Satellite state

A satellite state is a country, formally independent in the world, but under heavy political and military influence or control from another country. The term was coined by analogy to planetary objects orbiting a larger object, such as smaller moons revolving around larger planets, is used to refer to Central and Eastern European countries of the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War or to Mongolia or Tannu Tuva between 1924 and 1990, for example; as used for Central and Eastern European countries it implies that the countries in question were "satellites" under the hegemony of the Soviet Union. In some contexts it refers to other countries in the Soviet sphere of influence during the Cold War—such as North Korea and Cuba. In Western usage, the term has been applied to states other than those in the Soviet orbit. In Soviet usage, the term applied to the states in the orbit of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, Imperial Japan; the Oxford English Dictionary traces the use of the phrase satellite state in English back at least as far as 1916.

In times of war or political tension, satellite states sometimes serve as buffers between an enemy country and the nation exerting control over the satellites. "Satellite state" is one of several contentious terms used to describe the subordination of one state to another. Other such terms include puppet neo-colony. In general, the term "satellite state" implies deep ideological and military allegiance to the hegemonic power, whereas "puppet state" implies political and military dependence, "neo-colony" implies economic dependence. Depending on which aspect of dependence is being emphasised, a state may fall into more than one category; when the Mongolian Revolution of 1921 broke out, Mongolian revolutionaries expelled Russian White Guards from Mongolia, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army. The revolution officially ended Manchurian sovereignty over Mongolia, which had existed since 1691. Although the theocratic Bogd Khanate of Mongolia still nominally continued, with successive series of violent struggles, Soviet influence got stronger, after the death of the Bogd Khaan, the Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed on November 26, 1924.

A nominally independent and sovereign country, it has been described as being a satellite state of the Soviet Union in the years from 1924 until 1990. During the Russian Civil War, the Soviet Red Army troops took Tuva in January 1920, part of the Qing Empire of China and a protectorate of Imperial Russia; the Tuvan People's Republic, was proclaimed independent in 1921 and was a satellite state of Soviet Union until its annexation in 1944 by the Soviet Union. Another early Soviet satellite state in Asia was the short-lived Far East Republic in Siberia. At the end of World War II, most eastern and central European countries were occupied by the Soviet Union, along with the USSR made up what is sometimes called the Soviet Empire; the Soviets remained in these countries after the war's end. Through a series of coalition governments including Communist parties, a forced liquidation of coalition members disliked by the Soviets, Stalinist systems were established in each country. Stalinists gained control of existing governments, police and radio outlets in these countries.

Soviet satellite states in Europe included: The People's Socialist Republic of Albania The Polish People's Republic The People's Republic of Bulgaria The People's Republic of Romania The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic The German Democratic Republic The Hungarian People's Republic The Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia is sometimes referred to as a Soviet satellite, though it broke from Soviet orbit in the 1948 Tito-Stalin split, with the Cominform offices being moved from Belgrade to Bucharest, Yugoslavia subsequently formed the Non-Aligned Movement. The People's Socialist Republic of Albania, under the leadership of Stalinist Enver Hoxha, broke ties with the Soviet Union the 1960 Soviet–Albanian split following the Soviet de-Stalinization process; these countries were, at least between 1948, all members of the Eastern Bloc. The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan can be considered a Soviet satellite; the short-lived East Turkestan Republic was a Soviet satellite until it was absorbed into the People's Republic of China along with the rest of Xinjiang.

The Mongolian People's Republic was a Soviet satellite from 1924 to 1991. It was so controlled by the Soviet Union that it ceased to exist in February 1992, less than two months after the dissolution of the Soviet Union; some commentators have expressed concern that United States military and diplomatic interventions in the Middle East and elsewhere might lead, or have led, to the existence of American satellite states. William Pfaff has warned that a permanent American presence in Iraq would "turn Iraq into an American satellite state"; the term has been used in the past to describe the relationship between Lebanon and Syria, as Syria has been accused of intervening in Lebanese political affairs. In addition and Lesotho have both been described as satellite states of South Africa. Buffer state Client state Vassal state Puppet state Neo-colony Banana republic Langley

William Tooker

William Tooker was an English churchman and theological writer. Born at Exeter in 1557 or 1558, he was the third son of William Tooker of that town by his wife Honora, daughter of James Erisey of Erisey in Cornwall, he was admitted to Winchester College in 1572, became a scholar at New College, Oxford, in 1575, graduating B. A. on 16 Oct. 1579 and M. A. on 1 June 1583, proceeding B. D. and D. D. on 4 July 1594. In 1577 he was elected to a perpetual fellowship, in 1580 was appointed a canon of Exeter. In 1584 he was presented to the rectory of Kilkhampton in Cornwall, in the following year resigned his fellowship on being collated archdeacon of Barnstaple on 24 April. In 1588 he was appointed chaplain to Elizabeth rector of West Dean in Wiltshire. In 1590 he became rector of Clovelly in Devon, but resigned the charge in 1601. On 16 February 1605 he was installed dean of Lichfield. According to Thomas Fuller, James I intended the bishopric of Gloucester for him, issued the congé d'élire, but afterwards revoked it.

Tooker died at Salisbury on 19 March 1620-1, was buried in the cathedral. He left a son Robert. Tooker was a good scholar, according to Fuller,'the purity of his Latin pen procured his preferment.' He was a skilful courtier in his choice of topics. In 1597 he published Charisma sive Donum Sanationis, a historical vindication of the power inherent in the English sovereign of curing the king's evil; this work won him especial regard from Elizabeth I, whose possession of the power was a proof of the validity of her succession. Tooker traced the healing power back to Lucius of Britain. In 1604 he published a treatise entitled Of the Fabrique of the Church and Churchmens Livings, dedicated to James I, whose chaplain he was, in which he attacked the tendency of puritanism towards ecclesiastical democracy, on the ground that it paved the way for spiritual anarchy. Besides the works mentioned, he was the author of Duellum sive Singulare Certamen cum Martino Becano Jesuita, written against Martin Becanus in the allegiance oath controversy, in defence of the ecclesiastical authority of the English king, to which Becanus replied in Duellum Martini Becani Societatis Jesu Theologi cum Gulielmo Tooker de Primatu Regis Angliae, Mainz 1612.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Tooker, William". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900

Fauziyya Hassan

Fauziyya Hassan is a Maldivian film actress. Fauziyya Hassan was born on 1 January 1942 in Male'. At the age of seven, Hassan started growing interest towards the cinema and desired to be featured in a film though she was more fond of sewing, she expanded further with the skill. Hassan caught the attention of film-makers. In 1998, she played the role of a heart-patient and mother of Fayaz, an ignorant husband, in love with a patient suffering from congenital heart disease in Abdul Faththaah's television drama series Dhoapatta. Starring alongside Mohamed Shavin, Jamsheedha Ahmed, Sheela Najeeb and Niuma Mohamed, the series centers on unrequited love and complications of a relationship within and beyond marriage. In 1999, Hassan played the mother of a college boy who helps to reunite her son with his best friend after ages, in Hussain Adil's romance Hiyy Halaaku; the plot combines two love triangles set years apart. The first half covers friends on a college campus, while the second tells the story of a widower's young daughter who tries to reunite her dad with his old friend.

The film was an unofficial remake of Karan Johar's romantic drama film Kuch Kuch Hota Hai starring Shah Rukh Khan and Rani Mukerji in the lead role. She starred opposite Reeko Moosa Manik, Hassan Afeef, Niuma Mohamed and Mariyam Nazima in Easa Shareef-directed Emme Fahu Dhuvas which follows a devious woman who sunders her best-friend's upcoming marriage by creating false accusation and staging misleading impressions; this was followed by the Ali Musthafa-directed Umurah opposite Jamsheedha Ahmed and Reeko Moosa Manik. The following year she played the role of an old woman, being mistreated by her own daughter in Abdul Faththaah's directorial debut, Himeyn Dhuniye which received positive reviews from critics; the same year, she starred opposite Reeko Moosa Manik and Jamsheedha Ahmed in the Easa Shareef-directed romantic horror film 2000 Vana Ufan Dhuvas, in which she portrays the role of a helpless servant. Hassan collaborated with Amjad Ibrahim for his romantic horror film Dhonkamana which depicts the romantic relationship between a young man and an old woman.

Featuring Yoosuf Shafeeu, Sheela Najeeb, Niuma Mohamed, Sheereen Abdul Wahid, Amira Ismail and Aminath Rasheedha, the film received negative reviews from critics though its inclusion of the theme portraying the relationship between a couple with a large age group was appraised. In 2004, Hassan played a brief role of a caring widowed mother in Abdul Faththaah's horror film Eynaa, which appears Sheela Najeeb, Mohamed Manik, Ahmed Shah, Khadheeja Ibrahim Didi, Ibrahim Jihad and Nashidha Mohamed as six colleagues who go on a picnic to a haunted uninhabited island and their battle for survival; the film garnered critical appreciation specially for its technical department and was a commercial success. She next starred as the mother of an obsessive fangirl in Amjad Ibrahim's next directorial venture Sandhuravirey 2. Starring additional cast including Niuma Mohamed, Zeenath Abbas, Mohamed Shavin and Sheereen Abdul Wahid, the film follows a storyline of a daughter jinn avenging the death of its mother and sister on Dhiyash's family.

Similar to its prequel, the film received negative response from critics. The next year, Hassan starred alongside Niuma Mohamed, Ali Seezan and Sheereen Abdul Wahid in Ahmed Nimal's horror film Handhu Keytha which unfolds the story of a man, enchanted by a spirit while witnessing a lunar eclipse. In the film, he played the she played the mother of a loyal wife, tormented by the spirit, she next appeared in a brief role as the mother of a mystified man, detested by his crush in Abdul Faththaah's critically praised romantic film Vehey Vaarey Therein. Featuring Yoosuf Shafeeu, Jamsheedha Ahmed, Khadheeja Ibrahim Didi, Mohamed Shavin, Amira Ismail and Aminath Rasheedha in crucial roles, the film narrates the story of unrequited love, proved to be one of the highest-grossing Maldivian films of the year; the same year, Hassan reunited with Abdul Faththaah for his romantic disaster film, Hureemey Inthizaarugaa cast along with Ravee Farooq, Mariyam Zuhura, Waleedha Waleed, Ibrahim Jihad and Neena Saleem.

The film relied on the effect of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake on the Maldives, received favorable reviews from critics though it failed to perform financially. Hassan played the mother of Reena, traumatized by the events that lead to a big loss in her family. In April 2006, Ahmed Nimal's revenge thriller film, Hiyani was released which featured her as the mother of Shaina, a devoted wife who seeks comfort in the company of her husband's kidnapper; the film which focuses on a wealthy troublesome couple whose possessions have been exposed by the disappearance of the husband, was received positively by the critics. Her next release, Ahmed Nimal's romantic film Vaaloabi Engeynama, starred alongside Yoosuf Shafeeu, Mariyam Afeefa and Fathimath Fareela was a critical and commercial success, considered to be the most successful Maldivian release of the year, her performance as the mother a conflicted husband struggling to convey equal affection towards his two wives garnered her a Gaumee Film Award nomination as the Best Supporting Actress.

In 2008, Hassan appeared as the helpless mother in Fathimath Nahula's romantic drama film, Yoosuf which depicts the story of a deaf and mute man, mistreated by a wealthy family, mocking his disability. Featuring

Caroline Wilson (diplomat)

Caroline Elizabeth Wilson is a British lawyer and diplomat, Europe Director at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Wilson was educated at Sevenoaks School before attending Downing College, where she studied law, she was called to the Bar at the Middle Temple in 1993 gained a degree in European Community law at the Institute for European studies of the Université Libre de Bruxelles. She joined the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1995 and has served at Beijing and Moscow and in various posts at the FCO, she was "Consul General to Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and Non-Resident Consul General to Macau" 2012–16. She became Europe Director at the FCO in 2016. Wilson appeared in a 2018 BBC documentary titled Inside the Foreign Office, which saw her accompany Boris Johnson Foreign Secretary on diplomatic engagements in Europe, she speaks French fluently. Wilson was appointed CMG in the 2016 New Year Honours, she was called as a Bencher at the Middle Temple in 2013

Order of battle for the Battle of Berlin

This is the order of battle that took place on April 16, 1945, in the end stages of World War II, between the German Wehrmacht and the Soviet Red Army. This battle took place before the start of the Battle of the Oder–Neisse and concluded with the Battle in Berlin. Units are listed as they were deployed from North to South before the start of the Battle of the Seelow Heights. Colonel General Gotthard Heinrici General of Panzer Hasso von Manteuffel Swinemunde Corps - General of Infantry John Ansat 2nd Naval Division 402nd Naval Division XXXII Corps - General of Infantry Friedrich-August Schack Voigt Infantry Divisions 281st Infantry Divisions 549th Volksgrenadier Division Oder Corps - Obergruppenführer Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski Klossek Infantry Divisions 610th Infantry Divisions XXXXVI Panzer Corps - General of Infantry Martin Gareis 547th Volksgrenadier Division 1st Naval Division General of Infantry Theodor Busse CI Corps - General of Artillery Wilhelm Berlin 5th Jäger Division 309th Berlin Infantry Division 25th Panzergrenadier Division Kampfgruppe 1001 Nights LVI Panzer Corps - General of Artillery Helmuth Weidling 9th Fallschirmjäger Division 18th Panzergrenadier Division 20th Panzergrenadier Division Müncheberg Panzer Division XI SS Panzer Corps - Obergruppenführer Matthias Kleinheisterkamp 303rd ‘Döberitz’ Infantry Division 169th Infantry Division 712th Infantry Division Kurmark Panzergrenadier Division V SS Mountain Corps - Obergruppenführer Friedrich Jeckeln 286th Infantry Division 32nd SS Grenadier Division 391st Security Division III SS Panzer Corps - Obergruppenführer Felix Steiner 11th SS Panzergrenadier Division 23rd SS Panzergrenadier Division 27th SS Grenadier Division 28th SS Grenadier Division Feldmarshal Ferdinand Schörner General of Panzer Fritz-Hubert Gräser V Corps - General of Artillery Kurt Wäger 35th SS Police Grenadier Division 36th SS Grenadier Division 275th Infantry Division 342nd Infantry Division 21st Panzer Division General of Panzer Walther Wenck XX Corps - General of Cavalry Carl-Erik Koehler Theodor Körner RAD Infantry Division Ulrich von Hutten Infantry Division Ferdinand von Schill Infantry Division Scharnhorst Infantry Division XXXIX Panzer Corps - Lt. Gen. Karl Arndt Clausewitz Panzer Division Schlageter RAD Division 84th Infantry Division Clausewitz Panzer Division 84th Infantry Division Hamburg Reserve Infantry Division Meyer Infantry Division XXXXI Panzer Corps - Lt. Gen. Rudolf Holste Von Hake Infantry Division 199th Infantry Division V-Weapons Infantry Division XLVIII Panzer Corps - General of Panzer Maximilian von Edelsheim 14th Flak Division Kampfgruppe Leipzig Kampfgruppe Halle Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky Marshal Georgy Zhukov Marshal Ivan Konev Order of battle for the battle in Berlin Soviet Air Forces order of battle 1 May 1945

Črnuče District

The Črnuče District, or Črnuče, is a district of the City Municipality of Ljubljana in the northern part of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. It is named after the former town of Črnuče; the Črnuče District is bounded on the south by the Sava River, on the west by a line east of Spodnje Gameljne and Rašica. The district includes the former settlements of Brod, Črnuče, Dobrava pri Črnučah, Gmajna, Ježa, Podgorica pri Črnučah, Šentjakob ob Savi, it was part of the traditional region of Upper Carniola and is now included with the rest of the municipality in the Central Slovenia Statistical Region. Črnuče District homepage Media related to Črnuče District at Wikimedia Commons