Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand, formerly known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. With a total area of approximately 513,000 km2, Thailand is the worlds 51st-largest country and it is the 20th-most-populous country in the world, with around 66 million people. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, Thailand is a constitutional monarchy and has switched between parliamentary democracy and military junta for decades, the latest coup being in May 2014 by the National Council for Peace and Order. Its capital and most populous city is Bangkok and its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. The Thai economy is the worlds 20th largest by GDP at PPP and it became a newly industrialised country and a major exporter in the 1990s. Manufacturing and tourism are leading sectors of the economy and it is considered a middle power in the region and around the world.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens, by outsiders prior to 1949, it was usually known by the exonym Siam. The word Siam has been identified with the Sanskrit Śyāma, the names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word. The word Śyâma is possibly not its origin, but a learned, another theory is the name derives from Chinese, Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century. The Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam, the signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut King of the Siamese, giving the name Siam official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed Siam from 1945 to 11 May 1949, after which it reverted to Thailand. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means free man in the Thai language, ratcha Anachak Thai means kingdom of Thailand or kingdom of Thai. Etymologically, its components are, ratcha, -ana- -chak, the Thai National Anthem, written by Luang Saranupraphan during the extremely patriotic 1930s, refers to the Thai nation as, prathet Thai.
The first line of the anthem is, prathet thai ruam lueat nuea chat chuea thai, Thailand is the unity of Thai flesh. There is evidence of habitation in Thailand that has been dated at 40,000 years before the present. Similar to other regions in Southeast Asia, Thailand was heavily influenced by the culture and religions of India, Thailand in its earliest days was under the rule of the Khmer Empire, which had strong Hindu roots, and the influence among Thais remains even today. Voretzsch believes that Buddhism must have been flowing into Siam from India in the time of the Indian Emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire, Thailand was influenced by the south Indian Pallava dynasty and north Indian Gupta Empire. The Menam Basin was originally populated by the Mons, and the location of Dvaravati in the 7th century, the History of the Yuan mentions an embassy from the kingdom of Sukhothai in 1282
Khlong San District
Khlong San is one of the 50 districts of Bangkok, Thailand. On the west bank of Chao Phraya River, neighboring districts across the river are Phra Nakhon, Bang Rak, Sathon, on the west side of the river, the only land neighbor is Thon Buri District. Khlong San was called, in order, Amphoe Bang Lamphu Lang, Amphoe Buppharam. Its status was changed to king amphoe in 1938 and back to again in 1957 due to population changes. It became part of Bangkok after the merging of Thonburi and Phra Nakhon Provinces in 1971, Khlong San was originally the terminus of the Maeklong Railway, but the line was cut back to Wongwian Yai in 1961 to ease traffic congestion. The district is served by Bangkok Skytrain stations, Krung Thonburi, the district is divided into four sub-districts. BMA website with landmarks of Khlong San Khlong San district office
Din Daeng District
Din Daeng is one of the 50 districts of Bangkok, Thailand. Its neighbours, clockwise from north, are Chatuchak, Huai Khwang, the district was created in 1993, when the eastern part of Phaya Thai was split off to form a new district. The district is highly populated due to the concentration of apartments built by National Housing Authority. They are along Din Daeng Road and Pracha Songkhro Road, the district is divided into one sub-district. The MRT passes along Din Daengs eastern border with five stations, Phra Ram 9, Thailand Cultural Centre, Huai Khwang, official website of the district BMA website with the touristical landmarks of Din Daeng
The Kingdom of Ayutthaya was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1351 to 1767. In the sixteenth century, it was described by foreign traders as one of the biggest and wealthiest cities in the East, the court of King Narai had strong links with that of King Louis XIV of France, whose ambassadors compared the city in size and wealth to Paris. By 1550, the kingdoms vassals included some city-states in the Malay Peninsula, Lan Na and parts of Burma and this part of the Kingdoms history is sometimes referred to as The Ayutthayan Empire. In foreign accounts, Ayutthaya was called Siam, but many say the people of Ayutthaya called themselves Tai. The name of the city indicates the influence of Hinduism in the region and it is believed that this city is associated with the Thai national epic, the Ramakien, which is the Thai version of the Ramayana. Ayutthaya began its hegemony by conquering northern kingdoms and city-states like Sukhothai, Kamphaeng Phet, before the end of the fifteenth century, Ayutthaya launched attacks on Angkor, the classical great power of the region.
Angkors influence eventually faded from the Chao Phraya River Plain while Ayutthaya became a new great power, the emerging Kingdom of Ayutthaya was growing powerful. Yuttitthira urged Borommatrailokkanat to invade Phitsanulok, igniting the Ayutthaya-Lan Na War over the Upper Chao Phraya valley, in 1460, the governor of Chaliang surrendered to Tilokaraj. Borommatrailokkanat used a new strategy and concentrated on the wars with Lanna by moving the capital to Phitsanulok, Lan Na suffered setbacks and Tilokaraj eventually sued for peace in 1475. However, it was evident that from time to local revolts, led by local princes or kings. Beginning in the century, Ayutthaya showed an interest in the Malay Peninsula. Ayutthaya launched several abortive conquests against Malacca which was diplomatically and economically fortified by the support of Ming China. In the early fifteenth century the Ming admiral Zheng He had established a base of operation in the port city, under this protection, Malacca flourished, becoming one of Ayutthayas great foes until the capture of Malacca by the Portuguese.
Starting in the middle of the 16th century, the kingdom came under repeated attacks by the Taungoo Dynasty of Burma, the Burmese–Siamese War began with Burmese an invasion and a failed siege of Ayutthaya. A second siege led by King Bayinnaung forced King Maha Chakkraphat to surrender in 1564, the royal family was taken to Bago, with the kings second son Mahinthrathirat installed as the vassal king. In 1568, Mahinthrathirat revolted when his father managed to return from Bago as a Buddhist monk, the ensuing third siege captured Ayutthaya in 1569 and Bayinnaung made Mahathammarachathirat his vassal king. After Bayinnaungs death in 1581, uparaja Naresuan proclaimed Ayutthayas independence in 1584, the Burmese–Siamese War was a Thai attack on Burma, resulting in the capture of the Tanintharyi Region as far as Mottama in 1595 and Lan Na in 1602. Naresuan even invaded mainland Burma as far as Taungoo in 1600, after Naresuans death in 1605, northern Tanintharyi and Lan Na returned to Burmese control in 1614
Bang Kho Laem District
Bang Kho Laem is one of the 50 districts of Bangkok, Thailand. The district is bounded by Sathon, Yan Nawa, and across Chao Phraya River, Rat Burana, Thon Buri, Bang Kho Laem was formerly a part of amphoe Ban Thawai in Phra Pradaeng province. Ban Thawai was reassigned to Phra Nakhon province, and renamed amphoe Yan Nawa, amphoe Yan Nawa became khet Yan Nawa. It was separated as its own district on November 9,1989, the district is sub-divided into three sub-districts. Shrewsbury International School is located in the district, BMA website with the touristical landmarks of Bang Kho Laem Bang Kho Laem district office
Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poraminthra Maha Chulalongkorn Phra Chunla Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua, or Rama V, was the fifth monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri. He was known to the Siamese of his time as Phra Phuttha Chao Luang and his reign was characterized by the modernization of Siam and social reforms, and territorial concessions to the British and French. As Siam was threatened by Western expansionism, through his policies and acts, all his reforms were dedicated to ensuring Siams survival in the face of Western colonialism, so that Chulalongkorn earned the epithet Phra Piya Maharat. King Chulalongkorn was born on 20 September 1853 to King Mongkut and Queen Debsirindra, in 1861, he was designated Krommamuen Pikhanesuan Surasangkat. His father gave him an education, including instruction from European tutors such as Anna Leonowens. In 1866, he became a monk for six months at Wat Bawonniwet according to royal tradition. Both father and son fell ill of malaria, Mongkut died on 1 October 1868. Si Suriyawongse, the most powerful government official of the day, managed the succession of Chulalongkorn to the throne, the coronation was held on 11 November 1868.
Chulalongkorns health improved, and he was tutored in public affairs, traveled to India and he was crowned king in his own right as Rama V on 16 November 1873. Si Suriyawongse arranged for the Front Palace of King Pinklao to be bequeathed to King Pinklaos son, the young Chulalongkorn was an enthusiastic reformer. He visited Singapore and Java in 1870 and British India during 1870–1872 to study the administration of British colonies and he toured the administrative centres of Calcutta, Delhi and back to Calcutta in early-1872. This journey was a source of his ideas for the modernization of Siam. As regent, Si Suriyawongse wielded great influence, Si Suriyawongse continued the works of King Mongkut. He supervised the digging of several important khlongs, such as Padung Krungkasem and Damneun Saduak, and he was a patron of Thai literature and performing arts. At the end of his regency, Si Suriyawonse was raised to Somdet Chao Phraya, Si Suriyawongse was the most powerful noble of the 19th century.
His family, was a one, of Persian descent. It dominated Siamese politics since the reign of Rama I, Chulalongkorn married four of his half-sisters, all daughters of Mongkut, Savang Vadhana and Sunandha, and Sukumalmarsri. Chulalongkorns first reform was to establish the Auditory Office, solely responsible for tax collection, as tax collectors had been under the aegis of various nobles and thus a source of their wealth, this reform caused great consternation among the nobility, especially the Front Palace
Thonburi is an area of modern Bangkok. The full formal name was City of Treasures Gracing the Ocean For the informal name, Thonburi remained an independent town and province, until it was merged into Bangkok in 1971. Thonburi stayed less developed than the side of the river. Many of the traditional small waterways, still exist there, in 1950, Bangkok had around 1. 3m people, and the municipality of Thonburi around 400,000. In 1970 Thonburi was Thailands second largest city proper with around 600,000 residents, wong Wein Yai is a landmark of Thonburi District. At the time of the merger, Thonburi province consisted of nine districts, Michael, Three military accounts of the 1688 Revolution in Siam, Itineria Asiatica, Orchid Press, Bangkok, ISBN 974-524-005-2. Wyatt, David K. Thailand, A Short History, Bangkok Page 56-57, Temples to visit in Thonburi. Retrieved, September 20,2011 from http, //www. bangkok-bangkok. org/sights-attractions-in-bangkok-thailand/thonburi-aera/4/ Bangkok Palace - ComeThailand.
com, September 20,2011 from http, //www. comethailand. com/bangkok-palace/blog The King Taksin Monument - a Monument to a Great Warrior. Retrieved, September 20,2011 from http, //www. tour-bangkok-legacies. com/king-taksin-monument. html Wat Arun - Temple of the Dawn, September 21,2011 from http, //www. bangkoksite. com/WatArun/WatArunPage. html Thonburi travel guide from Wikivoyage
A junk is an ancient Chinese sailing ship design that is still in use today. Junks were used as seagoing vessels as early as the 2nd century AD and they evolved in the dynasties, and were used throughout Asia for extensive ocean voyages. They were found, and in numbers are still found, throughout South-East Asia and India. Found more broadly today is a number of modern recreational junk-rigged sailboats. The term junk may be used to cover many kinds of boat—ocean-going, cargo-carrying, pleasure boats and they vary greatly in size and there are significant regional variations in the type of rig, however they all employ fully battened sails. The term ultimately stems from the Chinese chuán, based on and pronounced as in the Min Nan variant of Chinese, or zhōu and it entered the English language in the 17th century through the Portuguese junco from the Malay jong or Javanese djong. The modern Standard Chinese word for a wooden cargo vessel is cáo. That said, there are divergent views on this, Pierre-Yves Manguin, amongst others, most scholars consider it was the early Song Dynasty before the fully developed hull forms and rigs were in regular use in offshore trade.
The fully developed junk design exhibited innovative, though very little further developed sail plans. There is no evidence that these were adopted in Western shipbuilding by direct emulation, in this case, as in so many others, parallel invention, often in response to quite different hydrodynamic, aerodynamic or technical stimuli, is the historically better evidenced explanation. The structure and flexibility of junk sails make the junk fast, the sails of a junk can be moved inward toward the long axis of the ship. In theory this closeness of what is called sheeting allowed the junk to sail into the wind, in practice, evidenced both by traditional sailing routes and seasons and textual evidence junks neither could nor sail well into the wind. In the typical junk these were both ill-adapted to windward work because, put simply, junks were neither intended to nor designed to work to windward. The sails include several members, called battens, which in principle could provide shape and strength but in practice, because of the available materials and technology.
The sails can be easily reefed to accommodate various wind strengths, the battens make the sails more resistant than other sails to large tears, as a tear is typically limited to a single panel between battens. In South China the sails have a curved roach especially towards the head, the main drawback to the junk sail is its high weight caused by the 6 to 15 heavy full length battens. With high weight aloft and no keel, junks were known to capsize when lightly laden due to their high centre of gravity. The top batten is heavier and similar to a gaff, in principle junk sails have much in common with the most aerodynamically efficient sails used today in windsurfers or catamarans
Dawei, is a city in south-eastern Myanmar and capital of Tanintharyi Region, formerly Tenasserim Division, about 614.3 km south of Yangon on the north bank of the Dawei River. Dawei is a port at the head of the Dawei River estuary,30 km. from the Andaman Sea, as a result, the city is prone to flooding during the monsoon season. Dawei is the name of one of Myanmars 135 ethnic minorities, the area around the Dawei River estuary has been inhabited for centuries by Dawei, Mon and Thai mariners. From the 11th to 13th centuries, Dawei was part of the Pagan Empire, from 1287 to 1564, Dawei became part of the Sukhothai Kingdom and its successor Ayutthaya Kingdom. From 1564 to 1594, Dawei was part of the Toungoo Kingdom of Burma, Siam temporarily regained the city between 1594 and 1614. From 1614 to the 1740s, Dawei was the southernmost city under Burmese authority, in the late 1740s during the Burmese civil war of 1740–1757, along with the northern Tenasserim coast, was taken over by Siam. Burma regained the city in 1760, and extended its control over the entire Tenasserim coast in 1765, the Tenasserim coast was ceded to the British after the First Anglo-Burmese War.
After independence in 1948, the city part of the Tenasserim Division. In 1974, Mon State was carved out of Tenasserim and Dawei became the capital of the truncated Division, in 1989, the citys English name was changed from Tavoy to Dawei, and Tenasserim became Tanintharyi. Dawei features a tropical monsoon climate, similar to Sittwe further north-west. There is a dry season from November to April. Apart from the Chocó region of Colombia, and the area around Mount Cameroon in Africa, only recently was Dawei connected to the rest of Myanmar by road and rail. There are plans to construct a water port in Dawei. In November 2010, the Myanmar Port Authority signed a US$8.6 billion deal with Italian-Thai Development to develop the seaport at Dawei. The development of the SEZ has been linked to land confiscations and land grabs from farmers of upwards of 63,768 acres and 153,919 acres, potentially displacing 500,000 Dawei natives. A transnational highway and a line across the Tenasserim Hills connecting Dawei.
This port could significantly reduce Singapore-bound traffic when completed, Dawei longyis are one of the areas well-known products. The area produces rubber, dried fish, and teakwood and it produces cashew nuts and betel nuts and exports them through local traders to China and Thailand
A stupa is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics that is used as a place of meditation. Stupas originated as pre-Buddhist tumuli in which śramaṇas were buried in a position called chaitya. After the parinirvana of the Buddha, his remains were cremated, the earliest archaeological evidence for the presence of Buddhist stupas dates to the late 4th century BCE in India. Buddhist scriptures claim that stupas were built at least a century earlier, some stupas, such as at Sarnath and Sanchi, seem to be embellishments of earlier mounds. The earliest evidence of monastic stupas dates back to the 2nd century BCE and these are stupas that were built within Buddhist monastic complexes and they replicate in stone older stupas made of baked bricks and timber. Sanchi, Sarnath and Bharhut are examples of stupas that were shaped in stone imitating previously existing wooden parts, the stupa was elaborated as Buddhism spread to other Asian countries, for example, the chörten of Tibet and the pagoda in East Asia.
The pagoda has varied forms that include bell-shaped and pyramidal styles, in the Western context, there is no clear distinction between a stupa and a pagoda. Stupas were built in Sri Lanka soon after Devanampiya Tissa of Anuradhapura converted to Buddhism, the first stupa to be built was the Thuparamaya. Later, many more were built over the years, some like the Jetavanaramaya in Anuradhapura being one of the tallest ancient structures in the world, the earliest archaeological evidence for the presence of Buddhist stupas dates to the late 4th century BCE. In India, Sarnath and Bharhut are among the oldest known stupas, the tallest is the Phra Pathommachedi in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, at a height of 127 metres. The Swat Valley hosts a well-preserved stupa at Shingardar near Ghalegay, another stupa is located near Barikot, in Sri Lanka, the ancient city of Anuradhapura includes some of the tallest, most ancient and best preserved stupas in the world, such as Ruwanwelisaya. The most elaborate stupa is the 8th century Borobudur monument in Java, the upper rounded terrace with rows of bell-shaped stupas contained Buddha images symbolizing Arūpajhāna, the sphere of formlessness.
The main stupa itself is empty, symbolizing complete perfection of enlightenment, borobudurs unique and significant architecture has been acknowledged by UNESCO as the largest buddhist monument in the world. It is the world’s largest Buddhist temple, as well as one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world. Object stupa, in which the items interred are objects belonged to the Buddha or his disciples, such as a bowl or robe. Commemorative stupa, built to commemorate events in the lives of Buddha or his disciples, symbolic stupa, to symbolise aspects of Buddhist theology, for example, Borobudur is considered to be the symbol of the Three Worlds and the spiritual stages in a Mahayana bodhisattvas character. Votive stupa, constructed to commemorate visits or to gain spiritual benefits, the shape of the stupa represents the Buddha and sitting in meditation posture on a lion throne. His crown is the top of the spire, his head is the square at the base, his body is the vase shape, his legs are the four steps of the lower terrace
Yan Nawa District
Yan Nawa or Yannawa is one of the 50 districts of Bangkok, Thailand. The district is bounded by Rat Burana, Bang Kho Laem, Yan Nawa, in the past, was called Ban Thawai or Ban Khok Khwai due to a large concentration of Tavoy people who often brought water buffaloes to market for trade. It became Amphoe Ban Thawai during King Chulalongkorns rule, and was part of Phra Pradaeng Province, when that province was abolished in 1932, its northern parts were added to Phra Nakhon Province. Ban Tavoy was renamed to Amphoe Yan Nawa in agreement with the rename of Wat Ban Thawai to Wat Yan Nawa. It became a khet in 1972 and the present-day kwaengs were devised in 1975, on 9 November 1989 parts of Yan Nawa were split off to form two new districts and Bang Kho Laem. Wat Yan Nawa, the temple the district name inherits, is now in Sathon District, the district is divided into two sub-districts. Rama IX Bridge, the first cable-stayed bridge in Thailand, bhumibol Bridge Wat Chong Nonsi Wat Pho Maen Khunaram Central Plaza Rama III Chatuchak Rama III Lotus Rama III Originally the Harrow International School, Bangkok school was in Yan Nawa District.
It is now in Don Mueang District, BMA website with the touristical landmarks of Yan Nawa Yan Nawa district office