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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Satisficing

Satisficing is a decision-making strategy or cognitive heuristic that entails searching through the available alternatives until an acceptability threshold is met. The term satisficing, a portmanteau of satisfy and suffice, was introduced by Herbert A. Simon in 1956, although the concept was first posted in his 1947 book Administrative Behavior. Simon used satisficing to explain the behavior of decision makers under circumstances in which an optimal solution cannot be determined, he maintained that many natural problems are characterized by computational intractability or a lack of information, both of which preclude the use of mathematical optimization procedures. He observed in his Nobel Prize in Economics speech that "decision makers can satisfice either by finding optimum solutions for a simplified world, or by finding satisfactory solutions for a more realistic world. Neither approach, in general, dominates the other, both have continued to co-exist in the world of management science".

Simon formulated the concept within a novel approach to rationality, which posits that rational choice theory is an unrealistic description of human decision processes and calls for psychological realism. He referred to this approach as bounded rationality; some consequentialist theories in moral philosophy use the concept of satisficing in the same sense, though most call for optimization instead. In decision making, satisficing refers to the use of aspiration levels when choosing from different paths of action. By this account, decision-makers select the first option that meets a given need or select the option that seems to address most needs rather than the "optimal" solution. Example: A task is to sew a patch onto a pair of blue pants; the best needle to do the threading is a 4-inch-long needle with a 3-millimeter eye. This needle is hidden in a haystack along with 1,000 other needles varying in size from 1 inch to 6 inches. Satisficing claims. Spending time searching for that one specific needle in the haystack is a waste of energy and resources.

A crucial determinant of a satisficing decision strategy concerns the construction of the aspiration level. In many circumstances, the individual may be uncertain about the aspiration level. Example: An individual who only seeks a satisfactory retirement income may not know what level of wealth is required—given uncertainty about future prices—to ensure a satisfactory income. In this case, the individual can only evaluate outcomes on the basis of their probability of being satisfactory. If the individual chooses that outcome which has the maximum chance of being satisfactory this individual's behavior is theoretically indistinguishable from that of an optimizing individual under certain conditions. Another key issue concerns an evaluation of satisficing strategies. Although regarded as an inferior decision strategy, specific satisficing strategies for inference have been shown to be ecologically rational, in particular decision environments, they can outperform alternative decision strategies.

Satisficing occurs in consensus building when the group looks towards a solution everyone can agree on if it may not be the best. Example: A group spends hours projecting the next fiscal year's budget. After hours of debating they reach a consensus, only to have one person speak up and ask if the projections are correct; when the group becomes upset at the question, it is not because this person is wrong to ask, but rather because the group has come up with a solution that works. The projection may not be what will come, but the majority agrees on one number and thus the projection is good enough to close the book on the budget. One popular method for rationalizing satisficing is optimization when all costs, including the cost of the optimization calculations themselves and the cost of getting information for use in those calculations, are considered; as a result, the eventual choice is sub-optimal in regard to the main goal of the optimization, i.e. different from the optimum in the case that the costs of choosing are not taken into account.

Alternatively, satisficing can be considered to be just constraint satisfaction, the process of finding a solution satisfying a set of constraints, without concern for finding an optimum. Any such satisficing problem can be formulated as an optimization problem using the indicator function of the satisficing requirements as an objective function. More formally, if X denotes the set of all options and S ⊆ X denotes the set of "satisficing" options selecting a satisficing solution is equivalent to the following optimization problem max s ∈ X I S where Is denotes the Indicator function of S, I S:= { 1, s ∈ S 0, s ∉ S, s ∈ X A solution s ∈ X to this optimization problem is optimal if, only if, it is a satisficing option. Thus, from a decision theory point of view, the distinction between "optimizing" and "satisficing" is a stylistic issue rather than a substantive issue. What is important to determine is what should be

1957 in Singapore

The following lists events that happened during 1957 in Colony of Singapore. Governor: until 9 December: Sir Robert Brown Black starting 9 December: Sir William Allmond Codrington Goode 11 March - The second Merdeka Talks took place. 21 March - The Singapore Industrial Promotion Board was formed to develop various industries in colonial Singapore. 27 April - The first Pontianak film was released, establishing the horror genre in the local film industry. 29 June - By-elections in two constituencies were held, with Lee Kuan Yew winning his seat and Soh Ghee Soon from the Liberal Socialist Party winning the other. 1 July - The Berita Harian is launched. 1 November - The Citizenship Ordinance in 1957 commenced with registration of Singapore citizenship. 3 November - The Workers' Party is launched. 21 December - The City Council elections was held, with the People's Action Party winning a majority of the seats. 24 December - Ong Eng Guan is sworn-in as the first Mayor of Singapore. George Quek, founder of BreadTalk.

25 February - Tharman Shanmugaratnam, Senior Minister of Singapore 1 January - Lim Boon Keng - Doctor, reformer

Noise Unit

Noise Unit is a Canadian industrial band, founded by Bill Leeb of Front Line Assembly as a side project. The band has seen several changes with Bill Leeb being the only permanent member. Noise Unit's first album, Grinding into Emptiness, arose from the collaboration between Leeb and Marc Verhaeghen of Belgian industrial band Klinik, it was released in 1989 through Wax Trax! and Antler-Subway. The 1990 album, Response Frequency, included Rhys Fulber. After the completion of the album, Verhaeghen left Noise Unit for several years. Fulber remained with the band for the next three releases, including the contemporary techno album Decoder in 1995. Verhaeghen resumed his collaboration with Noise Unit for the 1996 album Drill which featured members of German industrial band Haujobb. After an eight-year hiatus Leeb teamed with former Front Line Assembly member Chris Peterson in 2004 to release Voyeur in 2005. Jason Filipchuk, Michael Balch contributed to the album. Grinding Into Emptiness Response Frequency Strategy of Violence Decoder Drill Voyeur "Deceit" / "Struktur" "Agitate" / "In Vain"

Gerald Schoenfeld Theatre

The Gerald Schoenfeld Theatre is a Broadway theatre known as the Plymouth Theatre, located at 236 West 45th Street in Midtown Manhattan and renamed in 2005 in honor of Gerald Schoenfeld. Designed by architect Herbert J. Krapp to resemble the neighboring Shubert and Booth theatres designed by Henry B. Herts, the building was constructed by the Shubert brothers in 1917-18, christened the Plymouth Theatre, leased to producer Arthur Hopkins, he intended it to be a venue for legitimate plays starring notable actors such as John and Lionel Barrymore. The premiere production was A Successful Calamity, a comedy with William Gillette and Estelle Winwood. After Hopkins died in 1948, control of the theatre returned to the Shuberts, who still own the property, designated a New York landmark in 1987; the 1,080-seat house was renamed after Gerald Schoenfeld, chairman of the Shubert Organization, in 2005. 1918: A Doll's House 1918: Redemption 1919: The Jest 1920: Little Old New York 1922: The Hairy Ape 1924: What Price Glory?

1926: The Pirates of Penzance 1928: Holiday 1934: Dark Victory 1936: Tovarich 1938: Abe Lincoln in Illinois 1942: The Skin of Our Teeth 1945: Ten Little Indians 1946: Lute Song. The production grossed $1,292,210 over eight performances, for the week ending December 6, 2009; this record was eclipsed on three occasions by the 2014 production "It's Only a Play", starring Matthew Broderick and Nathan Lane which grossed $1,424,039 over eight performances for the week ending December 7, 2014. List of New York City Designated Landmarks in Manhattan from 59th to 110th Streets National Register of Historic Places listings in Manhattan above 59th to 110th Streets Broadway Theatre Guide Seating chart Gerald Schoenfeld Theatre at the Internet Broadway Database

Heysham nuclear power station

Heysham Power Station is a nuclear power station in Heysham, England, operated by EDF Energy. The site is divided into two separately-managed stations, Heysham 1 and Heysham 2, both with two reactors of the advanced gas-cooled reactor type. In 2010, the British government announced that Heysham was one of the eight sites it considered suitable for future nuclear power stations. On 1 August 2016, Heysham 2's Unit 8 broke the world record for longest continuous operation of a nuclear generator without a shutdown; this record-breaking run exceeds the previous record of 894 days set by Pickering Nuclear Generating Station's Unit 7 in 1994. The reactor has generated 13.5 TWh of electricity so far during this continuous operation, taking its lifetime generation to 115.46 TWh. Construction of Heysham 1, undertaken by British Nuclear Design & Construction, a consortium backed by English Electric, Babcock & Wilcox and Taylor Woodrow Construction, began in 1970, with the first reactor commencing operations in 1983 and the second reactor following in 1984.

However, initial production levels were low, full commercial operation was only declared in 1989. It is to remain in operation until 2024, its generating capacity is 1150 MWe. The reactors were supplied by National Nuclear Corporation and the turbines by GEC. There were 4 × 17.5 MW auxiliary gas turbines on the site, these had been first commissioned in January 1977. Heysham 1 shares its reactor design with Hartlepool nuclear power station, which introduced the replaceable pod boiler design; the CEGB specified a compact design for the Heysham 1 and Hartlepool power station reactor islands in comparison to the design of the two preceding stations at Hinkley Point B and Hunterston B in order to reduce the capital cost, but this caused expensive construction delays because of restricted access. The Heysham 2 reactor island occupies a much larger footprint than Heysham 1 for a similar design output of power. In 2013 a defect was found by a regular inspection in one of the eight pod boilers of unit 1.

The reactor resumed operation at a lower output level with the defective pod boiler disabled, until June 2014 when more detailed inspections confirmed a crack in the boiler spine. As a precaution, unit 2 and the sister Hartlepool nuclear power station were shut down for inspection. All units have since returned to full power after successful inspections on the three other reactors revealed no other defects. Heysham 1 unit 1 will operate on 7 out of the 8 boiler pods until a detailed repair strategy has been developed; the construction, undertaken by a consortium known as National Nuclear Corporation, began in 1979 and the station opened in 1988. Its generating capacity is 1250 MWe, it is estimated to keep running until at least 2030. Heysham 2 shares its reactor design with Torness nuclear power station and is a development of the reactor design used at Hinkley Point B; the reactors were supplied by NNC, the turbines and boilers by NEI. On 15 August 2019, a reactor let off a large amount of steam, with banging noises at 11pm that could be heard 7 miles away in Lancaster.

This caused alarm among local residents, numerous calls to the police. EDF reported that a reactor had earlier experienced a "non-planned shutdown", the noise was from the re-start process. Nuclear power in the United Kingdom Energy policy of the United Kingdom Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom Heysham 1 official website Heysham 2 official website Heysham 1, Nuclear Engineering International wall chart, 1971 Heysham 2/Torness, Nuclear Engineering International wall chart, 1981

Arayamae Station

Arayamae Station is a railway station on the Kamaishi Line in the city of Tōno, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Arayamae Station is served by the Kamaishi Line, is located 36.4 rail kilometers from the terminus of the line at Hanamaki Station. Arayamae Station has a single side platform serving a single bi-directional track; the platform is curved. The station is unattended. Arayamae Station opened on 16 December 1924 as a station on the Iwate Light Railway, a 762 mm light railway extending 65.4 km from Hanamaki to the now-defunct Sennintōge Station. The line was nationalized in 1936; the station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of the Japanese National Railways on 1 April 1987. Japan National Route 283 Sarugaishi River List of railway stations in Japan Official website