In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area, where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science. Population in simpler terms is the number of people in a city or town, country or world. In population genetics a sex population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together; this means that they can exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, such a breeding group is known therefore as a Gamo deme. This implies that all members belong to the same species. If the Gamo deme is large, all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the Gamo deme is said to be panmictic.
Under this state, allele frequencies can be converted to genotype frequencies by expanding an appropriate quadratic equation, as shown by Sir Ronald Fisher in his establishment of quantitative genetics. This occurs in Nature: localization of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, preferential mating, cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual Gamo demes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves but are separated from their neighboring Gamo demes. However, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbors; this may be viewed as the breaking up of a large sexual population into smaller overlapping sexual populations. This failure of panmixia leads to two important changes in overall population structure: the component Gamo demos vary in their allele frequencies when compared with each other and with the theoretical panmictic original; the overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient. Note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable.
The mean phenotype of the Gamo demes collection is lower than that of the panmictic original –, known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, that some dispersion lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same, some will be inferior; the probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations. In plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilize the effects of dispersion, it can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance, is much more powerful than selection acting without attendant dispersion. This is so for both autogamous Gamo demes. In ecology, the population of a certain species in a certain area can be estimated using the Lincoln Index. According to the United States Census Bureau the world's population was about 7.55 billion in 2019 and that the 7 billion number was surpassed on 12 March 2012. According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth’s population exceeded seven billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.
According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 billion; this was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, 6 years after world population reached 5.5 billion in 1993. The population of countries such as Nigeria, is not known to the nearest million, so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates. Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 billion people have been born in the last 2000 years. Population growth increased as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards; the last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity beginning in the 1960s, made by the Green Revolution. In 2017 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population will reach about 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100.
In the future, the world's population is expected to peak, after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is likely that the world's population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will decline before 2100. Population has declined in the last decade or two in Eastern Europe, the Baltics and in the Commonwealth of Independent States; the population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by increasing birth rates. These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates; this transition from high birth and death rates to low birth
Si Racha District
Si Racha is a district in Chonburi Province, Thailand. Its center is the town of Si Racha, on the Gulf of Thailand, about halfway between Chonburi and Pattaya. Si Racha is in an industrial zone consisting of manufacturing and shipping industries, supported by the port of Laem Chabang, 20th largest in the world. With Chonburi to the north and Pattaya, Bang Lamung township, Laem Chabang to the south, it forms the bulk of the economic zone of the eastern seaboard of Thailand, a fast-growing area, second to only greater Bangkok in population and wealth. Due to its infrastructure, Laem Chabang and the eastern seaboard in general, is the nation's leading entrepôt; the name "Si Racha" is from Sanskrit Sri Raja via Pali. To the north is Mueang Chonburi District, to the northeast Ban Bueng District, to the southeast Pluak Daeng District of Rayong Province, to the south is Bang Lamung District. Si Racha is divided into eight sub-districts, which are further subdivided into 72 administrative villages. There are two cities in the district: Laem Chabang consisting of the entire sub-district Thung Sukhla and parts of the sub-districts Surasak, Nong Kham, Bang Lamung.
Chao Phraya Surasak consisting of parts of sub-districts Surasak, Nong Kham, Khao Khansong, Bo Win. There is one town in the district: Si Racha consisting of sub-district Si Racha, one sub-district municipality, Bang Phra consisting of parts of sub-district Bang Phra. There are four sub-district administrative organizations in the district: Nong Kham consisting of parts of sub-district Nong Kham. Khao Khansong consisting of parts of sub-district Khao Khansong. Bang Phra consisting of parts of sub-district Bang Phra. Bo Win consisting of parts of sub-district Bo Win. Si Racha travel guide from Wikivoyage
Ko Sichang District
Ko Sichang is a district of Chonburi Province, Thailand. It consists of the island of its adjoining islands. Ko Sichang is in the Gulf of Thailand, 12 km off the shore of Si Racha District. King Rama IV, Rama V and Rama VI came to the island for rest. King Rama V built a summer palace, named "Phra Chuthathut Palace" after his son, born on this island; the royal residence was abandoned in 1893 after the French occupied the island during a conflict with Thailand over control of neighboring Laos. In 1900, the palace was torn down and reassembled in Bangkok, where it is now named Vimanmek Mansion; the British diplomat John Crawfurd visited the islands in 1822 during the mission described in his book Journal of an embassy from the Governor-General of India to the courts of Siam and Cochin-China: exhibiting a view of the actual state of those kingdoms. He reports that Francis Buchanan-Hamilton called the islands of Ko Sichang District the "Dutch Islands", Ko Sichang itself as "Amsterdam", due to frequent visits by ships of the Dutch East India Company during the 17th century.
American diplomat Edmund Roberts visited the district in the 1830s. Around 1833, when Edmund Roberts visited, he described the area as being occupied by "a few fisherman" who raised yams, capsicums and cucumbers; the island was a minor district under the Mueang Samut Prakan District of Samut Prakan Province. As of 1 January 1943 it was reassigned to the Si Ratcha District of Chonburi. On 4 July 1994 the minor district was upgraded to a full district. Ko Sichang has a tropical savanna climate. Maximum temperatures remain hot throughout the year, ranging from 29.6 °C in December to 32.9 °C in April. The monsoon season runs from May with heavy rainfall; the district consists of a single sub-district Tha Thewawong, further subdivided into seven villages. The district is covered by the township Ko Sichang. Ko Sampan Yue Ko Kham Noi Ko Kham Yai Ko Prong Ko Ran Dok Mai Ko Yai Thao Ko Khangkhao Ko Thai Ta Muen List of islands of Thailand Ko Sichang travel guide from Wikivoyage Website of the district Amphoe Ko Sichang from amphoe.com
Sattahip Bay is a bay in the east side of the Gulf of Siam or Gulf of Thailand. It is in Chonburi Province, Thailand. Prince Abhakara Kiartivongse, son of King Chulalongkorn, inspected Sattahip Bay in 1922 and saw that it was an ideal place to establish a naval base. Subsequently, he offered royal land in Sattahip. Sattahip Bay is the part of the largest base of the Royal Thai Navy. Sattahip Bay is invaded by jellyfish. Sattahip Bay lies at the south end of Chonburi Province, it is open towards the southwest and is bound by limestone rock formations forming peninsulas to the west over Laem Chalak and to the southeast at Khao Chong Khaep. There are several islands in the bay area, the largest being Ko Tao Mo, towards the western end of the mouth of the bay. Smaller Ko I Lao is the island further off-shore. List of islands of Thailand Media related to Sattahip Bay at Wikimedia Commons Sattahip Bay view
Sriracha Tiger Zoo
The Sriracha Tiger Zoo is a zoo in Sri Racha, a city on the outskirts of Pattaya, a seaside city in Chonburi Province, Thailand. It is about 97 km from Bangkok; the zoo claims a population of 200 tigers and around 10,000 crocodiles, the largest such populations in the world. Admission in 2009 was THB350 for foreigners and THB120 for Thais. Photographs of a female tiger nursing piglets wrapped in tiger skin, accompanied by a fictitious story about a zoo in California, were taken at Sriracha; the Animal Welfare Institute reported in 2004 that the zoo had been using tigers and elephants in circus shows, including tigers leaping through rings of fire, walking across a double tightrope, parading around a ring on hind legs, riding on horseback. AWI reported "potentially dangerous human-tiger and human-elephant close interaction", "bizarre multi-species enclosures", tigers being struck with steel poles by trainers and implications that tigers were being bred for export to China. World Animal Protection reported in 2016 that the tigers'appeared in the poorest condition of all those observed in our research.'
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or Krung Thep; the city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand, has a population of over eight million, or 12.6 percent of the country's population. Over fourteen million people lived within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region at the 2010 census, making Bangkok the nation's primate city dwarfing Thailand's other urban centres in terms of importance. Bangkok traces its roots to a small trading post during the Ayutthaya Kingdom in the 15th century, which grew and became the site of two capital cities: Thonburi in 1768 and Rattanakosin in 1782. Bangkok was at the heart of the modernization of Siam renamed Thailand, during the late-19th century, as the country faced pressures from the West; the city was at the centre of Thailand's political struggles throughout the 20th century, as the country abolished absolute monarchy, adopted constitutional rule, underwent numerous coups and several uprisings.
The city grew during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact on Thailand's politics, education and modern society. The Asian investment boom in the 1980s and 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their regional headquarters in Bangkok; the city is now a regional force in business. It is an international hub for transport and health care, has emerged as a centre for the arts and entertainment; the city is known for cultural landmarks, as well as its red-light districts. The Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the nightlife scenes of Khaosan Road and Patpong. Bangkok is among the world's top tourist destinations, has been named the world's most visited city in several rankings. Bangkok's rapid growth coupled with little urban planning has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate infrastructure. An inadequate road network, despite an extensive expressway network, together with substantial private car usage, have led to chronic and crippling traffic congestion, which caused severe air pollution in the 1990s.
The city has since turned to public transport in an attempt to solve the problem. Five rapid transit lines are now in operation, with more systems under construction or planned by the national government and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration; the history of Bangkok dates at least back to the early 15th century, when it was a village on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River, under the rule of Ayutthaya. Because of its strategic location near the mouth of the river, the town increased in importance. Bangkok served as a customs outpost with forts on both sides of the river, was the site of a siege in 1688 in which the French were expelled from Siam. After the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese Empire in 1767, the newly crowned King Taksin established his capital at the town, which became the base of the Thonburi Kingdom. In 1782, King Phutthayotfa Chulalok succeeded Taksin, moved the capital to the eastern bank's Rattanakosin Island, thus founding the Rattanakosin Kingdom; the City Pillar was erected on 21 April 1782, regarded as the date of foundation of the present city.
Bangkok's economy expanded through international trade, first with China with Western merchants returning in the early to-mid 19th century. As the capital, Bangkok was the centre of Siam's modernization as it faced pressure from Western powers in the late-19th century; the reigns of Kings Mongkut and Chulalongkorn saw the introduction of the steam engine, printing press, rail transport and utilities infrastructure in the city, as well as formal education and healthcare. Bangkok became the centre stage for power struggles between the military and political elite as the country abolished absolute monarchy in 1932. Allied with Japan in World War II, it was subjected to Allied bombing, but grew in the post-war period as a result of US aid and government-sponsored investment. Bangkok's role as a US military R&R destination boosted its tourism industry as well as establishing it as a sex tourism destination. Disproportionate urban development led to increasing income inequalities and migration from rural areas into Bangkok.
Following the US withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973, Japanese businesses took over as leaders in investment, the expansion of export-oriented manufacturing led to growth of the financial market in Bangkok. Rapid growth of the city continued through the 1980s and early 1990s, until it was stalled by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. By many public and social issues had emerged, among them the strain on infrastructure reflected in the city's notorious traffic jams. Bangkok's role as the nation's political stage continues to be seen in strings of popular protests, from the student uprisings in 1973 and 1976, anti-military demonstrations in 1992, successive anti-government demonstrations by opposing groups from 2008 on. Administration of the city was first formalized by King Chulalongkorn in 1906, with the establishment of Monthon Krung Thep Phra Maha Nakhon as a national subdivision. In 1915 the monthon was split into several provinces, the administrative boundaries of which have since further changed.
The city in its current form was created in 1972 with the formation of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, following the merger of Phra Nakhon Province on the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya and Thonburi Province on the west during the previous year. The origin of th
Chonburi is the capital of Chonburi Province and Mueang Chonburi District in Thailand. It is about 100 km south-east of Bangkok, on the coast of the Gulf of Thailand; the name means "city of water". Chonburi, along with other areas along the coast to Pattaya, forms a conurbation known as the Pattaya-Chonburi Metropolitan Area. Chonburi has had town status since 1935. Chonburi has a tropical savanna climate. Winters are dry and warm. Temperatures rise until April, hot with the average daily maximum at 35.2 °C. The monsoon season runs from May through October, with heavy rain and somewhat cooler temperatures during the day, although nights remain warm; the main road through Chonburi is Thailand Route 3 known as Sukhumvit Road. To the north-east it connects to Bangkok and to south it connects to Rayong and Trat. Route 344 leads east to Klaeng. Route 7 runs parallel to Route 3 but bypasses the densely populated coastal area, connecting to the beach resort city of Pattaya. A number of beaches and Khao Sam Muk hill by the Bangkok Bay seashore are important tourist attractions in Chonburi city.
Unithai Shipyard will serve as the main facility to repair United States Navy ships in the Thailand area. Chonburi travel guide from Wikivoyage http://www.chonburicity.go.th/ Website of the city