"Saturation" is an alternative rock song performed by Australian band The Superjesus. The song was released in November 1997 as the second single from the band's debut studio album, Sumo; the song peaked at number 42 on the Australian ARIA Singles Chart. In January 1999, The song was ranked at number 99 in the Triple J Hottest 100, 1998. CD Single "Saturation" - 4:08 "Face Down" - 3:24
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals; because the controlled power can be higher than the controlling power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits; the transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented a field-effect transistor in 1926 but it was not possible to construct a working device at that time; the first implemented device was a point-contact transistor invented in 1947 by American physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, William Shockley. The transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios and computers, among other things.
The transistor is on the list of IEEE milestones in electronics, Bardeen and Shockley shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for their achievement. Most transistors are made from pure silicon or germanium, but certain other semiconductor materials can be used. A transistor may have only one kind of charge carrier, in a field effect transistor, or may have two kinds of charge carriers in bipolar junction transistor devices. Compared with the vacuum tube, transistors are smaller, require less power to operate. Certain vacuum tubes have advantages over transistors at high operating frequencies or high operating voltages. Many types of transistors are made to standardized specifications by multiple manufacturers; the thermionic triode, a vacuum tube invented in 1907, enabled amplified radio technology and long-distance telephony. The triode, was a fragile device that consumed a substantial amount of power. In 1909 physicist William Eccles discovered the crystal diode oscillator. Physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld filed a patent for a field-effect transistor in Canada in 1925, intended to be a solid-state replacement for the triode.
Lilienfeld filed identical patents in the United States in 1926 and 1928. However, Lilienfeld did not publish any research articles about his devices nor did his patents cite any specific examples of a working prototype; because the production of high-quality semiconductor materials was still decades away, Lilienfeld's solid-state amplifier ideas would not have found practical use in the 1920s and 1930s if such a device had been built. In 1934, German inventor Oskar Heil patented a similar device in Europe. From November 17, 1947, to December 23, 1947, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at AT&T's Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New Jersey of the United States performed experiments and observed that when two gold point contacts were applied to a crystal of germanium, a signal was produced with the output power greater than the input. Solid State Physics Group leader William Shockley saw the potential in this, over the next few months worked to expand the knowledge of semiconductors; the term transistor was coined by John R. Pierce as a contraction of the term transresistance.
According to Lillian Hoddeson and Vicki Daitch, authors of a biography of John Bardeen, Shockley had proposed that Bell Labs' first patent for a transistor should be based on the field-effect and that he be named as the inventor. Having unearthed Lilienfeld’s patents that went into obscurity years earlier, lawyers at Bell Labs advised against Shockley's proposal because the idea of a field-effect transistor that used an electric field as a "grid" was not new. Instead, what Bardeen and Shockley invented in 1947 was the first point-contact transistor. In acknowledgement of this accomplishment, Shockley and Brattain were jointly awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect". In 1948, the point-contact transistor was independently invented by German physicists Herbert Mataré and Heinrich Welker while working at the Compagnie des Freins et Signaux, a Westinghouse subsidiary located in Paris. Mataré had previous experience in developing crystal rectifiers from silicon and germanium in the German radar effort during World War II.
Using this knowledge, he began researching the phenomenon of "interference" in 1947. By June 1948, witnessing currents flowing through point-contacts, Mataré produced consistent results using samples of germanium produced by Welker, similar to what Bardeen and Brattain had accomplished earlier in December 1947. Realizing that Bell Labs' scientists had invented the transistor before them, the company rushed to get its "transistron" into production for amplified use in France's telephone network; the first bipolar junction transistors were invented by Bell Labs' William Shockley, which applied for patent on June 26, 1948. On April 12, 1950, Bell Labs chemists Gordon Teal and Morgan Sparks had produced a working bipolar NPN junction amplifying germanium transistor. Bell Labs had announced the discovery of this new "sandwich" transistor in a press release on July 4, 1951; the first high-frequency transistor was the surface-barrier germanium transistor developed by Philco in 1953, capable of operating up to 60 MHz.
These were made by etching depressions into an N-type germanium base from both sides with jets of Indium sulfate until it was a few ten-thousandths of an inch thick. Indium electroplated into the depressions formed the emitter; the first "prototype" pocket transistor radio was shown by I
In economics, market saturation is a situation in which a product has become diffused within a market. The theory of natural limits states: "Every service has a natural consumption level. We just don't know what it is until we launch it, distribute it, promote it for a generation's time after which further investment to expand the universe beyond normal limits can be a futile exercise." —Thomas G. Osenton, economist The theory was introduced by Osenton is his 2004 book, The Death of Demand: Finding Growth in a Saturated Global Economy. In effect, a relative universe of regular users is established over time after which any significant expansion of that universe becomes extraordinarily difficult; the point at which these natural limits are reached is known as "innovation saturation". For example, the American weekly consumer magazine Sports Illustrated was launched in 1954 with 400,000 subscribers and grew through the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s until reaching 3.5 million subscribers in the late 1980s where it has remained since.
With some estimates of up to 100 million sports fans in the United States, many at Time Inc. believed that Sports Illustrated's subscription base could have been much higher. However, after many years of investment, the sports weekly's natural and most profitable consumption level was reached – where it has remained for more than 20 years; when suppliers abruptly offer large quantities for sale and saturate the market, this is known as flooding the market. For example, in advanced economies, an high percentage of households own refrigerators. Hence, the diffusion rate is more than 97%, the market is said to be saturated. To give another example, in advanced western households, the number of automobiles per family is greater than 1. To the extent that further market growth is constrained, the market is said to be saturated. Future sales depend on several factors including the rate of obsolescence, population growth, societal changes such as the spread of multi-car families
Saturated absorption spectroscopy
In experimental atomic physics, saturated absorption spectroscopy or Doppler-free spectroscopy is a set-up that enables the precise determination of the transition frequency of an atom between its ground state and an optically excited state. The accuracy to which these frequencies can be determined is, limited only by the width of the excited state, the inverse of the lifetime of this state. However, the samples of atomic gas that are used for that purpose are at room temperature, where the measured frequency distribution is broadened due to the Doppler effect. Saturated absorption spectroscopy allows precise spectroscopy of the atomic levels without having to cool the sample down to temperatures at which the Doppler broadening is no longer relevant, it is used to lock the frequency of a laser to the precise wavelength of an atomic transmission in atomic physics experiments. According to the description of an atom interacting with the electromagnetic field, the absorption of light by the atom depends on the frequency of the incident photons.
More the absorption is characterized by a Lorentzian of width Γ/2. If we have a cell of atomic vapour at room temperature the distribution of velocity will follow a Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution n d v = N m 2 π k B T e − m v 2 2 k B T d v, where N is the number of atoms, k B is the Boltzmann constant, m is the mass of the atom. According to the Doppler effect formula in the case of non-relativistic speeds, ω l a b = ω 0, where ω 0 is the frequency of the atomic transition when the atom is at rest; the value of v as a function of ω 0 and ω l a b can be inserted in the distribution of velocities. The distribution of absorption as a function of the pulsation will therefore be proportional to a Gaussian with full width at half maximum Δ ω l a b = ω 0 8 k B T ln 2 m c 2 For a Rubidium atom at room temperature, Δ ω l a b ≈ 500 MHz ≈ 2 π ⋅ 80 MHz ≫ Γ / 2 ≈ 2 π ⋅ 3 MHz Therefore, without any special trick in the experimental setup probing the maximum of absorption of an atomic vapour, the uncertainty of the measurement will be limited by the Doppler broadening and not by the fundamental width of the resonance.
To overcome the problem of Doppler broadening without cooling down the sample to millikelvin temperatures, a classical—and rather general—pump-probe scheme is used. A laser with a high intensity is sent through the atomic vapor, known as the pump beam. Another counter-propagating weak beam is sent through the atoms at the same frequency, known as the probe beam; the absorption of the probe beam is recorded on a photodiode for various frequencies of the beams. Although the two beams are at the same frequency, they address different atoms due to natural thermal motion. If the beams are red-detuned with respect to the atomic transition frequency the pump beam will be absorbed by atoms moving towards the beam source, while the probe beam will be absorbed by atoms moving away from that source at the same speed in the opposite direction. If the beams are blue-detuned, the opposite occurs. If, the laser is on resonance, these two beams address the same atoms, those with velocity vectors nearly perpendicular to the direction of laser propagation.
In the two-state approximation of an atomic transition, the strong pump beam will cause many of the atoms to be in the excited state. When a photon from the probe beam passes through the atoms there is a good chance that, if it encounters an atom, the atom will be in the excited state and will thus undergo stimulated emission, with the photon passing through the sample. Thus, as the laser frequency is swept across the resonance, a small dip in the absorption feature will be observed at each atomic transition; the stronger the pump beam, the wider and deepe
The dew point is the temperature to which air must be cooled to become saturated with water vapor. When further cooled, the airborne water vapor will condense to form liquid water; when air cools to its dew point through contact with a surface, colder than the air, water will condense on the surface. When the temperature is below the freezing point of water, the dew point is called the frost point, as frost is formed rather than dew; the measurement of the dew point is related to humidity. A higher dew point means. If all the other factors influencing humidity remain constant, at ground level the relative humidity rises as the temperature falls; this is because less vapor is needed to saturate the air, so vapor condenses as the temperature falls. In normal conditions, the dew point temperature will not be greater than the air temperature because relative humidity cannot exceed 100%. In technical terms, the dew point is the temperature at which the water vapor in a sample of air at constant barometric pressure condenses into liquid water at the same rate at which it evaporates.
At temperatures below the dew point, the rate of condensation will be greater than that of evaporation, forming more liquid water. The condensed water is called frost if it freezes; the condensed water is called either fog or a cloud, depending on its altitude when it forms in the air. If the temperature is below the dew point, the vapor is called supersaturated; this can happen. A high relative humidity implies. A relative humidity of 100% indicates the dew point is equal to the current temperature and that the air is maximally saturated with water; when the moisture content remains constant and temperature increases, relative humidity decreases, but the dew point remains constant. General aviation pilots use dew point data to calculate the likelihood of carburetor icing and fog, to estimate the height of a cumuliform cloud base. Increasing the barometric pressure increases the dew point; this means that, if the pressure increases, the mass of water vapour in the air must be reduced in order to maintain the same dew point.
For example, consider New York and Denver. Because Denver is at a higher elevation than New York, it will tend to have a lower barometric pressure; this means that if the dew point and temperature in both cities are the same, the amount of water vapor in the air will be greater in Denver. When the air temperature is high, the human body uses the evaporation of sweat to cool down, with the cooling effect directly related to how fast the perspiration evaporates; the rate at which perspiration can evaporate depends on how much moisture is in the air and how much moisture the air can hold. If the air is saturated with moisture, perspiration will not evaporate; the body's thermoregulation will produce perspiration in an effort to keep the body at its normal temperature when the rate it is producing sweat exceeds the evaporation rate, so one can become coated with sweat on humid days without generating additional body heat. As the air surrounding one's body is warmed by body heat, it will rise and be replaced with other air.
If air is moved away from one's body with a natural breeze or a fan, sweat will evaporate faster, making perspiration more effective at cooling the body. The more unevaporated perspiration, the greater the discomfort. A wet bulb thermometer uses evaporative cooling, so it provides a good measure for use in evaluating comfort level. Discomfort exists when the dew point is low; the drier air can cause skin to become irritated more easily. It will dry out the airways; the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration recommends indoor air be maintained at 20–24.5 °C with a 20–60% relative humidity, equivalent to a dew point of −4.5 to 15.5 °C. Lower dew points, less than 10 °C, correlate with lower ambient temperatures and the body requires less cooling. A lower dew point can go along with a high temperature only at low relative humidity, allowing for effective cooling. People inhabiting tropical and subtropical climates acclimatize somewhat to higher dew points. Thus, a resident of Singapore or Miami, for example, might have a higher threshold for discomfort than a resident of a temperate climate like London or Chicago.
People accustomed to temperate climates begin to feel uncomfortable when the dew point gets above 15 °C, while others might find dew points up to 18 °C comfortable. Most inhabitants of temperate areas will consider dew points above 21 °C oppressive and tropical-like, while inhabitants of hot and humid areas may not find this uncomfortable. Thermal comfort depends not just on physical environmental factors, but on psychological factors. Devices called; these devices consist of a polished metal mirror, cooled as air is passed over it. The temperature at which dew forms is, by definition, the dew point. Manual devices of this sort can be used to calibrate other types of humidity sensors, automatic sensors may be used in a control loop with a humidifier or dehumidifier to control the dew point of the air in a building or in a smaller space for a manufacturing process. A dew point of 33 °C was observed at 14:00 EDT on July 12, 1987, in Florida. A dew point of 32 °C has been observed in the United States on at least two other occasions: Appleton, Wisconsin, at 17:00 CDT on July 13, 1995, an
Great Oxygenation Event
The Great Oxygenation Event, the beginning of, known in scientific media as the Great Oxidation Event was the biologically induced appearance of molecular oxygen in Earth's atmosphere. Geological and chemical evidence suggests a start of around 2.45 billion years ago, during the Siderian period, at the beginning of the Proterozoic eon. The causes of the event remain unclear; as of 2016, the geochemical and biomarker evidence for the development of oxygenic photosynthesis before the Great Oxidation Event is inconclusive. The first microbes to produce oxygen by photosynthesis were oceanic cyanobacteria, they evolved into tufted microbial mats more than 2.3 billion years ago 200 million years before the GOE. The free oxygen produced during this time was chemically captured by dissolved iron, converting iron Fe and Fe 2 + to magnetite, insoluble in water, sank to the bottom of the shallow seas to create massive, large scale, banded iron formations; some of the oxygen was captured by organic matter.
The GOE started. The increased production of oxygen set Earth's original atmosphere off balance. Free oxygen is toxic to obligate anaerobic organisms. A spike in chromium contained in ancient rock deposits formed underwater shows accumulated chromium washed off from the continental shelves. Chromium is not dissolved. One such acid, sulfuric acid, may have formed through bacterial reactions with pyrite. Mats of oxygen-producing cyanobacteria can produce a thin layer, one or two millimeters thick, of oxygenated water in an otherwise anoxic environment under thick ice. Additionally, the free oxygen would have reacted with atmospheric methane, a greenhouse gas reducing its concentration and triggering the Huronian glaciation, called "snowball Earth" the longest episode of glaciation in Earth's history; the evolution of aerobic organisms that consumed oxygen established an equilibrium in the availability of oxygen. Free oxygen has been an important constituent of the atmosphere since; the most accepted chronology of the Great Oxygenation Event suggests that free oxygen was first produced by prokaryotic and later eukaryotic organisms that carried out photosynthesis more efficiently, producing oxygen as a waste product.
The first oxygen-producing organisms arose long before the GOE as early as 3,400 million years ago. The oxygen they produced would have been removed from the atmosphere by the chemical weathering of reducing minerals, most notably iron; this disolved iron oxidized Fe and Fe 2 + to magnetite, insoluable in water, sank to the bottom of the shallow seas to create massive, large scale, banded iron formations such as the sediments in Minnesota and in Pilbara, Western Australia. Only when all of the dissolved iron, other reducing minerals, had been oxidized, was oxygen able to persist in the atmosphere. Depleting these reductive minerals took 50 million years. Oxygen could have accumulated rapidly: at today's rates of photosynthesis, much greater than those in the Precambrian without land plants, modern atmospheric O2 levels could be produced in just 2,000 years. Another hypothesis is that oxygen producers did not evolve until a few million years before the major rise in atmospheric oxygen concentration.
This is based on a particular interpretation of a supposed oxygen indicator used in previous studies, the mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes. This hypothesis would eliminate the need to explain a lag in time between the evolution of oxyphotosynthetic microbes and the rise in free oxygen. In either case, oxygen did accumulate in the atmosphere, with two major consequences. Firstly, it oxidized atmospheric methane to carbon water; this decreased the greenhouse effect of the Earth's atmosphere, causing planetary cooling, triggered the Huronian glaciation. Starting around 2.4 billion years ago, this lasted 300-400 million years, may have been the longest snowball Earth episode. Secondly, the increased oxygen concentrations provided a new opportunity for biological diversification, as well as tremendous changes in the nature of chemical interactions between rocks, sand and other geological substrates and the Earth's air and other surface waters. Despite the natural recycling of organic matter, life had remained energetically limited until the widespread availability of oxygen.
This breakthrough in metabolic evolution increased the free energy available to living organisms, with global environmental impacts. For example, mitochondria evolved after the GOE, giving organisms the energy to exploit new, more complex morphologies interacting in complex ecosystems. There
Saturation (Urge Overkill album)
Saturation is the fourth album by American alternative rock group Urge Overkill, released in 1993 and produced by the Butcher Bros. Saturation was Urge Overkill's debut on Geffen Records, a deliberate attempt at a hit record; the label released "Sister Havana" and "Positive Bleeding" as singles in the U. S. and Europe. "Sister Havana" charted on both the modern rock and mainstream rock charts, peaking at #6 and #10 while "Positive Bleeding" became a minor rock radio hit. Saturation is notable for the fact that Nash Kato – rather than King Roeser, the band's usual de facto lead vocalist – sings lead on the entire album; the two would split frontman duties on their next album Exit the Dragon and their 2011 comeback Rock & Roll Submarine. At the end of "Erica Kane", a piece of dialogue by McGarrett from Hawaii Five-O is played before the music starts; the quote is from Season 5, Episode 6, titled "Fools Die Twice". The graphic art for the album cover is an artistic depiction of the Texas city skyline.
"Sister Havana" – 3:53 "Tequila Sundae" – 4:20 "Positive Bleeding" – 3:44 "Back on Me" – 3:12 "Woman 2 Woman" – 2:40 "Bottle of Fur" – 4:13 "Crackbabies" – 4:03 "The Stalker" – 2:52 "Dropout" – 4:55 "Erica Kane" – 3:07 "Nite and Grey" – 4:22 "Heaven 90210""Operation Kissinger" – 28:38 Nash Kato – lead vocals, keyboards Eddie "King" Roeser – bass, vocals Blackie Onassis – drums, lead vocals