Fade to Black (1980 film)
Fade to Black is a 1980 American psychological horror film written and directed by Vernon Zimmerman, starring Dennis Christopher, Eve Brent, Linda Kerridge. It features Mickey Rourke and Peter Horton in minor roles; the plot follows a shy and lonely cinephile who embarks on a killing spree against his oppressors while impersonating classic horror film characters, all the while stalking his idol: a Marilyn Monroe lookalike. The film was nominated for multiple Saturn Awards, with Eve Brent winning for Best Supporting Actress. Released in October 1980, Fade to Black was commercially unsuccessful, but garnered a cult following, it was released on VHS home video in the mid-1980s by Media Home Entertainment. It was first released on DVD on August 1999 by Anchor Bay Entertainment. Eric Binford is a hollow, chain smoking awkward and unlikeable young man, an obsessed film addict whose love of old films extends far beyond his job at a Los Angeles film distributor's warehouse and endless late-night film screenings in his bedroom.
For his vast knowledge, he's been bullied by his friends and family. His singular obsession turns into psychosis after he crosses paths with Marilyn O'Connor, an Australian model and a Marilyn Monroe lookalike who becomes the physical embodiment of his cinematic desires; when unintentionally stood up by Marilyn on their first date, Eric becomes homicidally unbalanced, transforming himself into a gallery of classic film characters—including Dracula, The Mummy, Hopalong Cassidy—and sets out to destroy his oppressors, starting with his crotchety, wheelchair-using, ex-dancer Aunt Stella, pushing her wheelchair down a staircase to her death and making it look like an accident. Eric attends her funeral dressed as Tommy Udo. Eric dresses up as Count Dracula to attend a midnight screening of Night of the Living Dead at a local cinema afterwords targets a hooker who had earlier snubbed him, she trips, falling to her death, Eric drinks her blood. A few more nights Eric dresses up as the cowboy Hopalong Cassidy, when he shoots and kills a boorish co-worker who taunted him on a regular basis.
Another few nights Eric dresses up as The Mummy, where he drives his mean and vindictive boss, Mr. Berger, into suffering a fatal heart attack while he is working late night at the distribution warehouse. Eric dresses up as gangster Cody Jarrett and kills a sleazy filmmaker named Gary Bially, who stole his idea as his own for an upcoming feature film inspired by Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves at a barber shop in broad daylight which gives away his identity. Eric eventually works his way toward Marilyn, hoping to lure her to his side. Investigating the murders is a criminal psychologist named Dr. Jerry Moriarty, who tries to find a pattern to the murders and find Eric, to help or stop him, with the assistance of a friendly policewoman, but Moriarty's investigation is hampered by his own mean-spirited and nasty boss Captain Gallagher, who tries to stop Moriarty's investigation because Gallagher wants to take all the credit of finding the killer for himself. It all leads to Eric luring Marilyn to a photography studio where he drugs her to reenact a scene from The Prince and the Showgirl, interrupted when Dr. Moriarty arrives, Eric is forced to run with Marilyn at his side.
It leads to the Mann's Chinese Theatre where the insane Eric is shot by the police on the roof of the building while reenacting Cody Jarrett's death scene in White Heat. Eric falls off the roof to his apparent death. Dennis Christopher as Eric Binford Tim Thomerson as Dr. Jerry Moriarty Gwynne Gilford as Off. Anne Oshenbull Norman Burton as Marty Berger Linda Kerridge as Marilyn O'Connor Morgan Paull as Gary Bially James Luisi as Capt. M. L. Gallagher Eve Brent Ashe as Aunt Stella Binford John Steadman as Sam Marcie Barkin as Stacy Mickey Rourke as Richie Peter Horton as Joey Melinda O. Fee as Talk Show Hostess On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 45% based on 11 reviews, with a weighted average rating of 4.9/10. Roger Ebert from Chicago Sun Times awarded the film 3/4 stars, calling it "a weird, uneven intriguing thriller". Time Out wrote, "The film aspires to hommage, it's true, but its references are altogether too obvious." Author and film critic Leonard Maltin awarded the film 1.5 out of 4 stars, writing that the film was " interesting idea ruined excessive violence, a poor performance by Christopher."
Fade to Black at AllMovie Fade to Black on IMDb Fade to Black at Rotten Tomatoes
11th Saturn Awards
The 11th Saturn Awards, honoring the best in science fiction and horror film in 1983, were held on March 24, 1984. Below is a complete list of winners. Winners are highlighted in bold. Nicholas Meyer Roger Corman Official Website
See stage clothes. Costume design is the overall appearance of a character or performer. Costume may refer to the style of dress particular to a class, or a period. In many cases, it may contribute to the fullness of the artistic, visual world, unique to a particular theatrical or cinematic production; the most basic designs are produced to denote status, provide protection or modesty, or provide visual interest to a character. Costumes may not be limited to such. Costume design should not be confused with costume coordination which involves altering existing clothing, although both create stage clothes. Four types of costumes are used in theatrical design: historical, fantastical and modern. Village festivals and processions in honor of Dionysus amongst the ancient Greeks, are believed to be the origin of theatre, therefore theatre costume; the sculpture and vase paintings provide the clearest evidence of this costume. Because of their ritualized style of theatre many masks were used giving each character a specific look and they varied depending if they were used for comedic or dramatic purposes.
Some masks were constructed with a cheerful as well as a serious side on the same face in an attempt to indicate a change in emotion without a change of mask. The same is true for the Romans, who continued the mask tradition, which made the doubling of roles easier. During the late Middle Ages in Europe, dramatic enactments of Bible stories were prevalent, therefore actual Christian vestments, stylized from traditional Byzantine court dress, were worn as costumes to keep the performances as realistic as possible. Stereotypical characterization was key. In most instances actors had to supply their own costumes when playing a character found in daily life. In Elizabethan performance during the 1500-1600s in England, costume became the most important visual element. Garments were expensive because only the finest fabrics were used; the majority of characters were clothed in Elizabethan fashion, otherwise the costumes could be divided into five categories. Her practice soon became standard for all tragic heroines" Major actors began to compete with one another as to who would have the most lavish stage dress.
This practice continued until around the 1750s. Art began to copy life and realistic characteristics were favored during the 19th century. For example, Georg the second, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen took personal interest in the theatre and began managing troupes, he advocated for authenticity and accuracy of the script and time period, therefore he refused to let actors tamper with their own costumes. He made sure the materials were authentic and specific, using real chain mail, swords, etc. No cheap substitutes would be allowed. In August 1823, in an issue of The Album, James Planché published an article saying that more attention should be paid to the time period of Shakespeare's plays when it comes to costumes. In the same year, a casual conversation led to one of Planché's more lasting effects on British theatre, he observed to Charles Kemble, the manager of Covent Garden, that "while a thousand pounds were lavished upon a Christmas pantomime or an Easter spectacle, the plays of Shakespeare were put upon the stage with makeshift scenery, and, at the best, a new dress or two for the principal characters."
Kemble "saw the possible advantage of correct appliances catching the taste of the town" and agreed to give Planché control of the costuming for the upcoming production of King John, if he would carry out the research, design the costumes and superintend the production. Planché had little experience in this area and sought the help of antiquaries such as Francis Douce and Sir Samuel Meyrick; the research involved sparked Planché's latent antiquarian interests. Despite the actors' reservations, King John was a success and led to a number of similarly-costumed Shakespeare productions by Kemble and Planché; the designs and renderings of King John, Henry IV, As You Like It, Othello and Merchant of Venice were published, though there is no evidence that Hamlet and Merchant of Venice were produced with Planché’s accurate costume designs. Planché wrote a number of plays or adaptations which were staged with accurate costumes. After 1830, although he still used period costume, he no longer claimed historical accuracy for his work in plays.
His work in King John had brought about a "revolution in nineteenth-century stage practice" which lasted for a century. In 1923 the first of a series of innovative modern dress productions of Shakespeare plays, directed by H. K. Ayliff, opened at Barry Jackson's Birmingham Repertory Theatre in England. Costumes in Chinese
Genre fiction known as popular fiction, is a term used in the book-trade for fictional works written with the intent of fitting into a literary genre, in order to appeal to readers and fans familiar with that genre. Although genre fiction is distinguished from literary fiction, a number of major literary figures have written genre fiction, for example, John Banville, publishes crime novels as Benjamin Black, both Doris Lessing, Margaret Atwood have written science fiction. Georges Simenon, the creator of the Maigret detective novels, has been described by André Gide as "the most novelistic of novelists in French literature"; the main genres are crime, romance, science fiction, inspirational, historical fiction and horror. More commercially oriented genre fiction has been dismissed by literary critics as poorly written or escapist. In the publishing industry the term "category fiction" is used as a synonym for genre fiction, with the categories serving as the familiar shelf headings within the fiction section of a bookstore, such as Western or mystery.
The uncategorized section is known in the industry as "general fiction", but in fact many of the titles in this large section are themselves genre novels that have been placed in the general section because sellers believe they will appeal, due to their high quality or other special characteristics, to a wider audience than the readers of that genre. Some adult fans are embarrassed to read genre fiction in public; some authors known for literary fiction have written novels under pseudonyms, while others have employed genre elements in literary fiction. Romance fiction had an estimated $1.375 billion share in the US book market in 2007. Religion/inspirational literature followed with $819 million, science fiction/fantasy with $700 million, mystery with $650 million and classic literary fiction with $466 million. Genre began as an absolute classification system for ancient Greek literature. Poetry and drama each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. Among the genres were the epic in poetry and tragedy and comedy for plays.
In periods other genres such as the chivalric romance and prose fiction developed. Though the novel is seen as a modern genre, Ian Watt, in The Rise of the Novel suggests that the novel first came into being in the early 18th century, it has been described as possessing "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years", from the time of both Classical Greece and Rome; the "romance" is a related long prose narrative. Walter Scott defined it as "a fictitious narrative in verse. However, many romances, including the historical romances of Scott, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, are frequently called novels, Scott describes romance as a "kindred term". Romance, as defined here, should not be confused with the genre fiction love romance or romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo."Genre fiction developed from various subgenres of the novel during the nineteenth century, along with the growth of the mass-marketing of fiction in the twentieth century: this includes the gothic novel, science fiction, adventure novel, historical romance, the detective novel.
Some scholars see precursors to the genre fiction romance novels in literary fiction of the 18th and 19th centuries, including Samuel Richardson's sentimental novel Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded and the novels of Jane Austen such as Pride and Prejudice. The following are some of the main genres as they are used in contemporary publishing: Crime fiction is the literary genre that fictionalises crimes, their detection and their motives, it is distinguished from mainstream fiction and other genres such as historical fiction or science fiction, but the boundaries are indistinct. Crime fiction has multiple subgenres, including detective fiction, courtroom drama, hard-boiled fiction, mystery fiction, legal thrillers. Suspense and mystery are key elements to the genre. Fantasy is a genre of fiction that uses magic or other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Many works within the genre take place in imaginary worlds where magic and magical creatures are common. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the expectation that it steers clear of scientific and macabre themes though there is a great deal of overlap among the three, all of which are subgenres of speculative fiction.
Fantasy works feature a medieval setting. The romance novel or "romantic novel" focuses on the relationship and romantic love between two people, must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending." There are many subgenres of the romance novel including fantasy, science fiction, same sex romantic fiction, paranormal fiction. There is a literary fiction form of romance, which Walter Scott defined as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse. According to Romance Writers of America's data, the most important subgenres are: Contemporary series romance, Contemporary romance, Historical romance, Paranormal romance, Romantic suspense, Inspirational romance, Romantic suspense. Other: chick-lit, erotic romance, women's fiction, Young adult romance. Science fiction is a genre of speculative fic
Star Trek: The Motion Picture
Star Trek: The Motion Picture is a 1979 American science fiction film directed by Robert Wise and based on the television series of the same name created by Gene Roddenberry, who served as its producer. It is the first installment in the Star Trek film series, stars the cast of the original television series; the film is set in the year 2271, when a mysterious and immensely powerful alien cloud known as V'Ger approaches Earth, destroying everything in its path. Admiral James T. Kirk assumes command of the refitted Starship USS Enterprise, to lead it on a mission to save the planet and determine V'Ger's origins; when the original television series was canceled in 1969, Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry lobbied Paramount Pictures to continue the franchise through a feature film. The success of the series in syndication convinced the studio to begin work on the film in 1975. A series of writers attempted to craft a "suitably epic" script, but the attempts did not satisfy Paramount, so the studio scrapped the project in 1977.
Paramount instead planned on returning the franchise to its roots, with a new television series titled Star Trek: Phase II. But the box-office success of Close Encounters of the Third Kind convinced Paramount that science-fiction films other than Star Wars could do well, so the studio canceled production of Phase II and resumed its attempts at making a Star Trek film. In 1978, Paramount assembled the largest press conference held at the studio since the 1950s to announce that two-time Academy Award–winning director Robert Wise would direct a $15 million film adaptation of the original television series. With the cancellation of Phase II, writers rushed to adapt its planned pilot episode, "In Thy Image", into a film script. Constant revisions to the story and the shooting script continued to the extent of hourly script updates on shooting dates; the Enterprise was modified inside and out, costume designer Robert Fletcher provided new uniforms, production designer Harold Michelson fabricated new sets.
Jerry Goldsmith composed the film's score, beginning an association with Star Trek that would continue until 2002. When the original contractors for the optical effects proved unable to complete their tasks in time, effects supervisor Douglas Trumbull was given carte blanche to meet the film's December 1979 release date; the film came together only days before the premiere. C. opening, but always felt that the final theatrical version was a rough cut of the film he wanted to make. Released in North America on December 7, 1979, Star Trek: The Motion Picture received mixed reviews, many of which faulted it for a lack of action scenes and overreliance on special effects, its final production cost ballooned to $46 million, it earned $139 million worldwide, short of studio expectations but enough for Paramount to propose a less expensive sequel. Roddenberry was forced out of creative control for Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan. In 2001, Wise oversaw a director's cut for a special DVD release of the film, with remastered audio and added scenes, new computer-generated effects.
In 2271, a Starfleet monitoring station, Epsilon Nine, detects an alien force, hidden in a massive cloud of energy, moving through space toward Earth. The cloud destroys three of the Klingon Empire's new K't'inga-class warships and the monitoring station en route. On Earth, the starship Enterprise is undergoing a major refit. Starfleet dispatches Enterprise to investigate the cloud entity as the ship is the only one in intercept range, requiring its new systems to be tested in transit. Citing his experience, Kirk takes command of the ship, angering Captain Willard Decker, overseeing the refit as its new commanding officer. Testing of Enterprise's new systems goes poorly. Kirk's unfamiliarity with the ship's new systems increases the tension between him and Decker, temporarily demoted to first officer. Commander Spock arrives as a replacement science officer, explaining that while on his home world undergoing a ritual to purge all emotion, he felt a consciousness that he believes emanates from the cloud, was unable to complete the ritual because his human half felt an emotional connection to it.
Enterprise is attacked by an alien vessel within. A probe appears on the bridge, attacks Spock and abducts the navigator, Ilia, she is replaced by a robotic replica, another probe sent by "V'Ger" to study the crew. Decker is distraught over the loss of Ilia, with, he becomes troubled as he attempts to extract information from the doppelgänger, which has Ilia's memories and feelings buried inside. Spock attempts a telepathic mind meld with it. In doing so, he learns that the vessel is V'Ger a living machine. At the center of the massive ship, V'Ger is revealed to be Voyager 6, a 20th-century Earth space probe believed lost in a black hole; the damaged probe was found by an alien race of living machines that interpreted its programming as instructions to learn all that can be learned and return that information to its creator. The machines upgraded the probe to fulfill its mission, on its journey, the probe gathered so much knowledge that it achieved consciousness. Spock realizes that V'Ger lacks the ability to give itself a purpose other than its original mission.
Time After Time (1979 film)
Time After Time is a 1979 American Metrocolor science fiction film directed by screenwriter Nicholas Meyer and starring Malcolm McDowell, David Warner, Mary Steenburgen. Filmed in Panavision, it was the directing debut of Meyer, whose screenplay is based on the premise from Karl Alexander's novel Time After Time and a story by Alexander and Steve Hayes; the film presents a story in which British author H. G. Wells uses his time machine to pursue Jack the Ripper into the 20th century. In 1893 London, popular writer Herbert George Wells displays a time machine to his skeptical dinner guests. After he explains how it works, police constables arrive at the house searching for Jack the Ripper. A bag with blood-stained gloves belonging to one of Herbert's friends, a surgeon named John Leslie Stevenson, leads them to conclude that Stevenson might be the infamous killer. Wells races to his laboratory. Stevenson has escaped to the future, but because he does not have the "non-return" key, the machine automatically returns to 1893.
Herbert uses it to pursue Stevenson to November 5, 1979, where the machine has ended up on display at a museum in San Francisco. He is shocked by the future, having expected it to be an enlightened socialist utopia, only to find chaos in the form of airplanes, automobiles and a worldwide history of war and bloodshed. Reasoning that Stevenson would need to exchange his British money, Herbert asks about him at various banks. At the Chartered Bank of London, he meets liberated employee Amy Robbins, who says she had directed Stevenson to the Hyatt Regency hotel. Confronted by his one-time friend Herbert, Stevenson confesses that he finds modern society to be pleasingly violent, stating: "Ninety years ago, I was a freak. Now... I'm an amateur." Herbert demands he return to 1893 to face justice, but Stevenson instead attempts to wrestle the time machine's key from him. Their struggle is interrupted by a maid and Stevenson flees, getting hit by a car during the frantic chase. Herbert follows him to the San Francisco General Hospital emergency room and mistakenly gets the impression that Stevenson has died from his injuries.
Herbert meets up with Amy Robbins again and she initiates a romance. Stevenson returns to the bank to exchange more money. Suspecting that it was Amy who had led Herbert to him, he finds out. Herbert, hoping to convince her of the truth, takes a skeptical Amy three days into the future. Once there, she is aghast to see a newspaper headline revealing her own murder as the Ripper's fifth victim. Herbert persuades her that they must go back – it is their duty to attempt to prevent the fourth victim's murder prevent Amy's. However, they can do no more than phone the police. Stevenson kills again, Herbert is arrested because of his knowledge of the killing. Amy is left alone defenseless, at the mercy of the "San Francisco Ripper". While Herbert unsuccessfully tries to convince the police of Amy's peril, she attempts to hide from Stevenson; when the police do investigate her apartment, they find the dismembered body of a woman. Now aware of Herbert's innocence, the police release a now-heartbroken Wells.
However, he is contacted by Stevenson, who has killed Amy's coworker and taken Amy hostage in order to extort the time machine key from Wells. Stevenson flees with the key – and Amy as insurance – to attempt a permanent escape in the time machine. Using Amy's car, Herbert follows them back to the museum. While Herbert bargains for Amy's life, she is able to escape; as Stevenson starts up the time machine, Herbert removes the "vaporizing equalizer" from it, causing Stevenson to vanish while the machine does not. As Herbert had explained earlier, this causes the machine to remain in place while its passenger is sent traveling endlessly through time with no way to stop. Herbert proclaims that the time has come to return to his own time, in order to destroy a machine that he now knows is too dangerous for primitive mankind. Amy pleads with him to take her along; as they depart to the past, she jokes that she is changing her name to Susan B. Anthony; the film ends with the caption- "H. G. Wells married Amy Catherine Robbins, who died in 1927.
As a writer, he anticipated Socialism, global war, space travel, Women's Liberation. He died in 1946." Malcolm McDowell as Herbert George Wells David Warner as John Leslie Stevenson/Jack the Ripper Mary Steenburgen as Amy Robbins Charles Cioffi as Police Lt. Mitchell Kent Williams as assistant Patti D'Arbanville as Shirley Joseph Maher as Adams According to Meyer from the commentary track for the DVD and Blu-ray release of the film, the author of the novel presented Meyer with 55 pages of his unpublished novel and asked Meyer to critique his work. Meyer liked the premise and optioned the story so he could write a screenplay based on the material and develop the story his own way. McDowell was attracted to the material because he was looking for something different than the sex and violence in Caligula, in which he played the title character. While preparing to portray Wells, Malcolm McDowell obtained a copy of a 78 rpm recording of Wells speaking. McDowell was "absolutely horrified" to hear that Wells spoke in a high-pitched, squeaky voice with a pronounced Southeast London accent, which McDowell felt would have resulted in unintentional humor if he tried to mimic it for the film.
McDowell abandoned any attempt to recreate Wells's authentic speaking style and preferred a more dignified
Logan's Run (film)
Logan's Run is a 1976 American science fiction film, directed by Michael Anderson and starring Michael York, Jenny Agutter, Richard Jordan, Roscoe Lee Browne, Farrah Fawcett, Peter Ustinov. The screenplay by David Zelag Goodman is based on the book Logan's Run by William F. Nolan and George Clayton Johnson, it depicts a utopian future society on the surface, revealed as a dystopia where the population and the consumption of resources are maintained in equilibrium by killing everyone who reaches the age of thirty. The story follows the actions of Logan 5, a "Sandman" who has terminated others who have attempted to escape death, is now faced with termination himself. Produced by Metro–Goldwyn–Mayer, the film uses only the basic premise from the novel, that everyone must die at a set age and that Logan runs off with a female companion named Jessica while being chased by another Sandman named Francis. After aborted attempts to adapt the novel, story changes were made including raising the age of "last day" from 21 to 30 and introducing the idea of "Carrousel" for eliminating 30-year-olds.
Its filming was marked by special-effects challenges in depicting Carrousel and innovative use of holograms and wide-angle lenses. The film won a Special Academy Award for its visual effects and six Saturn Awards, including Best Science Fiction Film. In 1977, a TV series aired. In the year 2274, the remnants of human civilization live in a sealed city contained beneath a cluster of geodesic domes, a utopia run by a computer that takes care of all aspects of life, including reproduction; the citizens live a hedonistic life but in order to prevent overpopulation within their limited resources, everyone must undergo the rite of "Carrousel" when they reach the age of 30. There, they are killed under the guise of being "renewed.” To track this, each person is implanted at birth with a "life-clock" crystal in the palm of the hand that changes color as they get older and begins blinking as they approach their "Last Day.” Most residents accept this promise of rebirth, but those who do not and attempt to flee the city are known as "Runners.”
An elite team of policemen known as "Sandmen,” outfitted in predominantly black uniforms and serving in an agency of the city called "Deep Sleep,” are assigned to pursue and terminate Runners as they try to escape. Logan 5 and Francis 7 are both Sandmen. After terminating a Runner, to whose presence they were alerted during a Carrousel rite, Logan finds an ankh among his possessions; that evening, he meets Jessica 6, a young woman wearing an ankh pendant. Logan takes the ankh to the computer, which tells him that it is a symbol for a secret group whose members help the Runners find "Sanctuary,” a mythic place where they will be safe to live out the rest of their lives. Logan learns; the computer instructs Logan to find Sanctuary and destroy it, a mission which it code names "Procedure 033-03,” which he must keep secret from the other Sandmen of Deep Sleep. By a procedure it calls "retrogram", the computer changes the color of his life clock to flashing red making him four years closer to Carrousel.
In order to escape this, Logan is now forced to become a Runner. Logan explains his situation, they meet with the underground group. Logan learns that the ankh symbol is a key that unlocks an exit from the city, they come out into a frozen cave, with Francis following behind. In the cave, they meet a robot designed to capture food for the city from the outside. Logan discovers, to his horror, that Box captures escaped Runners and freezes them for food. Before Box can freeze Logan and Jessica, they escape. Once outside and Jessica notice that their life clocks are no longer operational, they see the Sun for the first time and discover that the remains of human civilization have become a wilderness. They explore an old abandoned city, once Washington, D. C. In the ruins of the United States Senate chamber, they discover an elderly man living with many cats, his appearance is a shock to them, since neither has seen anyone over the age of thirty. The old man recounts what he remembers about what happened to humanity outside the city, Logan realizes that Sanctuary has always been a myth.
However, Francis has followed them and he and Logan fight. Logan fatally wounds Francis. Logan and Jessica persuade the old man to return to the city with them as proof that life exists outside the domed city. Leaving the man outside, the two enter and try to convince everyone that Carrousel is a lie and unnecessary; the two are taken to the computer. The computer interrogates Logan about Procedure 033-03 and asks if he completed his mission, but Logan insists, "There is no Sanctuary." What he had found was "old ruins, exposed,” "an old man,” and that the missing Runners were "all frozen.” These answers are not accepted by the computer after scanning Logan's mind, the computer overloads, causing the city's systems to fail violently and release the exterior seals. Logan and the other citizens flee the ruined city. Once outside, the citizens see the old man, the first human they have met, older than thirty, proving that they can, live their lives much longer. MGM's early attempts to adapt the book led to development hell.
Producer George Pal's attempt was troubled in 1969 by competing views of what the film's story should be, including the possibility of incorporating symbolism of real life issues, in comparison to screenwriter Richard Maibaum's vision. Rewri