Saturnia is a genus of moths in the family Saturniidae first described by Franz Paula von Schrank in 1802. They are large moths called emperor moths though this is used for various close relatives in subfamily Saturniinae. Most are Palearctic; the known species of Saturnia are: Saturnia albofasciata – white-streaked saturnia Saturnia atlantica Lucas, 1848 Saturnia bieti Oberthür, 1886 Saturnia cameronensis Lemaire, 1979 Saturnia centralis Naumann & Loeffler, 2005 Saturnia cephalariae Saturnia cidosa Moore, 1865 Saturnia cognata Jordan in Seitz, 1911 Saturnia koreanis Brechlin, 2009 Saturnia luctifera Jordan in Seitz, 1911 Saturnia mendocino Behrens, 1876 – Mendocino saturnia Saturnia pavonia – small emperor moth Saturnia pavoniella Saturnia pinratanai Lampe, 1989 Saturnia pyretorum Westwood, 1847 Saturnia pyri – giant emperor moth, Viennese emperor moth Saturnia spini – sloe emperor moth Saturnia taibaishanis Brechlin, 2009 Saturnia walterorum Hogue & Johnson, 1958 – Walter's saturnia Saturnia zuleika Hope, 1843Formerly placed here was the Brazilian Arsenura pandora.
Whether the autumn emperor moth, here separated in a monotypic genus, is not better included in Saturnia needs to be determined. A. R. Pittaway. "Saturniidae of Europe". Wolfgang A. Nässig. "Saturnia Homepage"
A megalith is a large stone, used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. The word megalithic describes structures made of such large stones without the use of mortar or concrete, representing periods of prehistory characterised by such constructions. For periods, the word monolith, with an overlapping meaning, is more to be used; the word megalith comes from the Ancient Greek μέγας and λίθος. Megalith denotes one or more rocks hewn in definite shapes for special purposes, it has been used to describe buildings built by people from many parts of the world living in many different periods. The term was first used in reference to Stonehenge by Algernon Herbert in 1849. A variety of large stones are seen as megaliths, with the most known megaliths not being tombs; the construction of these structures took place in the Neolithic period and continued into the Chalcolithic period and the Bronze Age. At a number of sites in eastern Turkey, large ceremonial complexes from the 9th millennium BC have been discovered.
They belong to the incipient phases of animal husbandry. Large circular structures involving carved. Although these structures are the most ancient megalithic structures known so far, it is not clear that any of the European megalithic traditions are derived from them. At Göbekli Tepe, four stone circles have been excavated from an estimated 20; some measure up to 30 metres across. As well as human figures, the stones carry a variety of carved reliefs depicting boars, lions, birds and scorpions. Dolmens and standing stones have been found in large areas of the Middle East starting at the Turkish border in the north of Syria close to Aleppo, southwards down to Yemen, they can be encountered in Lebanon, Iran, Israel and Saudi Arabia. The largest concentration can be found in southern Syria and along the Jordan Rift Valley, however they are being threatened with destruction, they date from the late Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age. Megaliths have been found on Kharg Island and pirazmian in Iran, at Barda Balka in Iraq.
A semicircular arrangement of megaliths was found in Israel at Atlit Yam, a site, now under the sea. It is a early example, dating from the 7th millennium BC; the most concentrated occurrence of dolmens in particular is in a large area on both sides of the Jordan Rift Valley, with greater predominance on the eastern side. They occur first and foremost on the Golan Heights, the Hauran, in Jordan, which has the largest concentration of dolmen in the Middle East. In Saudi Arabia, only few dolmen have been identified so far in the Hejaz, they seem, however, to re-emerge in Yemen in small numbers, thus could indicate a continuous tradition related to those of Somalia and Ethiopia. The standing stone has a ancient tradition in the Middle East, dating back from Mesopotamian times. Although not always'megalithic' in the true sense, they occur throughout the Orient, can reach 5 metres or more in some cases; this phenomenon can be traced through many passages from the Old Testament, such as those related to Jacob, the grandson of Abraham, who poured oil over a stone that he erected after his famous dream in which angels climbed to heaven.
Jacob is described as putting up stones at other occasions, whereas Moses erected twelve pillars symbolizing the tribes of Israel. The tradition of venerating stones continued in Nabatean times and is reflected in, e.g. the Islamic rituals surrounding the Kaaba and nearby pillars. Related phenomena, such as cupholes, rock-cut tombs and circles occur in the Middle East; the most common type of megalithic construction in Europe is the portal tomb – a chamber consisting of upright stones with one or more large flat capstones forming a roof. Many of these, though by no means all, contain human remains, but it is debatable whether use as burial sites was their primary function; the megalithic structures in the northwest of France are believed to be the oldest in Europe based on radiocarbon dating. Though known as dolmens, the term most accepted by archaeologists is portal tomb; however many local names exist, such as anta in Galicia and Portugal, stazzone in Sardinia, hunebed in the Netherlands, Hünengrab in Germany, dysse in Denmark, cromlech in Wales.
It is assumed that most portal tombs were covered by earthen mounds. The second-most-common tomb type is the passage grave, it consists of a square, circular, or cruciform chamber with a slabbed or corbelled roof, accessed by a long, straight passageway, with the whole structure covered by a circular mound of earth. Sometimes it is surrounded by an external stone kerb. Prominent examples include the sites of Brú na Bóinne and Carrowmore in Ireland, Maes Howe in Orkney, Gavrinis in France; the third tomb type is a diverse group known as gallery graves. These are axially arranged chambers placed under elongated mounds; the Irish court tombs, British long barrows, German Steinkisten belong to this group. Another type of megalithic monument, the single standing stone, or menhir as it is known in France, is common throughout Europe, where some 50,000 examples have been noted; some of these are thought to have an astronomical function as a foresight. In some areas and complex alignments of such stones exist, the largest known example being located at Carnac in Brittany, France.
In parts of Britain and Ireland a common type of megalithic construct
Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence. Tuscany is known for its landscapes, artistic legacy, its influence on high culture, it is regarded as the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance and has been home to many figures influential in the history of art and science, contains well-known museums such as the Uffizi and the Pitti Palace. Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is sometimes considered "a nation within a nation". Tuscany is a popular destination in Italy, the main tourist spots are Florence, Lucca, Versilia and Chianti; the village of Castiglione della Pescaia is the most visited seaside destination in the region, with seaside tourism accounting for 40% of tourist arrivals. Additionally, Lucca, the Chianti region and Val d'Orcia are internationally renowned and popular spots among travellers.
Seven Tuscan localities have been designated World Heritage Sites: the historic centre of Florence. Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the world's 89th most visited city, with over 1.834 million arrivals. Triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north, Marche to the northeast, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast; the comune of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca' Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna. Tuscany has a western coastline on the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea, among, the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of 22,993 square kilometres. Surrounded and crossed by major mountain chains, with few plains, the region has a relief, dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the region's total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, mountains, a further 25%, or 5,770 square kilometres.
Plains occupy 8.4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the Arno. Many of Tuscany's largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence and Pisa; the climate is mild in the coastal areas, is harsher and rainy in the interior, with considerable fluctuations in temperature between winter and summer, giving the region a soil-building active freeze-thaw cycle, in part accounting for the region's once having served as a key breadbasket of ancient Rome. The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks; the Tuscan area was inhabited by peoples of the so-called Apennine culture in the late second millennium BC who had trading relationships with the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations in the Aegean Sea. Following this, the Villanovan culture saw Tuscany, the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms. City-states developed in the late Villanovan before "Orientalization" occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose.
The Etruscans created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art. The Etruscans lived in the area of Etruria well into prehistory; the civilization grew to fill the area between the Arno and Tiber from the eighth century BCE, reaching its peak during the seventh and sixth centuries B. C. succumbing to the Romans by the first century BCE. Throughout their existence, they lost territory to Magna Graecia and Celts. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, Rome, influenced the civilization to a great extent. One reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, ensured peace.
These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, the construction of many buildings, both public and private. However, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather; the Roman civilization in the West of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire collapsed in the fifth century, the region fell to barbarians migrating through the Empire from Eastern Europe and Central Asia of the Goths was re-conquered by the revived Eastern Roman Empire under the strong Emperor Justinian. In the years following 572, the Lombards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their subsequent Tuscia. Pilgrims travelling along the Via Francigena between Rome and France brought wealth and development during the medieval period; the food and shelter required by the
The Aldobrandeschi were an Italian noble family from southern Tuscany. Of probable Lombard origin, they appear in history as the counts of Santa Fiora in the late 8th and early 9th centuries, although a Ghidelmo Aldobrandeschi is mentioned as lord of Roselle as early as 729; the possession extended to. In 1274, their lands were divided between the County of Santa Fiora and the County of Sovana, which thenceforth were ruled by different branches of the family. After the extinction of the Aldobrandeschi of Sovana, the county was assigned to the Orsini; the Aldobrandeschi heiress of Santa Fiora married into the Sforza family. The most famous members were Guglielmo Aldobrandeschi, who lived in the 13th century and is cited by Dante Alighieri as the Gran Tosco, Pope Gregory VII. Guglielmo's son is called in Canto XI of the Purgatorio in the Divine Comedy of Dante, as an example of a sinner of pride. Media related to House of Aldobrandeschi at Wikimedia Commons Academia.edu: Documents: Aldobrandeschi Forum Jar: Aldobrandeschi family Forum
Benvenuto di Giovanni
Benvenuto di Giovanni known as Benvenuto di Giovanni di Meo del Guasta was an Italian painter and artist known for his choral miniatures, pavement designs, frescoes. Working chiefly in Siena, he was first recognized to be working as an artist in 1453 and continued his work nearly until his death in 1518. During his lifetime, he was influenced by many various artists and in the 1480s, Benvenuto's style changed drastically. Though Benvenuto did explore into other fields of work, painting was a part of his life, his son, Girolamo di Giovanni, followed in his footsteps and became a painter. In fact, there have been instances in which the work of one the two has been confused for that of the other. Benvenuto left behind more works; some of his works were both signed and dated, some were only signed, some were only dated. However, regardless of debate over date or authorship, Benvenuto left behind a significant number of works, both ones that are quite well known as well as others that are more minor in their distinction.
His pieces that are signed and still existing have dates spanning a period of 43 years. In addition to the works that he left behind, he left behind a legacy through the artists that he influenced during his lifetime. Born to a bricklayer in Siena, Benvenuto remained there for his entire life, only venturing to nearby cities for his work; the first records of him as an artist are of his contributions to the Siena Baptistery in 1453. His work here was in collaboration with il Vecchietta, as it is believed that Benvenuto was trained in his workshop. Outside of Vecchietta, Benvenuto was likely to have worked under Sano di Pietro because they share a number of similarities stylistically. Benvenuto was commissioned to do a number of works in the Siena Cathedral during his life that included choral miniatures, pavement designs, frescoes. However, he was not the only artist requested to work in the cathedral; this commonality led to Benvenuto and the other artists having a significant amount of influence upon one another's style.
Other painters that had works in the Siena Cathedral were Liberale da Verona and Girolamo da Cremona. What sets these artists apart is that it is believed that their pieces in the cathedral were what led to Benvenuto's great shift in style in the 1480s. In 1482, he was commissioned to paint Donation of the Keys to St. Peter in the Antiphonary of the Birth of St. John, it was at this time that he saw Liberale and Girolamo's recent works in the cathedral that incorporated bright colors and manipulated light. As a result of this, he began to do the same in his paintings. Additionally, not only did his style shift in this way, but he began to experiment with the concept of spatial distortion, common in paintings by Vecchietta and Donatello, he used a naturalistic style for his figures, but paired them with a brightly colored and lit background. The combination of his efforts to depict realistic figures, to strategically utilize colors, to manipulate space in order to give his paintings depth led to a style, both distinct and uniquely his.
These shifts in his style can be seen in paintings such as Ascension. Outside of painting, Benvenuto explored other personal endeavors. In 1466, he married Jacopa di Tommaso de Cetona. After their marriage, he served at least two terms in a public office. Together, they owned a vineyard and had seven children; the only child that much is known about is Girolamo. However, Girolamo is regarded as both less gifted and less influential because he only survived his father by six years, it is known. His first Annunciation is the earliest known painting by him, dated in 1466. Despite this being his first work, there was little evidence of the influence of his teacher, Vecchietta. Rather, this work was clearly inspired by Simone Martini's 1333 painting of the same name. Many other Annunciation works by other artists during Benvenuto's lifetime prioritized landscapes and backgrounds, but Benvenuto employed a more simple, gold background, typical in works of the early Trecento. Benvenuto's 1466 version resides in the church of St. Girolamo in Volterra.
Benvenuto's growth as an artist is evident through comparison of his 1466 Annunciation with his 1470 version. In 1466, Benvenuto opted for a more subtle coloration in his work. However, in 1470, while many of his contemporaries still utilized softer palettes, Benvenuto chose to paint with rich, deep colors that pleased the viewer's eye; this shift in style is to have been inspired by two artists that were quite famous during the latter part of the Quattrocento, Girolamo da Cremona and Liberale da Verona. Additionally, Benvenuto traded in his previous flat gold background for one of detailed scenery, including lush gardens and lakes; this painting, done by many artists, depicts Adam and Eve being cast out of the Garden of Eden by the archangel, Jophiel. However, Benvenuto's version stands out from the others because his depiction of Eden is far more realistic than that of other artists, he paints Eden as a lush green forest rather than a land full of a myriad of animals. He expertly constructs the figures in a way that makes the subjects come alive through the intermingling of their arms and angling of their bodies.
Most painted between 1480 and 1500, this exhibits Benvenuto's style that combines realistic backgrounds and dramatic subjects. At this t
Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena; the historic centre of Siena has been declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site. It is one of the nation's most visited tourist attractions, with over 163,000 international arrivals in 2008. Siena is famous for its cuisine, museums, medieval cityscape and the Palio, a horse race held twice a year. Siena, like other Tuscan hill towns, was first settled in the time of the Etruscans when it was inhabited by a tribe called the Saina; the Etruscans were a tribe of advanced people who changed the face of central Italy through their use of irrigation to reclaim unfarmable land, their custom of building their settlements in well-defended hill forts. A Roman town called; some archaeologists assert that Siena was controlled for a period by a Gaulish tribe called the Senones. According to local legend, Siena was founded by Senius and Aschius, two sons of Remus and thus nephews of Romulus, after whom Rome was named. After their father's murder by Romulus, they fled Rome, taking with them the statue of the she-wolf suckling the infants, thus appropriating that symbol for the town.
Additionally they rode white and black horses, giving rise to the Balzana, or coat of arms of Siena with a white band atop a dark band. Some claim the name. Other etymologies derive the name from the Etruscan family name Saina, the Roman family name Saenii, or the Latin word senex "old" or its derived form seneo "to be old". Siena did not prosper under Roman rule, it lacked opportunities for trade. Its insular status meant that Christianity did not penetrate until the 4th century AD, it was not until the Lombards invaded Siena and the surrounding territory that it knew prosperity. After the Lombard occupation, the old Roman roads of Via Aurelia and the Via Cassia passed through areas exposed to Byzantine raids, so the Lombards rerouted much of their trade between the Lombards' northern possessions and Rome along a more secure road through Siena. Siena prospered as a trading post, the constant streams of pilgrims passing to and from Rome provided a valuable source of income in the centuries to come.
The oldest aristocratic families in Siena date their line to the Lombards' surrender in 774 to Charlemagne. At this point, the city was inundated with a swarm of Frankish overseers who married into the existing Sienese nobility and left a legacy that can be seen in the abbeys they founded throughout Sienese territory. Feudal power waned, by the death of Countess Matilda in 1115 the border territory of the March of Tuscany, under the control of her family, the Canossa, broke up into several autonomous regions; this resulted in the creation of the Republic of Siena. The Republic existed for over four hundred years, from the 12th century until the year 1555. During the golden age of Siena before the Black Death in 1348, the city was home to 50,000 people. In the Italian War of 1551–59, the republic was defeated by the rival Duchy of Florence in alliance with the Spanish crown. After 18 months of resistance, Siena surrendered to Spain on 17 April 1555, marking the end of the republic; the new Spanish King Felipe II, owing huge sums to the Medici, ceded it to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, to which it belonged until the unification of Italy in the 19th century.
A Republican government of 700 Sienese families in Montalcino resisted until 1559. Siena is located in the central part of Tuscany, in the middle of a vast hilly landscape between the Arbia river valley, the Merse valley, the Elsa valley, the Chianti hills, the Montagnola Senese and the Crete Senesi; the city lies at 322 m above sea level. Siena has a typical inland Mediterranean climate. Average rainfall is 750 mm, with the minimum in July. July is the hottest month, with an average temperature of 22.2 °C, January the coldest. The Siena Cathedral, begun in the 12th century, is a masterpiece of Italian Romanesque-Gothic architecture, its main façade was completed in 1380. The original plan called for an ambitiously massive basilica, the largest in the world, with, as was customary, an east-west nave. However, the scarcity of funds, in part due to war and plague, truncated the project, the Sienese created a subdued version from the original plan's north-south transept; the east wall of the abandoned original folly of a nave still stands.
The Siena Cathedral Pulpit is an octagonal 13th-century masterpiece sculpted by Nicola Pisano with lion pedestals and biblical bas-relief panels. The inlaid marble mosaic floor of the cathedral and labored on by many artists, is among the most elaborate in Italy; the Sacristy and Piccolomini library have well preserved Renaissance frescos by Ghirlandaio and Pinturicchio respectively. Other sculptors active in the church and in the subterranean baptistry are Donatello, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Jacopo della Quercia and others; the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo contains Duccio's famous Maestà and various other works by Sienese masters. More Sienese paintings are to be found in the Pinacoteca, e.g. 13th-century works by Dietisalvi di Speme. The Piazza del Campo, the shell-shaped town square, unfurls before the Palazzo Pubblico with its tall Torre del Mangia; this is part of the site for the Palio horse race. The Palazzo Pubblico, itself a great wor
Orbetello is a town and comune in the province of Grosseto, Italy. It is located about 35 kilometres south of Grosseto, on the eponymous lagoon, home to an important Natural Reserve. Orbetello was an ancient Etruscan settlement, which in 280 BC passed under the control of the Romans, who had founded their colony of Cosa. In the Middle Ages it was a possession of the Aldobrandeschi family, who held it until the 14th century, when it was acquired by the city of Orvieto. After several struggles with the Orsini of Pitigliano and Orvieto, in the following centuries Orbetello was captured by the Sienese Republic. In the mid-16th century it was part of the State of Presides, a Spanish possession, becoming its capital; the town was besieged by the French during the 1635-1659 Franco-Spanish War. This led to the inconclusive naval Battle of Orbetello on 14 June, it formed part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany until 1860, when it joined the newly unified Kingdom of Italy. In 1927–33, Italo Balbo's "air cruises" started from Orbetello's lagoon.
During World War II, the German Air Force's 2nd Squadron of Embarked Air Group 196 used the lagoon as a base for its Arado Ar 196 float planes for a brief period in 1943. The city walls. Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta, built over an Etruscan-Roman temple and restructured in 1375 along Tuscan-Gothic lines. Preceded by a step, it houses some notable 15th-century frescoes; the Spanish Forte delle Saline, in the frazione of Albinia. Remains of the Roman city of Cosa in the frazione of Ansedonia. Ruins of the Monastery of Sant'Angelo