Satyros II

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Satyros II
King of the Bosporan Kingdom
Reign 310 BC
Predecessor Paerisades I
Successor Prytanis
Born Unknown
Bosporan Kingdom
Died 309 BC
Siracena, Sarmatia
Issue Paerisades
Greek Σάτυρος
House Spartocid
Father Paerisades I
Mother Komosarye
Religion Greek Polytheism

Satyros II (Greek:Σάτυρος) or Satyrus II was a son of Paerisades I and Spartocid king of the Bosporan Kingdom for 9 months in 310 BC.[1] He was the elder brother of Eumelos and Prytanis, he should not be confused with his great-grandfather Satyros I. another Bosporan ruler of the same name, which could possibly be the person he was named after.

He and his brothers engaged in the Bosporan Civil War, a dynastic dispute that occurred when Eumelos set up a rival claim to the throne.

Reign and Civil War[edit]

When his father Paerisades died in 310 BC, Satyros inherited the throne and government as he was the eldest.[2] Shortly after, his brother Eumelos fled to the lands of the Siraces, and as soon as he had allied with Aripharnes, king of the Siraces, he set up a rival claim to the throne,[3] as soon as Satyros learned of this, he set out against his brother Eumelos with his army which began the Spartocid civil war. Satyros's own army had a total of 34,000 troops, a mixture of Greeks, Thracians, and Scythians,[4] after cornering his younger brother, they fought at the Battle of the River Thatis, which resulted in a strategic victory for Satyrus.[5] As he had routed his brother's entire army and showed valor while fighting, he had also proven to be worthy of the throne of his father.[6]

Final Battle and Death[edit]

Satyros pursued his brother and his ally, who had both retreated to the capital of the Siraces.[7] Upon approaching the city, he noticed that it would be hard to take due to the city being on the river Thatis and surrounded by thick marshes.[8] There were also the artificial defenses: a fortified gate and a well-protected castle at the other entrance.[9] Knowing he wouldn't be able to take the city, he at first plundered the countryside, gaining many prisoners and treasure.[10]

After doing this, the Siege of Siracena ensued and he died fighting Aripharnes while attempting to protect his friend, the mercenary captain Meniscus,[11] his brother Prytanis became king shortly after his death, and fought Eumelos but shared the same fate.[12]

His brother Eumelos killed off the families of his brothers, but Satyros's son, Paerisades, survived[13] and fled to Scythia, where he was given asylum by its king, Agarus.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peck, Harry Thurston. Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898). A king of Bosporus, who was the eldest of the sons of Paerisades I., whom he succeeded in B.C. 311, but reigned only nine months. 
  2. ^ Siculus, Diodorus. Book 22.23. Satyrus, since he was the eldest, had received the government from his father 
  3. ^ Siculus, Diodorus. Book 22.23. Eumelus, however, had as ally Aripharnes, the king of the Siraces 
  4. ^ Siculus, Diodorus. Book 22.23. Enrolled in his army were not more than two thousand Greek mercenaries and an equal number of Thracians, but all the rest were Scythian allies, more than twenty thousand foot-soldiers and not less than ten thousand horse 
  5. ^ Siculus, Diodorus. Book 22.23. Going to the aid of those who had been worsted and for the second time becoming the author of victory. 
  6. ^ Siculus, Diodorus. Book 22.23. he routed the entire army of the enemy, so that it became clear to all that, by reason both of his birth and of his valour, it was proper that he should succeeded to the throne of his fathers 
  7. ^ Siculus, Diodorus. Book 22.23. Aripharnes and Eumelus, however, after having been defeated in the battle, escaped to the capital city. 
  8. ^ Siculus, Diodorus. Book 22.23. This was situated on the Thates River, which made the city rather difficult of access since the river encircled it and was of considerable depth. 
  9. ^ Siculus, Diodorus. Book 22.23. and had only two entrances, both artificial, of which one was within the royal castle itself and was strengthened with high towers and outworks, and the other was on the opposite side in swampy land, fortified by wooden palisades 
  10. ^ Siculus, Diodorus. Book 22.23. Satyrus at first plundered the country of the enemy and fired the villages, from which he collected prisoners and much booty. 
  11. ^ Polyaenus. Strategems. Satyrus is killed while attacking Aripharnes, king of the Siraces 
  12. ^ Siculus, Diodorus. Book 22.24. he tried to recover his kingdom; but he was overpowered and fled to the so‑called Gardens,where he was slain 
  13. ^ Siculus, Diodorus. Book 22.24. he only one to escape him was Parysades, the son of Satyrus, who was very young 
  14. ^ Siculus, Diodorus. Book 22.24. he, riding out of the city on horseback, took refuge with Agarus, the king of the Scythians