Kingdom of Hejaz
The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East, the western portion of the Arabian peninsula ruled by the Hashemite dynasty. It achieved national independence after the destruction of the Ottoman Empire by the British Empire, during World War I, when the Sharif of Mecca fought in alliance with the British Imperial forces to drive the Ottoman Army from the Arabian Peninsula during the Arab Revolt; the new kingdom had a brief life and was conquered in 1925 by the neighbouring Sultanate of Nejd under a resurgent House of Saud, creating the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd. On 23 September 1932, the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd joined the Saudi dominions of Al-Hasa and Qatif, as the unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In their capacity as Caliphs, the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire would appoint an official known as the Sharif of Mecca; the role went to a member of the Hashemite family, but the Sultans promoted Hashemite inter-familial rivalries in their choice, preventing the building of a solid base of power in the Sharif.
With the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the Sultan, in his capacity as Caliph, declared a jihad against the Entente powers. The British in particular hoped to co-opt the Sharif as a weighty alternative religious figure backing them in the conflict; the British had a series of treaties with other Arab leaders in the region and were fearful that the Hejaz could be used as a base to attack their shipping to and from India. The Sharif was cautious but, after discovering that the Ottomans planned to remove and murder him, agreed to work with the British if they would support a wider Arab revolt and the establishment of an independent Arab kingdom — the British implied they would. After the Ottomans executed other Arab nationalist leaders in Damascus and Beirut, the Hejaz rose against and soundly defeated them completely expelling them. In 1916, the Sharif of Mecca Hussein bin Ali declared himself King of Hejaz as his Sharifian Army participated with other Arab forces and the British Empire in expelling the Turks from the Arabian peninsula.
The British though, were compromised by their agreement to give the French control of Syria and did not, in Hussein's eyes, honour their commitments. They did create Hashemite-ruled kingdoms in Jordan and in Iraq, as well as Hejaz. Hussein refused to conclude a treaty of friendship with the British, who later chose not to intervene when another British client, Ibn Saud invaded and conquered Hejaz. Hussein bin Ali Ali bin Hussein Hejazi dialect History of Saudi Arabia Saudi conquest of Hejaz Arab Revolt Flag of the Arab Revolt T. E. Lawrence Sharifate of Mecca Sharifian Caliphate Hashemite Dynasty
The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib, from whom the dynasty takes its name, they ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after having overthrown the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution of 750 CE. The Abbasid Caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, modern-day Iraq, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, near the ancient Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon; the Abbasid period was marked by reliance on Persian bureaucrats for governing the territories as well as an increasing inclusion of non-Arab Muslims in the ummah. Persianate customs were broadly adopted by the ruling elite, they began patronage of artists and scholars. Baghdad became a centre of science, culture and invention in what became known as the Golden Age of Islam. Despite this initial cooperation, the Abbasids of the late 8th century had alienated both non-Arab mawali and Iranian bureaucrats.
They were forced to cede authority over al-Andalus to the Umayyads in 756, Morocco to the Idrisid dynasty in 788, Ifriqiya to the Aghlabids in 800 and Egypt to the Isma'ili-Shia caliphate of the Fatimids in 969. The political power of the caliphs ended with the rise of the Iranian Buyids and the Seljuq Turks, who captured Baghdad in 945 and 1055, respectively. Although Abbasid leadership over the vast Islamic empire was reduced to a ceremonial religious function, the dynasty retained control over its Mesopotamian domain; the Abbasids' period of cultural fruition ended in 1258 with the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols under Hulagu Khan. The Abbasid line of rulers, Muslim culture in general, re-centred themselves in the Mamluk capital of Cairo in 1261. Though lacking in political power, the dynasty continued to claim religious authority until after the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517; the Abbasid caliphs were Arabs descended from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, one of the youngest uncles of Muhammad and of the same Banu Hashim clan.
The Abbasids claimed to be the true successors of Prophet Muhammad in replacing the Umayyad descendants of Banu Umayya by virtue of their closer bloodline to Muhammad. The Abbasids distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their moral character and administration in general. According to Ira Lapidus, "The Abbasid revolt was supported by Arabs the aggrieved settlers of Merv with the addition of the Yemeni faction and their Mawali"; the Abbasids appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as mawali, who remained outside the kinship-based society of the Arabs and were perceived as a lower class within the Umayyad empire. Muhammad ibn'Ali, a great-grandson of Abbas, began to campaign in Persia for the return of power to the family of Prophet Muhammad, the Hashimites, during the reign of Umar II. During the reign of Marwan II, this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent from Abbas. Supported by the province of Khorasan though the governor opposed them, the Shia Arabs, he achieved considerable success, but was captured in the year 747 and died assassinated, in prison.
On 9 June 747, Abu Muslim, rising from Khorasan initiated an open revolt against Umayyad rule, carried out under the sign of the Black Standard. Close to 10,000 soldiers were under Abu Muslim's command when the hostilities began in Merv. General Qahtaba followed the fleeing governor Nasr ibn Sayyar west defeating the Umayyads at the Battle of Gorgan, the Battle of Nahāvand and in the Battle of Karbala, all in the year 748; the quarrel was taken up by Ibrahim's brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu al-'Abbas as-Saffah, who defeated the Umayyads in 750 in the battle near the Great Zab and was subsequently proclaimed caliph. After this loss, Marwan fled to Egypt; the remainder of his family, barring one male, were eliminated. After their victory, As-Saffah sent his forces to Central Asia, where his forces fought against Tang expansion during the Battle of Talas; the noble Iranian family Barmakids, who were instrumental in building Baghdad, introduced the world's first recorded paper mill in the city, thus beginning a new era of intellectual rebirth in the Abbasid domain.
As-Saffah focused on putting down numerous rebellions in Mesopotamia. The Byzantines conducted raids during these early distractions; the first change the Abbasids, under Al-Mansur, made was to move the empire's capital from Damascus, in Syria, to Baghdad in Iraq. This was to both appease as well to be closer to the Persian mawali support base that existed in this region more influenced by Persian history and culture, part of the Persian mawali demand for less Arab dominance in the empire. Baghdad was established on the Tigris River in 762. A new position, that of the vizier, was established to delegate central authority, greater authority was delegated to local emirs; this meant that many Abbasid caliphs were relegated to a more ceremonial role than under the Umayyads, as the viziers began to exert greater influence, the role of the old Arab aristocracy was replaced by a Persian bureaucracy. During Al-Mansur's time control of Al-Andalus was lost, the Shia revolted and were defeated a year at the Battle of Bakhamra.
The Abbasids had depended on the support of Persians in their overthrow of the Umayyads. Abu al-'Abbas' successor, Al-Mansur welcomed non-Arab Musli
Unemployment or joblessness is a situation in which able-bodied people who are looking for a job cannot find a job. The causes of unemployment are debated. Classical economics, new classical economics, the Austrian School of economics argued that market mechanisms are reliable means of resolving unemployment; these theories argue against interventions imposed on the labor market from the outside, such as unionization, bureaucratic work rules, minimum wage laws and other regulations that they claim discourage the hiring of workers. Keynesian economics emphasizes the cyclical nature of unemployment and recommends government interventions in the economy that it claims will reduce unemployment during recessions; this theory focuses on recurrent shocks that reduce aggregate demand for goods and services and thus reduce demand for workers. Keynesian models recommend government interventions designed to increase demand for workers, its namesake economist John Maynard Keynes, believed that the root cause of unemployment is the desire of investors to receive more money rather than produce more products, not possible without public bodies producing new money.
A third group of theories emphasize the need for a stable supply of capital and investment to maintain full employment. On this view, government should guarantee full employment through fiscal policy, monetary policy and trade policy as stated, for example, in the US Employment Act of 1946, by counteracting private sector or trade investment volatility, reducing inequality. In addition to theories of unemployment, there are a few categorizations of unemployment that are used to more model the effects of unemployment within the economic system; some of the main types of unemployment include structural unemployment and frictional unemployment, as well as cyclical unemployment, involuntary unemployment, classical unemployment. Structural unemployment focuses on foundational problems in the economy and inefficiencies inherent in labor markets, including a mismatch between the supply and demand of laborers with necessary skill sets. Structural arguments emphasize causes and solutions related to disruptive technologies and globalization.
Discussions of frictional unemployment focus on voluntary decisions to work based on each individuals' valuation of their own work and how that compares to current wage rates plus the time and effort required to find a job. Causes and solutions for frictional unemployment address job entry threshold and wage rates; the unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals in the labor force. During periods of recession, an economy experiences a high unemployment rate. Millions of people globally or 6% of the world's workforce were without a job in 2012; the state of being without any work yet looking for work is called unemployment. Economists distinguish between various overlapping types of and theories of unemployment, including cyclical or Keynesian unemployment, frictional unemployment, structural unemployment and classical unemployment; some additional types of unemployment that are mentioned are seasonal unemployment, hardcore unemployment, hidden unemployment.
Though there have been several definitions of "voluntary" and "involuntary unemployment" in the economics literature, a simple distinction is applied. Voluntary unemployment is attributed to the individual's decisions, whereas involuntary unemployment exists because of the socio-economic environment in which individuals operate. In these terms, much or most of frictional unemployment is voluntary, since it reflects individual search behavior. Voluntary unemployment includes workers who reject low wage jobs whereas involuntary unemployment includes workers fired due to an economic crisis, industrial decline, company bankruptcy, or organizational restructuring. On the other hand, cyclical unemployment, structural unemployment, classical unemployment are involuntary in nature. However, the existence of structural unemployment may reflect choices made by the unemployed in the past, while classical unemployment may result from the legislative and economic choices made by labour unions or political parties.
The clearest cases of involuntary unemployment are those where there are fewer job vacancies than unemployed workers when wages are allowed to adjust, so that if all vacancies were to be filled, some unemployed workers would still remain. This happens with cyclical unemployment, as macroeconomic forces cause microeconomic unemployment which can boomerang back and exacerbate these macroeconomic forces. Classical, or real-wage unemployment, occurs when real wages for a job are set above the market-clearing level causing the number of job-seekers to exceed the number of vacancies. On the other hand, most economists argue that as wages fall below a livable wage many choose to drop out of the labor market and no longer seek employment; this is true in countries where low-income families are supported through public welfare systems. In such cases, wages would have to be high enough to motivate people to choose employment over what they receive through public welfare. Wages below a livable wage are to result in lower labor market participation in the above-stated scenario.
In addition, consumption of goods and services is the primary driver of increased demand for labor. Higher wages lead to workers having more income available to consume services. Therefore, higher wages increase gene
King of Saudi Arabia
The King of Saudi Arabia is Saudi Arabia's absolute monarch who serves as head of state and head of government. He is the head of the House of Saud; the King is called the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, a title that signifies Saudi Arabia's jurisdiction over the mosques of Masjid al Haram in Mecca and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina, replacing His Majesty in 1986. King Abdulaziz began conquering today's Saudi Arabia in 1902, by restoring his family as emirs of Riyadh, he proceeded to conquer first the Nejd and the Hejaz. Ibn Saud proclaimed his dominions as the Sultanate of Nejd in 1921, shortly before completing the conquest of the region, he was proclaimed king/malik of Hejaz in 1926, raised Nejd to a kingdom as well in 1927. For the next five years, Ibn Saud administered the two parts of his realm as separate units. In 1932, he formally united his territories into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; the kings since Ibn Saud's death have all been his sons, all immediate successors to the reigning King Salman will be from among his progeny.
Sons of Ibn Saud are considered to have primary claim on the throne of Saudi Arabia. This makes the Saudi monarchy quite distinct from Western monarchies, which feature large defined royal families and orders of succession, use the absolute primogeniture system of succession. Muhammad bin Nayef was the first grandson of Ibn Saud to be in the line of succession before being deposed from the position of Crown Prince by a royal decree in 2017. Saudi Arabia is an Islamic state; the King of Saudi Arabia is considered the Head of the House of Saud and Prime Minister. The Crown Prince is the "Deputy Prime Minister"; the kings after Faisal have named a "second Deputy Prime Minister" as the subsequent heir after the Crown Prince. Crown Prince: Mohammad bin Salman, born 31 August 1985; the Royal Standard consists of a green flag, with an Arabic inscription and a sword featured in white, with the national emblem embroidered in gold in the lower right canton. The script on the flag is written in the Thuluth script.
It is the shahada or Islamic declaration of faith: لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāh, muhammadun rasūlu-llāh There is no other god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia Succession to the Saudi Arabian throne List of rulers of Saudi Arabia
Modern history of Saudi Arabia
The Modern history of Saudi Arabia begins with the unification of Saudi Arabia in a single kingdom in 1932. Abdul Aziz's military and political successes were not mirrored economically until vast reserves of oil were discovered in 1938 in the Al-Hasa region along the Persian Gulf coast. Prior to the discovery of oil, the main source of income for the government depended on the pilgrimage to Mecca, around 100,000 people per year in the late 1920s. In the 1930s, Abdul Aziz granted an economic concession to the Standard Oil Company of California to drill for oil in his kingdom, after oil was found in nearby Bahrain in 1932. Oil wells were constructed in Dhahran in the late 1930s, by 1939, the kingdom began to export oil. During and after World War II, production of Saudi oil expanded, with much of the oil being sold to the Allies. Aramco built an underwater pipeline to Bahrain to help increase oil flow in 1945. Between 1939 and 1953, oil revenues from Saudi Arabia increased from $7 million to over $200 million, the kingdom began to be dependent on oil income.
Abdul Aziz died in 1953. Only sons of Abdul Aziz have, to date, ascended the Saudi throne; the number of children that he fathered is unknown, but it is believed that he had 22 wives and 37 sons, of whom six have become King. In 1933, he chose his eldest surviving son Saud as his immediate successor. King Saud succeeded to the throne on his father's death in 1953. Oil provided Saudi Arabia with economic prosperity and a great deal of political leverage in the international community; the sudden wealth from increased production was a mixed blessing. Cultural life developed in the Hejaz, the center for newspapers and radio, but the large influx of foreigners increased the pre-existing propensity for xenophobia. At the same time, the government became wasteful and lavish. Despite the new wealth, extravagant spending led to governmental deficits and foreign borrowing in the 1950s. However, by the early 1960s an intense rivalry between the King and his half-brother, Faisal of Saudi Arabia emerged, fueled by doubts in the royal family over Saud's competence.
This was of special concern given the Arab Cold War between Gamel Abdel Nasser's United Arab Republic and the pro-U. S. Arab monarchies; as a consequence, Saud was deposed in favor of Faisal in 1964. The mid-1960s saw; when civil war broke out in 1962 between Yemeni royalists and republicans, Egyptian forces entered Yemen to support the new republican government, while Saudi Arabia backed the royalists. Tensions subsided only after 1967. Saudi forces did not participate in the Six-Day War of June 1967, but the government provided annual subsidies to Egypt and Syria to support their economies. In 1965 there was an exchange of territories between Saudi Arabia and Jordan in which Jordan gave up a large area of inland desert in return for a small piece of seashore near Aqaba; the Saudi-Kuwaiti neutral zone was administratively partitioned in 1971, with each state continuing to share the petroleum resources of the former zone equally. The Saudi economy and infrastructure was developed with help from abroad from the United States, creating strong links between the two dissimilar countries, considerable and problematic American presence in the Kingdom.
The Saudi petroleum industry under the company of ARAMCO was built by American petroleum companies, U. S. construction companies such as Bechtel built much of the country's infrastructure, Trans World Airlines, built the Saudi passenger air service. S. Army Corps of Engineers built the country's television and broadcast facilities and oversaw the development of its defense industry. During the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, Saudi Arabia participated in the Arab oil boycott of the United States and Netherlands. A member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, Saudi Arabia had joined other member countries in moderate oil price increases beginning in 1971. After the 1973 war, the price of oil rose dramatically increasing Saudi Arabia's wealth and political influence. Faisal was assassinated in 1975 by Prince Faisal bin Musa'id. King Khalid succeeded his half-brother King Faisal. During Khalid's reign economic and social development continued at an rapid rate, revolutionizing the infrastructure and educational system of the country.
In 1979, two events occurred which the Al Saud perceived as threatening the régime, which had a long-term influence on Saudi foreign and domestic policy: The first was the Iranian Islamic revolution. It was feared that the country's Shi'ite minority in the Eastern Province – might rebel under the influence of their Iranian co-religionists. In fact several anti-government riots took place in the region in 1979 and 1980; the second event the seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca by Islamist extremists. The militants involved were in part angered by what they considered to be the corruption and un-Islamic nature of the Saudi regime. Part of the response of the royal family involved enforcing a much stricter observance of Islamic and traditional Saudi norms in the country and giving the Ulema a greater role in government. Neither succeeded as Islamism continued to grow in strength. King Khalid empowered Crown Prince Fahd to oversee many aspects of the government's international and domestic affairs.
Economic development continued under King Khalid, the kingdom assumed a more influential role in regi
Jeddah is a city in the Tihamah region of the Hejaz on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest seaport on the Red Sea, with a population of about four million people, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. Jeddah is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital. Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca and Medina, two of the holiest cities in Islam and popular tourist attractions. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index. Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network. Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country.
In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair," which translates to "Jeddah is different." The motto has been used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city had been perceived as the "most open" city in Saudi Arabia. There are at least two explanations for the etymology of the name Jeddah, according to Jeddah Ibn Al-Qudaa'iy, the chief of the Quda'a clan; the more common account has it that the name is derived from جدة Jaddah, the Arabic word for "grandmother". According to eastern folk belief, the tomb of Eve, considered the grandmother of humanity, is located in Jeddah; the tomb was sealed with concrete by religious authorities in 1975 due to some Muslims praying at the site. The Berber traveler Ibn Battuta visited Jeddah during his world trip in around 1330, he wrote the name of the city into his diary as "Jiddah". The British Foreign and Commonwealth Office and other branches of the British government used the older spelling of "Jedda", contrary to other English-speaking usage, but in 2007, it changed to the spelling "Jeddah".
T. E. Lawrence felt. In his book, Revolt in the Desert, Jeddah is spelled three different ways on the first page alone. On official Saudi maps and documents, the city name is transcribed "Jeddah", now the prevailing usage; some archaeologists' studies suggest the existence of inhabitants in the region now known as Jeddah since the Stone Age seeing as they found some artifacts and'Thamoudian' writings in Wadi Breiman east of Jeddah and Wadi Boib northeast of Jeddah. Some historians trace its founding to the tribe of Bani Quda'ah, who inhabited it after the collapse of Sad Ma'rib in 115 BC; some believe that Jeddah had been inhabited before the tribe of Bani Quda'ah by fishermen in the Red Sea, who considered it a center from which they sailed out into the sea as well as a place for relaxation and well-being. According to some accounts, the history of Jeddah dates back to early times before Alexander the Great, who visited the city between 323 and 356 BC. Excavations in the old city suggest that Jeddah was founded as a fishing hamlet in 522 BC by the Yemeni Quda'a tribe, who left central Yemen to settle in Makkah after the destruction of the Marib Dam in Yemen.
Other archaeological studies have shown that the area was settled earlier by people in the Stone Age, as some Thamudi scripts were excavated in Wadi Briman, east of the city, Wadi Boweb, northwest of the city. The city of Jeddah was an important port during Nabataeans frankincense trade; the oldest Mashrabiya found in jeddah dates back to pre Islamic era. Jeddah first achieved prominence around AD 647, when the third Muslim Caliph, Uthman Ibn Affan, turned it into a port making it the port of Makkah instead of Al Shoaiba port south west of Mecca. In AD 703 Jeddah was occupied by pirates from the Kingdom of Axum. Jeddah has been established as the main city of the historic Hijaz province and a historic port for pilgrims arriving by sea to perform their Hajj pilgrimage in Mecca. Umayyads inherited the entire Rashidun Caliphate including Hejaz and ruled from 661AD to 750AD. No historic records mention important events taking place in Jeddah during this period of history. However, Jeddah has remained as key civilian harbor, serving fishermen and sea travelling pilgrims to Hajj. it is believed that Sharifdom of Mecca.
Abbassids, the new superpower, became the new successor to the Umayyad. in 750 the Abbasid Revolution took control of the whole Umayyad Empire, excluding Morocco and Spain. The Caliphate of Baghdad kept expanding and ruled until 1258, while Hejaz only remained under the Abbasid throne until 876, when the Tulunids of Egypt gained control of the Emirate of Egypt, Syria and Hejaz; the power struggle between Tulunid Governors and Abbasid over Hejaz lasted for 30 years when Tulunids have withdrawn from Arabia in 900 AD. In 930 AD, main Hejazi cities Medina and Taif were sacked by Qarmatians. However, it is not confirmed that Jeddah itself was attacked by Qarmatians. However, Ikhshidids Governors of Abbasids, the new power in Egypt took control of Hejaz in early 935. No historic records details the during Ikhshidids rule of Hejaz. Jeddah was without walls at this point of time. In the 969 AD, the Fatimids from Algeria took control in Egypt from the Ikhshidid Governors of Abbasids and expanded their empire to the surrounding regions, including
Riyadh is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia 790 km North-east of Mecca. It is the capital of Riyadh Province and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama, it is situated in the centre of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau and home to more than six million people. The city is divided into 15 municipal districts, managed by the Municipality of Riyadh headed by the mayor of Riyadh, the Development Authority of Riyadh, chaired by the governor of the Province, Faisal bin Bandar Al Saud; the current mayor is Ibrahim Mohammed Al-Sultan. Riyadh has been designated a global city. During the Pre-Islamic era the city at the site of modern Riyadh was called Hajr, was founded by the tribe of Banu Hanifa. Hajr served as the capital of the province of Al-Yamamah, whose governors were responsible for most of central and eastern Arabia during the Umayyad and Abbasid eras. Al-Yamamah broke away from the Abbasid Empire in 866 and the area fell under the rule of the Ukhaydhirites, who moved the capital from Hajr to nearby Al-Kharj.
The city went into a long period of decline. In the 14th century, North African traveler Ibn Battuta wrote of his visit to Hajr, describing it as "the main city of Al-Yamamah, its name is Hajr". Ibn Battuta goes on to describe it as a city of canals and trees with most of its inhabitants belonging to the Bani Hanifa, reports that he continued on with their leader to Mecca to perform the Hajj. On, Hajr broke up into several separate settlements and estates; the most notable of these were Migrin and Mi'kal, though the name Hajr continued to appear in local folk poetry. The earliest known reference to the area by the name Riyadh comes from a 17th-century chronicler reporting on an event from the year 1590. In 1737, Deham ibn Dawwas, a refugee from neighboring Manfuha, took control of Riyadh. Ibn Dawwas built a single wall to encircle the various oasis town in the area, making them a single city; the name "Riyadh," meaning "gardens" refers to these earlier oasis towns. In 1744, Muhammad ibn Abdel Wahhab formed an alliance with Muhammad ibn Saud, the ruler of the nearby town of Diriyah.
Ibn Saud set out to conquer the surrounding region with the goal of bringing it under the rule of a single Islamic state. Ibn Dawwas of Riyadh led the most determined resistance, allied with forces from Al Kharj, Al Ahsa, the Banu Yam clan of Najran. However, Ibn Dawwas fled and Riyadh capitulated to the Saudis in 1774, ending long years of wars, leading to the declaration of the First Saudi State, with Diriyah as its capital; the First Saudi State was destroyed by forces sent by Muhammad Ali of Egypt, acting on behalf of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman forces razed the Saudi capital Diriyah in 1818, they had maintained a garrison at Najd. This marked the decline of the House of Saud for a short time. Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad became the first Amir of the Second Saudi State. In 1823, Turki ibn Abdallah chose Riyadh as the new capital. Following the assassination of Turki in 1834, his eldest son Faisal killed the assassin and took control, refused to be controlled by the Viceroy of Egypt. Najd was invaded and Faisal taken captive and held in Cairo.
However, as Egypt became independent of the Ottoman Empire, Faisal escaped after five years of incarceration, returned to Najd and resumed his reign, ruled till 1865, consolidated the reign of House of Saud. Following the death of Faisal, there was rivalry among his sons which situation was exploited by Muhammad bin Rashid who took most of Najd, signed a treaty with the Ottomans and captured Hasa in 1871. In 1889, Abdul Rahman bin Faisal, the third son of Faisal again regained control over Najd and ruled till 1891, whereafter the control was regained by Muhammad bin Raschid. Internecine struggles between Turki's grandsons led to the fall of the Second Saudi State in 1891 at the hand of the rival Al Rashid clan, which ruled from the northern city of Ha'il; the al-Masmak fort dates from that period. Abdul Rahman bin Faisal al-Saud had sought refuge among a tribal community on the outskirts of Najd and went to Kuwait with his family and stayed in exile. However, his son Abdul Aziz retrieved his ancestral kingdom of Najd in 1902 and consolidated his rule by 1926, further expanded his kingdom to cover "most of the Arabian Peninsula."
He named his kingdom as Saudi Arabia in September 1932 with Riyadh as the capital. King Abdul Aziz died in 1953 and his son Saud took control as per the established succession rule of father to son from the time Muhammad bin Saud had established the Saud rule in 1744. However, this established line of succession was broken when King Saud was succeeded by his brother King Faisal in 1964. In 1975, Faisal was succeeded by his brother King Khalid. In 1982, King Fahd took the reins from his brother; this new line of succession is among the sons of King Abdul Aziz. From the 1940s, Riyadh "mushroomed" from a narrow, spatially isolated town into a spacious metropolis; when King Shah Saud came to power, he made it his objective to modernize Riyadh, began developing Annasriyyah, the royal residential district, in 1950. Following the example of American cities, new settlements and entire neighbourhoods were created in grid-like squares of a chess board and connected by high-performance main roads to the inner areas.
The grid pattern in the city was introduced in 1953. The popula