Native American recognition in the United States
American Indian tribal recognition in the United States most refers to the process of a tribe being recognized by the United States federal government, or to a person being granted membership to a federally recognized tribe. There are 573 federally recognized tribal governments in the United States. Non-Acknowledged Tribes are tribes; this is not to be confused with recognition of Native Americans in the US which are defined by the BIA as any descendant of the Indigenous peoples of the Americas, a US citizen. Federally Non-Recognized tribes refers to a subgroup of non-acknowledged tribes which had some sort of recognition by the British prior to the formation of the United States or by the United States but which were determined by the government to no longer exist as an Indian tribe or no longer meet the criteria for a nation to nation status; the United States recognizes the right of these tribes to self-government and supports their tribal sovereignty and self-determination. These tribes possess the right to establish the legal requirements for membership.
They may form their own government, enforce laws, tax and regulate activities and exclude people from tribal territories. Limitations on tribal powers of self-government include the same limitations applicable to states. Legal definitions of Indian abound; the number of definitions increased. U. S. Government agencies may have varied definitions of "Indian." For example, the National Center for Health Statistics assigns the mother's race to a child born to parents of different "races". When people give multiracial responses to questions of heritage, only the first race is entered; the 1978 American Indian Religious Freedom Act uses a two-part definition, influential. It defines an Indian as a person who belongs to an Indian Tribe, which in turn is a group that "is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians." Federal courts have not universally required membership in federally recognized tribes for a person to be classified as Indian.
At times a person's membership in a federally recognized tribe was not sufficient for classification as Indian in the eyes of the courts. The Major Crimes Act of 1885 placed seven major crimes under federal jurisdiction if committed by a Native American in Native American Territory; the Department of Justice required that a defendant be an enrolled member of a tribe to be covered by the Major Crimes Act. In his 1935 Memorandum to John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, the Assistant Solicitor, Felix S. Cohen, discussed the rights of a group of non-tribal Indians under the Indian Reorganization Act; this Act defined a person as Indian based on three criteria, tribal membership, ancestral descent, or blood quantum. In the 1930s when it was more involved in determining classification of American Indians, the federal government used five factors to certify individuals who claimed to be more than half-blood Indian: tribal rolls, testimony of the applicant, affidavits from people familiar with the applicant, findings of an anthropologist, testimony of the applicant that he has retained "a considerable measure of Indian culture and habits of living."
The attempt to use physical characteristics to define Indians created some paradoxical situations. In 1939, for example, the BIA sent Harvard anthropologist Carl Selzer to Robeson County, North Carolina to review the claims of the Lumbee, who were of mixed-race descent. Using methods of assessment used in physical anthropology, but since discounted, "He measured their features and put a pencil in each Indian's hair, noting'Indian' blood if the pencil slipped through and'Negroid' if it did not; the results of his study were absurd, listing children as Indian while omitting their parents, placing brothers and sisters on opposite sides of the half-blood line." In the 1950s and 1960s, the federal government saw certain tribes as sufficiently capable of self-government, thus "no longer in need of federal supervision." The government terminated its relationship with numerous tribes under this policy, including the Menominees of Wisconsin, the Klamath of Oregon. Many tribes opposed this, have sought restoration of recognition.
Not all have received restoration and Brownell reports that the policy has "devastated" many of the groups. In particular, the tribes in California have been affected by the termination era. For example, the Taylorsville Rancheria was established and participated in the IRA, but during the termination era the tribe's land was sold to Plumas county to be used for a park and roping club; the government failed to terminate the tribe through an act of congress, but the tribe was not included on the Federally Recognized tribes list. The Taylorsville Rancheria has been in limbo since that time and continues to struggle for their restored status as a recognized tribe; because continuing to determine Indian membership by racial criteria, such as blood quantum or Indian descent, would leave the government in a constitutionally indefensible position, it has attempted to change how its statutes and regulations provide for the distribution of benefits to India
Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan
Sault Ste. Marie is a city in, the county seat of, Chippewa County in the U. S. state of Michigan. It is on the northeastern end of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, on the Canada–US border, separated from its twin city of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, by the St. Marys River; the city is isolated from other communities in Michigan and is 346 miles from Detroit. The population was 14,144 at the 2010 census, making it the second-most populous city in the Upper Peninsula. By contrast, the Canadian Sault Ste. Marie is much larger, with more than 75,000 residents, based on more extensive industry developed in the 20th century and an economy with closer connections to other communities. Sault Ste. Marie was settled by Native Americans more than 12,000 years ago, was long a crossroads of fishing and trading of tribes around the Great Lakes, it developed as the first European settlement in the region that became the Midwestern United States, as Father Jacques Marquette, a French Jesuit, learned of the Native American village and traveled there in 1668 to found a Catholic mission.
French colonists established a fur trading post, which attracted trappers and Native Americans on a seasonal basis. By the late 18th century, both Métis men and women became active in the trade and were considered among the elite in the community. A fur-trading settlement grew at the crossroads that straddled the banks of the river, it was the center of a trading route of 3,000 miles that extended from Montreal to the Sault, from the Sault to the country north of Lake Superior. For more than 140 years, the settlement was a single community under French colonial and British colonial rule. After the War of 1812, a US–UK Joint Boundary Commission fixed the border in 1817 between the Michigan Territory of the USA and the British Province of Upper Canada to follow the river in this area. Whereas traders had moved through the whole area, the United States forbade Canadian traders from operating in the United States, which reduced their trade and disrupted the area's economy; the American and Canadian communities of Sault Ste.
Marie were each incorporated as independent municipalities toward the end of the nineteenth century. Sault Sainte-Marie in French means "the Rapids of Saint Mary"; the Saint Mary's River runs from Lake Superior to Lake Huron. No hyphens are used in the English spelling, otherwise identical to the French, but the pronunciations differ. Anglophones say and Francophones say. In French, the name can be written Sault-Sainte-Marie. On both sides of the border, the towns and the general vicinity are called The Soo; the two cities are joined by the International Bridge, which connects Interstate 75 in Sault Ste. Marie and Huron Street in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. Shipping traffic in the Great Lakes system bypasses the rapids via the American Soo Locks, the world's busiest canal in terms of tonnage passing through it. Smaller recreational and tour boats use the Canadian Sault Ste. Marie Canal; the city's downtown was developed on an island, with the locks to the north and the Sault Ste. Marie Power Canal to the south.
The largest ships are 1,000 feet long by 105 feet wide. These are domestic carriers. Too large to transit the Welland Canal that bypasses Niagara Falls, they are land-locked. Foreign ships are smaller and can exit the Great Lakes to the St. Lawrence River and the Atlantic Ocean. Sault Ste. Marie is the home of the International 500 Snowmobile Race, which takes place annually and draws participants and spectators from all over the U. S. and Canada. The race, inspired by the Indianapolis 500, originated in 1969 and has been growing since. For centuries Ojibwe Native Americans had lived in the area, which they referred to as Baawitigong, after the rapids of St. Marys River. French colonists renamed the region Saulteaux. In 1668, French missionaries Claude Dablon and Jacques Marquette founded a Jesuit mission at this site. Sault Ste. Marie developed as the fourth-oldest European city in the United States west of the Appalachian Mountains, the oldest permanent settlement in contemporary Michigan state.
On June 4, 1671, Simon-François Daumont de Saint-Lusson, a colonial agent, was dispatched from Quebec to the distant tribes, proposing a congress of Indian nations at the Falls of St. Mary between Lake Huron and Lake Superior. Trader Nicolas Perrot helped attract the principal chiefs, representatives of 14 Indigenous nations were invited for the elaborate ceremony; the French officials proclaimed France's appropriation of the immense territory surrounding Lake Superior in the name of King Louis XIV. In the 18th century, the settlement became an important center of the fur trade, when it was a post for the British-owned North West Company, based in Montreal; the fur trader John Johnston, a Scots-Irish immigrant from Belfast, was considered the first European settler in 1790. He married a high-ranking Ojibwe woman named the daughter of a prominent chief, she became known as Susan Johnston. Their marriage was one of many alliances in the northern areas between high-ranking European traders and Ojibwe.
The family was prominent among Native Americans, First Nations, Europeans from both Canada and the United States. They had eight children who learned fluent Ojibwe and French; the Johnstons entertained a variety of trappers, explorers and government officials during the years before the War of 1812 between Britain and the United States. As a result of the fur trade, the settlement attracted
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located; each of the 326 Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's 567 recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non–Native Americans, some reservations are fragmented, with each piece of tribal and held land being a separate enclave; this jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative and legal difficulties. The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,200,000 acres the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U. S. states, there are 12 Indian reservations larger than the state of Rhode Island.
The largest reservation, the Navajo Nation Reservation, is similar in size to West Virginia. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos for example, which attract tourists; the tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation. Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; the name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U. S. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U. S. designated parcels which the tribes, as sovereigns, "reserved" to themselves, those parcels came to be called "reservations".
The term remained in use after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection. Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In 2012, there were with about 1 million living on reservations. From the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas, Europeans removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy; the means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, violence, in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement. The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, farmers having inadmissible land for agriculture, hostility between tribes; the first reservation was established in southern New Jersey on 29 August 1758. It was called Brotherton Indian Reservation and Edgepillock or Edgepelick; the area was 3284 acres.
Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1764 the "Plan for the Future Management of Indian Affairs" was proposed by the Board of Trade. Although never adopted formally, the plan established the imperial government's expectation that land would only be bought by colonial governments, not individuals, that land would only be purchased at public meetings. Additionally, this plan dictated that the Indians would be properly consulted when ascertaining and defining the boundaries of colonial settlement; the private contracts that once characterized the sale of Indian land to various individuals and groups—from farmers to towns—were replaced by treaties between sovereigns. This protocol was adopted by the United States Government after the American Revolution. On 11 March 1824, John C. Calhoun founded the Office of Indian Affairs as a division of the United States Department of War, to solve the land problem with 38 treaties with American Indian tribes; the document “Indian Treaties, Laws and Regulations Relating to Indian Affairs”’ published in 1825 in Washington City, America was signed by president Andrew Jackson.
He states that “we have placed the land reserves in a better state for the benefit of society” with approval of Indigenous reservations prior to 1850. The letter is signed by Isaac Shelby and the American President and discusses several regulations regarding Indigenous people of America and the approval of Indigenous segregation and the reservation system. President Martin Van Buren writes a Treaty with the Saginaw Tribe of Chippewas in 1837 to build a light house; the President of the United States of America was directly involved in the creation of new Treaties regarding Indian Reservations before 1850. He says Indigenous Reservations are “all their reserves of land in the state of Michigan, on the principle of said reserves being sold at the public land offices for their benefit and the actual proceeds being paid to them.” The agreement is for the Indigenous Tribe to sell their land, based on a Reservation to build a “lighthouse.” President, Martin Van Buren wants to buy Indigenous Reservation Land to build infrastructure.
A Treaty signed by John Forsyth, the Secretary of State on behalf of, President Martin Van Buren of the United
The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed
Au Train Township, Michigan
Au Train Township is a civil township of Alger County in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the township population was 1,138. Forest Lake village was founded by the Cleveland Cliffs Company in 1890 and first called "Dixon". At Coalwood, a post office opened in September 21, 1906. On July 15, 1910, the Coalwood Post Office closed; the Dixon post office was established in May 1915 and was renamed to and moved to Forest Lake in November 1921. The Forest Lake Post Office was discontinued in 1984. There are no incorporated villages in the township; the city of Munising is adjacent, at the northeast corner. There are some unincorporated communities and historic locales in the township: Au Train is south of M-28 and west of the Au Train River near Au Train Bay in Lake Superior. Coalwood is on M-94 near Wyman roads. A post office operated from September 21, 1906, until July 15, 1910. Christmas is on Bay Furance, a few miles northwest of Munising. A factory was built here in 1938 to make gifts for sale at Christmas time.
The factory burned in 1940. Christmas has been noted on lists of unusual place names. Dixon is on M-94 and Au Train Forest Lake Road near the west side of the north end of Cleveland Cliff Basin. Forest Lake is located on M-94 near the east side of the north end of Cleveland Cliff Basin, a station on the M. M. & S. Railroad; the village was founded by the Cleveland Cliffs Company in 1890 and first called "Dixon". A post office named Dixon was established in May 1915 and renamed as Forest Lake in November 1921; the office was discontinued in 1984. Munising Junction is located west of M-94 on Perch Lake Road. Ridge is located at the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railway Rail Trail. Stillman is a place at 46°20′33″N 86°45′04″W. Vail is a place at 46°20′12″N 86°46′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 158.0 square miles, of which 141.3 square miles is land and 16.8 square miles, or 10.62%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,172 people, 494 households, 348 families residing in the township.
The population density was 8.3 per square mile. There were 991 housing units at an average density of 7.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 92.24% White, 4.69% Native American, 0.17% from other races, 2.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.94% of the population. 16.0% were of German, 12.4% French, 10.7% English, 10.2% Finnish, 8.3% United States or American, 7.0% Swedish, 6.0% Polish and 5.1% French Canadian ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 494 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.7% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families. 23.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.81. In the township the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 30.1% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.4 males. The median income for a household in the township was $40,331, the median income for a family was $42,857. Males had a median income of $36,563 versus $24,844 for females; the per capita income for the township was $18,751. About 8.1% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.7% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. Au Train Township official website
Bureau of Indian Affairs
The Bureau of Indian Affairs is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the U. S. Department of the Interior, it is responsible for the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres of land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans in the United States, Native American Tribes and Alaska Natives. The BIA is one of two bureaus under the jurisdiction of the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs: the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Bureau of Indian Education, which provides education services to 48,000 Native Americans; the BIA’s responsibilities included providing health care to American Indians and Alaska Natives. In 1954 that function was transferred to the Department of Health and Welfare, it is now known as the Indian Health Service. Located in Washington, D. C. the BIA is headed by a bureau director. The current assistant secretary is Tara Sweeney; the BIA oversees 567 federally recognized tribes through 4 offices: Office of Indian Services: operates the BIA’s general assistance, disaster relief, Indian child welfare, tribal government, Indian Self-Determination, Indian Reservation Roads Program.
Office of Justice Services: directly operates or funds law enforcement, tribal courts, detention facilities on federal Indian lands. OJS funded 208 law enforcement agencies, consisting of 43 BIA-operated police agencies, 165 tribally operated agencies under contract, or compact with the OJS; the office has seven areas of activity: Criminal Investigations and Police Services, Detention/Corrections, Inspection/Internal Affairs, Tribal Law Enforcement and Special Initiatives, the Indian Police Academy, Tribal Justice Support, Program Management. The OJS provides oversight and technical assistance to tribal law enforcement programs when and where requested, it operates four divisions: Corrections, Drug Enforcement, the Indian Police Academy, Law Enforcement. Office of Trust Services: works with tribes and individual American Indians and Alaska Natives in the management of their trust lands and resources; the Office of Field Operations: oversees 12 regional offices. Agencies to relate to Native Americans had existed in the U.
S. government since 1775, when the Second Continental Congress created a trio of Indian-related agencies. Benjamin Franklin and Patrick Henry were appointed among the early commissioners to negotiate treaties with Native Americans to obtain their neutrality during the American Revolutionary War. In 1789, the U. S. Congress placed Native American relations within the newly formed War Department. By 1806 the Congress had created a Superintendent of Indian Trade, or "Office of Indian Trade" within the War Department, charged with maintaining the factory trading network of the fur trade; the post was held by Thomas L. McKenney from 1816 until the abolition of the factory system in 1822; the government licensed traders to have some control in Indian territories and gain a share of the lucrative trade. The abolition of the factory system left a vacuum within the U. S. government regarding Native American relations. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was formed on March 11, 1824, by Secretary of War John C.
Calhoun, who created the agency as a division within his department, without authorization from the United States Congress. He appointed McKenney as the first head of the office. McKenney preferred to call it the "Indian Office", whereas the current name was preferred by Calhoun. In 1832 Congress established the position of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. In 1849 Indian Affairs was transferred to the U. S. Department of the Interior. In 1869, Ely Samuel Parker was the first Native American to be appointed as commissioner of Indian affairs. One of the most controversial policies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs was the late 19th to early 20th century decision to educate native children in separate boarding schools, with an emphasis on assimilation that prohibited them from using their indigenous languages and cultures, it emphasized being educated to European-American culture. The bureau was renamed from Office of Indian Affairs to Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1947. With the rise of American Indian activism in the 1960s and 1970s and increasing demands for enforcement of treaty rights and sovereignty, the 1970s were a turbulent period of BIA history.
The rise of activist groups such as the American Indian Movement worried the U. S. government. As a branch of the U. S. government with personnel on Indian reservations, BIA police were involved in political actions such as: The occupation of BIA headquarters in Washington, D. C. in 1972: On November 3, 1972, a group of around 500 American Indians with the AIM took over the BIA building, the culmination of their Trail of Broken Treaties walk. They intended to bring attention to American Indian issues, including their demands for renewed negotiation of treaties, enforcement of treaty rights and improvement in living standards, they occupied the Department of Interior headquarters from November 3 to November 9, 1972. Feeling the government was ignoring them, the protesters vandalized the building. After a week, the protesters left. Many records were lost, destroyed or stolen, including irreplaceable treati
Jingle dress is a Native American/First Nations women's pow wow dance. The regalia worn for this dance is the jingle dress, which includes ornamentation with multiple rows of metal cones which create a jingling sound as the dancer moves. Origin of the jingle dress is attributed to three different Ojibwa communities: the Mille Lacs, Red Lake Band of Chippewa and the Whitefish Bay Ojibwe. In both the Mille Lacs and Whitefish Bay versions, the dress and the dance appeared in a recurring vivid dream, realized about the year 1900. In both versions, the dream came to a Midewinini. In both dreams, there were each wearing a jingle dress and dancing; each dream gave instructions on how to make the dresses, what types of songs went with them and how the dance was to be performed. In the Mille Lacs' version, the Midewinini upon awakening, with his wife made four dresses, he showed his wife how to dance in the dress, which he showed to the four women he had dreamed about, by calling the four women who in his dream wore them, dressed them in the dresses, brought them forth at a dance, told the people about the dream, how the way the Midewikweg were to dress and dance.
The Mille Lacs' version of the story continues that the reason for this recurring dream was because the daughter of the Midewinini was gravely ill. When it came time for the drum ceremony, the man and his wife brought their little girl, they sat at the ceremony, the girl laid on the floor because she was quite ill. After the ceremony, the Midewinini told the people about his dream, he brought out the four women and said they were going to dance in the style he had dreamed about. The drum started, the people began to sing, the women danced. Soon, their daughter lifted her head to watch the women dance; as the evening went on, pretty soon she was watching. Before the night was over, the girl was so moved by the dancers that she was following the women and dancing around. Whitefish Bay's version is nearly identical, but with the ill child being the granddaughter of the Midewinini. One night he had a vision of a spirit in a dress and the spirit told him that if he made this dress and put it on his grand daughter that she would become well.
The medicine man brought his grand daughter to the dance circle. The first round around the circle the girl could not walk; the second time around the girl could walk but still needed help from some of the woman in the community. The next time around the circle the girl was able to walk by herself. Due to both versions of the story, some women adopted the jingle dress as a healing dress. People give jingle dress dancers tobacco to have them pray for themselves or people they care for that are not well. Due to the strong family connections between the Removable and Non-Removable Mille Lacs Indians of the Mille Lacs and White Earth Indian Reservations, the Mille Lacs Indians' version spread to White Earth and to other Ojibwe Reservations. In the late 1920s, the White Earth people gave the jingle dress to the Lakota and it spread westward into the Dakotas and Montana; the traditional jingle dance is characterized by the jingle dress and light footwork danced close to ground. The dancer dances in a pattern, her feet cross, they turn a complete circle.
Compared to the original dance, the contemporary dance can be fancier, with intricate footwork and the dress design is cut to accommodate these footwork maneuvers. Contemporary dancers do cross their feet, turn full circles and dance backwards; such moves exemplify the differences between traditional jingle dress dancing. Jingle dresses were made of fabric in solid, "healthy" colors - red, green/yellow and blue; each dress was adorned with jingles on the sleeves, the top, one, two, or three rows of jingles on the bottom. The jingles were made from chewing tobacco can lids, rolled into cones. Contemporary jingle dresses, introduced in the 1980s, are made from multi-coloured fabric decorated with tin jingles made from lids of chewing tobacco cans, but now constructed of other metals; the jingle count on a child's dress is about 100 to 130 or 140, for a woman's size the amount varies depending on the design of the dress. The contemporary dancer carries a feather fan wearing eagle plumes or feathers in her hair.
Examples of jingle dresses available at Little Crow Trading Post Video clip from the National Museum of the American Indian 2005 National Pow wow Twin Cities PBS co-production The Jingle Dress Tradition DesJarlait, Robert. "The Contest Powwow versus the Traditional Powwow and the Role of the Native American Community", Wicazo Sa Review, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 115–127 McCollum, Ray. Saskatchewan Indian, Fall 2002 Sexsmith, Pamela; the healing gift of the jingle dance Smallwood, Larry "Amik". The story of the Jingle Dress