Mary Temple Grandin is an American professor of animal science at Colorado State University, consultant to the livestock industry on animal behavior, autism spokesperson. She is one of the first individuals on the autism spectrum to publicly share insights from her personal experience of autism, she invented the "hug box" device to calm those on the autism spectrum. In the 2010 Time 100, an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world, she was named in the "Heroes" category, she was the subject of the Emmy- and Golden Globe-winning semi-biographical film Temple Grandin. Mary Temple Grandin was born in Boston, into a wealthy family. One of the Irish girls who worked for the family was named Mary, so Grandin was referred to by her middle name, Temple, to avoid confusion, her mother is Anna Eustacia Purves, an actress and granddaughter of the co-inventor for the autopilot aviation system, with a degree in English from Harvard University. Her father was Richard McCurdy Grandin, a real estate agent and heir to the largest corporate wheat farm business in America at the time, Grandin Farms.
Grandin's parents divorced when she was 15, her mother went on to marry Ben Cutler, a renowned New York saxophonist, in 1965. Her father Richard died in California in 1993. Grandin has three younger siblings: two sisters and a brother. Grandin has described one of her sisters as being dyslexic, her younger sister is an artist, her other sister a sculptor, her brother a banker. John Livingston Grandin and his brother William James Grandin, were French Huguenots who drilled for oil, intending to cut a deal with John D. Rockefeller, but the latter kept him waiting too long so he walked out before Rockefeller arrived, they went into banking and when Jay Cooke's firm collapsed they got thousands of acres of undeveloped land in North Dakota as collateral. They set up wheat farming in the Red River Valley with dormitories for the workers. Although raised in the Episcopal religion, Temple Grandin early on gave up on a belief in a personal deity or intention in favor of what she considers a more scientific idea of God.
Contrary to published reports, Grandin was never formally diagnosed with autism in childhood or in youth. The only formal diagnosis received by Grandin was of'brain damage' at the age of 2, a finding corroborated subsequently when she was 64 years old, by cerebral imaging carried out in 2010 at the University of Utah; when Grandin was in her mid-teens, her mother chanced upon a checklist on autism published by Dr. Bernard Rimland, a renowned American psychologist and founder of the Autism Research Institute. Completing the checklist, Grandin's mother hypothesised that Grandin's symptoms were best explained by autism. A formal diagnosis consistent with being on the autistic spectrum was made only when Grandin was in her 40s. Grandin was determined to be an autistic savant as well. Grandin's mother, took her to the world's leading special needs researchers at the Boston Children's Hospital, with the hope of unearthing an alternative to institutionalization. Grandin's mother located a neurologist who suggested a trial of speech therapy.
They soon hired a speech therapist, Grandin received personalized input from the age of 2 and a half. A nanny was hired when Grandin was aged 3 to play educational games for hours with her. Grandin's mother sought out and paid for private schools with sympathetic staff who were willing to work with her daughter's special needs and thus, she started kindergarten in Dedham Country Day School, her teachers and class strove to create an environment to accommodate Grandin's needs and sensitivities. Grandin considers herself fortunate to have had supportive mentors from elementary school onward. So, Grandin states that junior high and high school were the most unpleasant times of her life; the medical advice at the time for a diagnosis of autism was to recommend institutionalization, a measure that caused a bitter rift of opinion between Grandin's parents. Her father was keen to follow this advice while her mother was opposed to the idea as it would have caused her to never be able see her daughter again.
Grandin attended Beaver Country Day School from 7th to 9th grade. She was expelled at the age of 14 for throwing a book at a schoolmate. Grandin has described herself as the "nerdy kid", she has described occasions when she walked down the hallways and her fellow students would taunt her by saying "tape recorder" because of her habit of repetitive speech. Grandin states, "I could laugh about it now, but back it hurt."The year after her expulsion, Grandin's parents divorced. Grandin's mother remarried three years to Ben Cutler, a New York saxophonist. At 15, Grandin spent a summer on the Arizona ranch of Ben Cutler's sister and this would be a formative experience towards her subsequent career interest. Following her expulsion from Beaver Country Day School, Grandin's mother placed her in Mountain Country School, a private boarding school in Rindge, New Hampshire, for children with behavioral problems, it was here that Grandin met William Carlock, a science teacher who had worked for NASA, who would become her mentor and help towards building up her self-confidence.
It was Carlock who gave Grandi
Creativity and mental illness
The concept of a link between creativity and mental illness has been extensively discussed and studied by psychologists and other researchers for centuries. Parallels can be drawn to connect creativity to major mental disorders including: bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, ADHD. For example, studies have demonstrated correlations between creative occupations and people living with mental illness. There are cases that support the idea that mental illness can aid in creativity, but it is generally agreed that mental illness does not have to be present for creativity to exist, it has been proposed. Association between mental illness and creativity first appeared in literature in the 1970s, but the idea of a link between "madness" and "genius" is much older, dating back at least to the time of Aristotle. In order to comprehend how the connection between “madness” and “genius” correlate, first understand that there are different types of geniuses: literary geniuses, creative geniuses, scholarly geniuses, “all around” geniuses.
Since there are many different categories, this means that individuals can excel in one subject and know an average, or below average, amount of information about others. The Ancient Greeks believed that creativity came in particular the Muses. In the Aristotelian tradition, genius was viewed from a physiological standpoint, it was believed that the same human quality was responsible for both extraordinary achievement and melancholy. Romantic writers had similar ideals, with Lord Byron having pleasantly expressed, "We of the craft are all crazy; some are affected by gaiety, others by melancholy, but all are more or less touched". Individuals with mental illness are said to display a capacity to see the world in a novel and original way. For many years, the creative arts have been used in therapy for those recovering from mental illness or addiction. Another study found creativity to be greater in schizotypal than in either normal or schizophrenic individuals. While divergent thinking was associated with bilateral activation of the prefrontal cortex, schizotypal individuals were found to have much greater activation of their right prefrontal cortex.
This study hypothesizes that such individuals are better at accessing both hemispheres, allowing them to make novel associations at a faster rate. In agreement with this hypothesis, ambidexterity is associated with schizotypal and schizophrenic individuals. Three recent studies by Mark Batey and Adrian Furnham have demonstrated the relationships between schizotypal and hypomanic personality and several different measures of creativity. Strong links have been identified between creativity and mood disorders manic-depressive disorder and depressive disorder. In Touched with Fire: Manic-Depressive Illness and the Artistic Temperament, Kay Redfield Jamison summarizes studies of mood-disorder rates in writers and artists, she explores research that identifies mood disorders in such famous writers and artists as Ernest Hemingway, Virginia Woolf, composer Robert Schumann, the famed visual artist Michelangelo. A study looking at 300,000 persons with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or unipolar depression, their relatives, found overrepresentation in creative professions for those with bipolar disorder as well as for undiagnosed siblings of those with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
There was no overall overrepresentation, but overrepresentation for artistic occupations, among those diagnosed with schizophrenia. There was no association for those with their relatives. A study involving more than one million people, conducted by Swedish researchers at the Karolinska Institute, reported a number of correlations between creative occupations and mental illnesses. Writers had a higher risk of anxiety and bipolar disorders, unipolar depression, substance abuse, were twice as as the general population to kill themselves. Dancers and photographers were more to have bipolar disorder. However, as a group, those in the creative professions were no more to experience psychiatric disorders than other people, although they were more to have a close relative with a disorder, including anorexia and, to some extent, the Journal of Psychiatric Research reports. Research in this area is constrained to cross-section data-sets. One of the few exceptions is an economic study of the well-being and creative output of three famous music composers over their entire lifetime.
The emotional indicators are obtained from letters written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Liszt, the results indicate that negative emotions had a causal impact on the creative production of the artists studied. Psychological stress has been found to impede spontaneous creativity. A 2005 study at the Stanford University School of Medicine measured creativity by showing children figures of varying complexity and symmetry and asking whether they like or dislike them; the study showed for the first time that a sample of children who either have or are at high risk for bipolar disorder tend to dislike simple or symmetric symbols more. Children with
Mental calculators are people with a prodigious ability in some area of mental calculation, such as adding, multiplying or dividing large numbers. Mental calculators were in great demand in research centers such as CERN before the advent of modern electronic calculators and computers. See, for instance, Steven B. Smith's 1983 book The Great Mental Calculators, or the 2016 book Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Who Helped Win the Space Race and the film adapted from it; the world's best mental calculators are invited every two years to compete for the Mental Calculation World Cup. On September 25, 2016, 27-year old Yuki Kimura of Japan, succeeded 13-year-old Granth Thakkar of India, as the current world champion.. Yuki Kimura is the 2nd Japanese person to win the Cup, after Naofumi Ogasawara won it in 2012. In 2005 a group of researchers led by Michael W. O'Boyle, an American psychologist working in Australia and now at Texas Tech University, has used MRI scanning of blood flow during mental operation in computational prodigies.
These math prodigies have shown increases in blood flow to parts of the brain responsible for mathematical operations during a mental rotation task that are greater than the typical increases. Aitken, Alexander Craig Ampère, André-Marie Bidder, George Parker Buxton, Jedediah Colburn, Zerah Dase, Johann Zacharias Devi, Shakuntala Diamandi, Pericles Dysart, Willis Eberstark, Hans Euler, Leonhard Finkelstein, Salo Fuller, Thomas Gauss, Carl Friedrich Griffith, Arthur F. Hamilton, William Rowan Inaudi, Jacques Klein, Wim McCartney, Daniel Neumann, John von Ramanujan, Srinivasa Riemann, Bernhard Ruckle, Gottfried Safford, Truman Henry Shelushkov, Igor Wallis, John In Frank Herbert's novel Dune, specially trained mental calculators known as Mentats have replaced mechanical computers completely. Several important supporting characters in the novel, namely Piter De Vries and Thufir Hawat, are Mentats. Paul Atreides was trained as one without his knowledge. However, these Mentats do not specialize in mathematical calculations, but in total recall of many different kinds of data.
For example, Thufir Hawat is able to recite various details of a mining operation, including the number of various pieces of equipment, the people to work them, the profits and costs involved, etc. In the novel he is never depicted as doing actual academic mathematical calculations. Mentats were valued for their capacity as humans to store data, because computers and "thinking machines" are outlawed. In Roald Dahl's novel Matilda, the lead character is portrayed having exceptional computational skills as she computes her father's profit without the need for paper computations. During class, she does large-number multiplication problems in her head instantly. In the 1988 movie Rain Man, Raymond Babbitt, who has savant syndrome, can mentally calculate large numbers, amongst other abilities. Andrew Jackson "Slipstick" Libby is a calculating prodigy in Robert A. Heinlein's Sci-Fi story Methuselah's Children. In the USA Network legal drama Suits, the main character, Mike Ross, is asked to multiply large numbers in his head to impress two girls, subsequently does so.
In Haruki Murakami's novel Hard-Boiled Wonderland and the End of the World, a class of mental calculators known as Calcutecs perform cryptography in a sealed-off portion of their brains, the results of which they are unable to access from their normal waking consciousness. In the Fox television show Malcolm in the Middle, Malcolm Wilkerson displays astounding feats of automatic mental calculation, which causes him to fear his family will see him as a "freak", causes his brother to ask, "Is Malcolm a robot?". In the 1991 movie Little Man Tate, Fred Tate in the audience blurts out the answer during a mental calculation contest. In the 1990s NBC TV sitcom NewsRadio, reporter/producer Lisa Miller can mentally calculate products and square roots effortlessly and instantaneosly, on demand. In the 1997 Sci-Fi thriller Cube, one of the prisoners, appears to be mentally disabled, but is revealed in the film to be an autistic savant, able to calculate prime factors in his head. In 1998 Darren Aronofsky's film Pi, Maximillian Cohen is asked a few times by a young child with a calculator to do large multiplications and divisions in his head, which he promptly does, correctly.
In 1998 film Mercury Rising, a 9-year-old autistic savant with prodigious math abilities cracks a top secret government code. In the 2006 film Stranger than Fiction, the main character, Harold Crick, is able to perform rapid arithmetic at the request of his co-workers. In the 2009 Japanese animated film Summer Wars, the main character, mathematical genius Kenji Koiso, is able to mentally break purely mathematical encryption codes generated by the OZ virtual world's security system, he can mentally calculate the day of the week a person was born, based on their birthday. In another Fox television show, Fringe, in the third episode of the third season and her fellow Fringe Division members encounter an individual with severe cognitive impairment, given experimental nootropics and as a result has become a mathematical genius; the individual is able to calculate hundreds of equations which he leverages to avoid being returned to his original state of cognitive impairment. In the 2012 film Safe, a female child math genius is kidnapped to be used by the Chinese Triad.
In the 2014 Sci-Fi novel Double Bill by S. Ayoade, Devi Singh, a mental calculator, is one of the 70 lucky children who win a trip to the moon. In the 2016 film The Accountant, a high-functioning autistic tracks insider financial decepti
For the poker personality, see Matt Savage. For the keyboardist/actor see Levellers. Matthew "Matt" Savage is an American autistic savant musician. Born in Sudbury, Massachusetts, he is the son of Lawrence "Larry" Savage. Savage was a precocious infant who learned to read by the age of 18 months, he was diagnosed with a form of autism, at age three. He did not like any music during his early childhood. At age six, Savage taught himself to read piano music, he studied classical piano for less than a year before discovering jazz, which became his main focus. He and his younger sister, were both home schooled, he began studying at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts in the fall of 1999. He continued his classical studies as well. Among Savage's talents are perfect pitch. Coupled with his high intelligence, these abilities have allowed him to achieve other distinctions as well, such as winning a statewide geography bee. Despite his young age and his autism, without formal instruction in musical composition, Savage is an accomplished musician and composer.
He has released twelve albums as a solo performer, as leader of the Matt Savage Trio and as leader of various sized ensembles. By the age of 14, he had performed with Chaka Khan and other popular singers, his compositions are approachable and humorous. Savage has received many awards, including being signed in 2003 to Bösendorfer pianos, he is the only child to be so recognized in the company's 188-year history. Savage has toured the world, performing for heads of state and others, appearing on numerous television and radio programs such as Late Show with David Letterman, Late Night with Conan O'Brien, The Today Show, All Things Considered. In 2006, at age 14, he was featured on a CNN report about the human brain, in which he was defined as a prodigious savant, as opposed to the other types of savants. Savage has appeared in several documentaries about savants. In 2007, he played on piano. In 2009, Savage enrolled at Berklee to continue advancing his musical career; the following year, in November, he prepared to release his ninth CD.
In December 2012, Savage received his B. M. in Performance from Berklee College of Music. In 2014, he composed and recorded the score for a full-length documentary film, Sound of Redemption: The Frank Morgan Story. In May 2015, he received his M. M. in Jazz Performance from the Manhattan School of Music. Matt balances his professional music career with teaching. Child prodigy Nick van Bloss Tony Cicoria Official website — contains a biography, press coverage, tour information, store Profile of Matt Savage and other savants at Wisconsin Medical Society — includes videos of the Matt Savage Trio and an excerpt from the documentary Expedition ins Gehirn Podcast featuring "Our Town" by Matt Savage
Daniel Tammet is an English essayist, poet and autistic savant. His 2006 memoir, Born on a Blue Day, about his life with Asperger syndrome and savant syndrome, was named a "Best Book for Young Adults" in 2008 by the American Library Association Young Adult Library Services magazine, his second book, Embracing the Wide Sky, was one of France's best-selling books of 2009. His third book, Thinking in Numbers, was published on 16 August 2012 by Hodder & Stoughton in the United Kingdom and on 30 July 2013 by Little and Company in the United States and Canada. Mishenka, his first novel, was published in France and Quebec in 2016, his books have been published in over 20 languages. He was elected in 2012 to serve as a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts. Tammet was born Daniel Paul Corney and raised in Barking and Dagenham, East London, England, as the eldest of nine children, he suffered epileptic seizures as a young child, which he subsequently outgrew following medical treatment. He participated twice in the World Memory Championships in London under his birth name, placing 11th in 1999 and 4th in 2000.
He changed his birth name by deed poll because "it didn't fit with the way he saw himself." He took the word Tammet from the Estonian for'oak tree'. At age twenty-five, he was diagnosed with Asperger syndrome by Simon Baron-Cohen of the University of Cambridge Autism Research Centre, he is one of fewer than a hundred "prodigious savants" according to Darold Treffert, the world's leading researcher in the study of savant syndrome. He was the subject of a documentary film titled Extraordinary People: The Boy with the Incredible Brain, first broadcast on the British television station Channel 4 on 23 May 2005, he met software engineer Neil Mitchell in 2000. They lived in Kent, where they had a quiet life at home with their cats, preparing meals from their garden, he and Mitchell operated the online e-learning company Optimnem, where they created and published language courses. Tammet now lives in Paris with his husband Jérôme Tabet, a photographer whom he met while promoting his autobiography. Tammet is a graduate of the Open University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in the Humanities.
In 2002, Tammet launched Optimnem. The site offers language courses and has been an approved member of the UK National Grid for Learning since 2006. Born on a Blue Day received international media attention and critical praise. Booklist magazine contributing reviewer Ray Olson stated that Tammet's autobiography was "as fascinating as Benjamin Franklin's and John Stuart Mill's" and that Tammet wrote "some of the clearest prose this side of Hemingway". Kirkus Reviews stated that the book "transcends the disability memoir genre". For his US book tour, Tammet appeared on several television and radio talk shows and specials, including 60 Minutes and Late Show with David Letterman. In February 2007 Born on a Blue Day was serialised as BBC Radio 4's Book of the Week in the United Kingdom, his second book, Embracing the Wide Sky, was published in 2009. Professor Allan Snyder, director of the University of Sydney Centre for the Mind, called the work'an extraordinary and monumental achievement'. Tammet argues that savant abilities are not "supernatural" but are "an outgrowth" of "natural, instinctive ways of thinking about numbers and words".
He suggests that the brains of savants can, to some extent, be retrained, that normal brains could be taught to develop some savant abilities. Thinking in Numbers, a collection of essays, was first published in 2012 and serialised as BBC Radio 4's Book of the Week in the United Kingdom, his translation into French of a selection of poetry by Les Murray was published by L'Iconoclaste in France in 2014. Tammet's first novel, came out in France and Quebec in 2016; every Word is a Bird We Teach to Sing, a collection of essays on language, was published in the UK, US, France in 2017. In a review of the book for the Wall Street Journal, Brad Leithauser noted that "in terms of literary genres, something new and enthralling is going on inside his books" and that the author showed "a grasp of language and a sweep of vocabulary that any poet would envy". Portraits, a bilingual first poetry collection, was published in 2018. After the World Memory Championships, Tammet participated in a group study published in the New Year 2003 edition of Nature Neuroscience.
The researchers investigated the reasons for the memory champions' superior performance. They reported that they used "strategies for encoding information with the sole purpose of making it more memorable", concluded that superior memory was not driven by exceptional intellectual ability or differences in brain structure. In another study, Baron-Cohen and others at the Autism Research Centre tested Tammet's abilities in around 2005. Tammet was found to have synaesthesia according to the "Test of Genuineness-Revised" which tests the subjects' consistency in reporting descriptions of their synaesthesia, he performed well on tests of short term memory. Conversely, test results showed his memory for faces scored at the level expected of a 6- to 8-year-old child in this task; the authors of the study speculated that his savant memory could be a result of synaesthesia combined with Asperger syndrome, or it could be the result of mnemonic strategies. Baron-Cohen and Billington investigated whether Tammet's synaesthesia and Asperger syndrome explained his savant memory abilities in a further study published in Neurocase in 2008.
They concluded that his abilities might be explained by hyperactivity in one brain region, which results from his Asperger syndrome and synaesthesia. On the Navon task, relative to non-
Neurodevelopmental disorder is a mental disorder. A narrower use of the term refers to a disorder of brain function which affects emotion, learning ability, self-control and memory and which unfolds as the individual grows. Neurodevelopmental disorders tend to last for a person's entire lifetime. Disorders considered neurodevelopmental are definetely of one of these types: Intellectual disability or intellectual and developmental disability called mental retardation Autism spectrum disorders, such as Asperger's syndrome or Kanner syndrome Motor disorders including developmental coordination disorder and stereotypic movement disorder Tic disorders including Tourette's syndrome Traumatic brain injury Communication and language disorders Genetic disorders, such as fragile-X syndrome, Down syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizotypal disorder, hypogonadotropic hypogonadal syndromes Disorders due to neurotoxicants like fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Minamata disease caused by mercury, behavioral disorders including conduct disorder etc. caused by other heavy metals, such as lead, platinum etc. hydrocarbons like dioxin, PBDEs and PCBs, medications and illegal drugs, like cocaine and others.
The development of the nervous system including the brain is orchestrated regulated, genetically encoded process with clear influence from the environment. This suggests that any deviation from this program early in life can result in neurodevelopmental disorders and, depending on specific timing, might lead to distinct pathology in life; because of that, there are many causes of neurodevelopmental disorder, which can range from deprivation and metabolic diseases, immune disorders, infectious diseases, nutritional factors, physical trauma, toxic and environmental factors. Some neurodevelopmental disorders—such as autism and other pervasive developmental disorders—are considered multifactorial syndromes with many causes but more specific neurodevelopmental manifestation. Deprivation from social and emotional care causes severe delays in cognitive development. Studies with children growing up in Romanian orphanages during Nicolae Ceauşescu's regime reveal profound effects of social deprivation and language deprivation on the developing brain.
These effects are time dependent. The longer children stayed in the greater the consequences. By contrast, adoption at an early age mitigated some of the effects of earlier institutionalization. A prominent example of a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder is Trisomy 21 known as Down syndrome; this disorder results from an extra chromosome 21, although in uncommon instances it is related to other chromosomal abnormalities such as translocation of the genetic material. It is characterized by short stature, epicanthal folds, abnormal fingerprints, palm prints, heart defects, poor muscle tone and mental retardation. Less known genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorders include Fragile X syndrome. Fragile X syndrome was first described in 1943 by J. P. Martin and J. Bell, studying persons with family history of sex-linked "mental defects". Rett syndrome, another X-linked disorder, produces severe functional limitations. Williams syndrome is caused by small deletions of genetic material from chromosome 7.
The most common recurrent Copy Number Variannt disorder is 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, followed by Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome. Immune reactions during pregnancy, both maternal and of the developing child, may produce neurodevelopmental disorders. One typical immune reaction in infants and children is PANDAS, or Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infection. Another disorder is Sydenham's chorea, which results in more abnormal movements of the body and fewer psychological sequellae. Both are immune reactions against brain tissue. Susceptibility to these immune diseases may be genetically determined, so sometimes several family members may suffer from one or both of them following an epidemic of Strep infection. Systemic infections can result in neurodevelopmental consequences, when they occur in infancy and childhood of humans, but would not be called a primary neurodevelopmental disorder per se, as for example HIV Infections of the head and brain, like brain abscesses, meningitis or encephalitis have a high risk of causing neurodevelopmental problems and a disorder.
For example, measles can progress to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. A number of infectious diseases can be transmitted congenitally, can cause serious neurodevelopmental problems, as for example the viruses HSV, CMV, Zika virus, or bacteria like Treponema pallidum in congenital syphilis, which may progress to neurosyphilis if it remains untreated. Protozoa like Plasmodium or Toxoplasma which can cause congenital toxoplasmosis with multiple cysts in the brain and other organs, leading to a variety of neurological deficits; some cases of schizophrenia may be related to congenital infections though the majority are of unknown causes. Metabolic disorders in either the mother or the child can cause neurodevelopmental disorders. Two examples are phenylketonuria. Many such inherited diseases may directly affect the child's metabolism and neural development but less they can indirectly affect the child during gestati
Reality is the sum or aggregate of all, real or existent, as opposed to that, imaginary. The term is used to refer to the ontological status of things, indicating their existence. In physical terms, reality is the totality of the universe and unknown. Philosophical questions about the nature of reality or existence or being are considered under the rubric of ontology, a major branch of metaphysics in the Western philosophical tradition. Ontological questions feature in diverse branches of philosophy, including the philosophy of science, philosophy of religion, philosophy of mathematics, philosophical logic; these include questions about whether only physical objects are real, whether reality is fundamentally immaterial, whether hypothetical unobservable entities posited by scientific theories exist, whether God exists, whether numbers and other abstract objects exist, whether possible worlds exist. A common colloquial usage would have reality mean "perceptions and attitudes toward reality", as in "My reality is not your reality."
This is used just as a colloquialism indicating that the parties to a conversation agree, or should agree, not to quibble over different conceptions of what is real. For example, in a religious discussion between friends, one might say, "You might disagree, but in my reality, everyone goes to heaven." Reality can be defined in a way that links it to worldviews or parts of them: Reality is the totality of all things, structures and phenomena, whether observable or not. It is what a world view attempts to describe or map. Certain ideas from physics, sociology, literary criticism, other fields shape various theories of reality. One such belief is that there and is no reality beyond the perceptions or beliefs we each have about reality; such attitudes are summarized in the popular statement, "Perception is reality" or "Life is how you perceive reality" or "reality is what you can get away with", they indicate anti-realism – that is, the view that there is no objective reality, whether acknowledged explicitly or not.
Many of the concepts of science and philosophy are defined culturally and socially. This idea was elaborated by Thomas Kuhn in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions; the Social Construction of Reality, a book about the sociology of knowledge written by Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, was published in 1966, it explained how knowledge is used for the comprehension of reality. Out of all the realities, the reality of everyday life is the most important one since our consciousness requires us to be aware and attentive to the experience of everyday life. Philosophy addresses two different aspects of the topic of reality: the nature of reality itself, the relationship between the mind and reality. On the one hand, ontology is the study of being, the central topic of the field is couched, variously, in terms of being, existence, "what is", reality; the task in ontology is to describe the most general categories of reality and how they are interrelated. If a philosopher wanted to proffer a positive definition of the concept "reality", it would be done under this heading.
As explained above, some philosophers draw a distinction between existence. In fact, many analytic philosophers today tend to avoid the term "real" and "reality" in discussing ontological issues, but for those who would treat "is real" the same way they treat "exists", one of the leading questions of analytic philosophy has been whether existence is a property of objects. It has been held by analytic philosophers that it is not a property at all, though this view has lost some ground in recent decades. On the other hand in discussions of objectivity that have feet in both metaphysics and epistemology, philosophical discussions of "reality" concern the ways in which reality is, or is not, in some way dependent upon mental and cultural factors such as perceptions and other mental states, as well as cultural artifacts, such as religions and political movements, on up to the vague notion of a common cultural world view, or Weltanschauung; the view that there is a reality independent of any beliefs, etc. is called realism.
More philosophers are given to speaking about "realism about" this and that, such as realism about universals or realism about the external world. Where one can identify any class of object, the existence or essential characteristics of, said not to depend on perceptions, language, or any other human artifact, one can speak of "realism about" that object. One can speak of anti-realism about the same objects. Anti-realism is the latest in a long series of terms for views opposed to realism; the first was idealism, so called because reality was said to be in the mind, or a product of our ideas. Berkeleyan idealism is the view, propounded by the Irish empiricist George Berkeley, that the objects of perception are ideas in the mind. In this view, one might be tempted to say that reality is a "mental construct". By the 20th century, views similar to Berkeley's were called phenomenalism. Phenomenalism differs from Berkeleyan idealism in that Berkeley believed that minds, or souls, are not ideas nor made up of ideas, whereas varieti